Developing Small-Scale ESCo Opportunities

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1 Developing Small-Scale ESCo Opportunities Yan Evans Director of ENER-G Switch2 21 st March 2013

2 Presentation Content Definition of an ESCo Definition of small-scale Scope of the ESCo The Goal ESCo Model Types Stage 1: Dwelling Register Stage 2: Thermal Demand Profile Stage 3: Asset Register

3 Presentation Content Stage 4: Operating costs Stage 5: Other Revenue Streams Stage 6: Heat Tariff Structure ESCo Bill Structure Summary

4 Definition of an ESCo ESCo company providing energy services to the development o Single block of residential apartments o A number of blocks of residential apartments o Mixed use scheme comprising residential and commercial buildings No local energy generation at the point of use On some developments multiple boiler houses feeding into the heat distribution network Heat only schemes plus heat and electricity supply (via private-wire network)

5 Definition of Small-Scale Either entirely residential or with small element of commercial/retail Often of mixed tenure private sale, shared ownership/intermediate, social rented Mixture of tenure often driven by Section 106 compliance All properties served with a communal energy centre Minimum of 150 off residential properties Usually heat only ESCo not a private wire electricity network, thus no electricity sales to residents Less dwellings would offer low ESCo Return on Sale but still presents high operational risks

6 Scope of the ESCo Fuel procurement (all types) with gas meter MPAN number transferred to the ESCo Energy centre and plant room Operation & Maintenance Operation and Maintenance of the Heat Distribution Infrastructure Operation and Maintenance of the HIU, heat meter and AMR system Heat meter data collection and data validation Credit billing, consumer credit control and cash collection Debt management Prepayment services for Registered Provider properties (social rented) Scheme performance and financial management

7 Scope of the ESCo Operational risks; o Fuel price fluctuations o System thermal operation efficiency o Equipment operational reliability o Occupancy voids (above 90% threshold) o Bad debt Reside with the ESCo for the duration of the contract, typically 20 years Critical to arrive at the correct financial model and heat tariff structure

8 The Goal Deliverables ; o Reliable heating and hot water to residents o Affordable heating and hot water to residents o Efficient and low carbon heating and hot water o ESCo making a profit making a loss will not foster a sustainable relationship Biggest challenge; o Achieving balance between low carbon and affordable heat or o Planning consent versus affordability

9 ESCo Model Types Design Build Finance & Operate (DBFO) plus Customer Services o Not suited to small-scale ESCo schemes Lease and Operate (L&O) plus Customer Services o When a 90% occupancy threshold is reached, the ESCo would pay the asset owner a one-off lease payment o Assumed asset owner typically be the Developer o Lease payment in return for sole right operate and maintain the asset for the purpose of selling heating and hot water to residents/consumers over the term of the ESCo contract o Prior to the occupancy threshold being reached ESCo would operate the scheme on behalf of the Developer under an agreed fee structure

10 Stage 1: Dwelling Register

11 Stage 2: Thermal Demand Profile Thermal demand profile controls heat sales Monthly load profile (kwh) over a full year Dwelling register (m 2 of each type of property plus standard ceiling height of 2.3 metres) Number of each type of property Volumetric space for non-residential areas Expected development occupancy levels (e.g. 90%) ESCo model linked to; o Recognised design standards e.g. CIBSE, BSEN o Met Office website average monthly temperatures, day light hours

12 Stage 2: Thermal Demand Profile Occupancy i.e. 1 bed / 2 person, 2 bed / 3 person, 3 bed / 4 person o Determines the domestic hot water load (BS 6700) Thermal load drives plant utilisation; o Annual operating hours for CHP unit / biomass boiler acting as lead heating appliance o Gas fired boilers for top-up and back-up heat provision o In turn supports the CO 2 reduction strategy for the development Need to ensure parity between ESCo model and M&E design

13 Stage 3: Asset Register List of equipment used to generate and deliver the heat o Energy centre(s) o Any additional pump plant rooms o Block end heat exchanger substations o Heat distribution infrastructure (buried, riser, laterals) o Heat interface units o Heat meters (bulk and within the HIU) o Automatic meter reading (AMR) system including any prepayment devices

14 Stage 3: Asset Register Cost against reach major item of plant and heat distribution infrastructure Expected life of each major item of plant (15 to 20 years; 40 years for insulated pipework) Asset register value per annum # o Calculation of the sinking find which forms part of the fixed element of the heat tariff structure Hours for annual operation and maintenance for each major item of plant including any specialist sub-contract labour (e.g. CHP operation and maintenance) Asset O&M cost to the ESCo H&S management and L8 obligations

15 Stage 4: Operating Costs Scheme management and administration Data collection and data validation (heat meter data reads) Credit billing and consumer credit control Debt management Prepayment services (Registered Provider social rented properties) Bulk meter standing charge Fuel costs (blended fuel of natural gas and biomass) Electrical pumping costs associated with heat distribution Electricity tariff cost of parasitic loads (energy centre and pumps)

16 Stage 5: Other Revenue Streams Power Purchase Agreement for spilled electricity Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) supported by appropriate metering strategy

17 Stage 6: Heat Tariff Structure Variable element of the heat tariff o Primarily based on energy consumed by each resident Fixed element of the heat tariff o Cost to deliver the heat to the point of use o Not a function of consumed energy The fixed element in particular can be heavily influenced by the technology deployed in the energy centre generate the heat

18 Stage 6: Heat Tariff Structure Composition comprises the following elements; o Cost of the primary fuel consumed in the energy centre o Could be a blend of natural gas and bio-fuel o System efficiency energy efficiency at the boiler house output less the losses within the heat distribution pipework o Delivered efficiency at the point of heat use is typically 50% to 60%

19 ESCo Bill Structure Private Residents ESCo Supply Agreements Each Private Resident Variable Charge Standing Charges p/kwh X by m 2 O&M of Energy Centre O&M of HIU, heat meter & AMR Heat Pumping Costs Sinking Fund HIU, heat meter & AMR extended warranty Metering, Data Validation, Billing Scheme Management Bad Debt Provision

20 ESCo Bill Structure Shared Ownership Homes ESCo Supply Agreements Each RSL Resident Variable Charge Standing Charges p/kwh X by m 2 O&M of Energy Centre O&M of HIU, heat meter & AMR Heat Pumping Costs Sinking Fund HIU, heat meter & AMR extended warranty Metering, Data Validation, Billing Scheme Management Bad Debt Provision

21 ESCo Bill Structure Social Rented Homes ESCo Supply Agreements Supply Agreements Variable Charge p/kwh Each RSL Resident Standing Charges X by m 2 Metering and Data Validation Scheme Management RSL* X by m 2 O&M of Energy Centre O&M of HIU, heat meter & AMR Heat Pumping Costs Sinking Fund HIU, heat meter & AMR extended warranty (All recovered by rent and/or service charges) Dictated by Landlord & Tenant Act 1985, Section 20; Limitation of Service Charges: Consultation Requirements

22 Summary Complicated or straight forward? -logical process to follow Requires financial, commercial, technical and analytical skills and expertise Highly recommend early engagement between M&E design, Developer and potential ESCo operators Determine viability or discard early Supporting housing professionals with resident consultations Supporting Developer Marketing Staff with private sales Selling a concept Clear understanding of heat tariff structure and appropriate comparison with conventional forms of providing heating and hot water

23 Any questions?

24 Thank you

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