Human Degrees of Freedom

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1 Human Degrees of Freedom # DOF joint root waist neck shoulder elbow wrist hip knee ankle

2 Defini=ons kinema=cs: The branch of mechanics which describes the mo=on of objects without considera=on of forces. forward kinema=cs: inverse kinema=cs:

3 Categoriza=on of Anima=on Methods: What to animate? characters (humans, dogs, fish, octopuses, ) skeleton-driven mo=on deformer-based mo=on facial anima=on group mo=on: crowds, flocks mo=on planning passive phenomena rigid-bodies, cloth, hair, fluids, snow, fire, smoke, paper, deformable materials

4 Categoriza=on of Anima=on Methods: How to animate? 1 animators keyframing 2 data-driven human and animal mo=on capture smoke, hair, fluids, mo=on capture 3 algorithms physics code that defines behaviours OR: some mix of the above!

5 Keyframe anima=on keyframe types ease-in, ease-out spline linear coupled tangents uncoupled tangents

6 Anima=on curves in prac=ce Woody in Toy Story (1995) 712 Avars (212 for the face) [Lasseter, 1987] walk cycle

7 Disney s Twelve Basic Principles of Anima=on Squash and stretch An=cipa=on Staging Straight-ahead vs pose-to-pose Follow-through Slow-in, slow-out Arcs Secondary ac=on Timing Exaggera=on Solid drawing Appeal Principles of Tradi=onal Anima=on Applied to 3D Computer Anima=on, John Lasseter, 1987

8 Mo=on Capture rotoscoping mechanical fibre op=c bending electromagne=c iner=al and gyros ac=ve op=cal passive op=cal depth camera mul=camera vision single camera vision Gypsy Gyro 18 ini=on.co.uk

9 Eric Darnell, codirector of Antz, believes that the main problem with motion capture associated with characters has to do with mass distribution, weight, and exaggeration. it is impossible for a performer to produce the kind of motion exaggeration that a cartoon character needs, and the mass and weight of the performer almost never looks good when applied to a character of different proportions. Benjamin Cheung (CG artist): Motion capture is described as Satan s Rotoscope because people are afraid to use it, and have used it in the past in an inappropriate way. The real problems of motion capture lie not in the capture itself, but in the planning and the capture support that animators need. The planning of the whole process is the most important part. Richard Chuang (PDI): The mapping of human motion to a character with non-human proportions doesn t work, because the most important things you get out motion capture are the weight shifts and the subtleties and that balancing act of the human body. If the proportions change, you throw all that out the door, so you might as well animate it. Tim Johnson: using mo=on capture as a reference is a fool s error To use performance anima=on as a reference just doesn t work. You can give me all the data in the world and it doesn t help me, as an ar=st, have a vision which leaps beyond the technical to seeing what s in the heart of a par=cular mo=on. biggest problem is that performance anima=on is used as though it were a subs=tute for anima=on. In his view, the principles of the crao of anima=on, whether it is done with clay, cutouts, drawings, or the computer, are the same: characterizing and exaggera=ng ac=ng with nonhumans.