1 The NNOHA Survey Of Health Center Dental Salaries: Trends And Analysis Wayne W. Cottam DMD, MS Associate Dean for Community Partnerships, Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health, AT Still University of Health Sciences NNOHA Vice President & Workforce Committee Chair Presented on August 11, 2010
2 2008 Health Center Dental Data Health Center Program Grantees Over 850 Health Centers (80%) offered on-site dental services 2,299 Dentists and 892 Dental Hygienists in Health Centers 3.07 Million Dental Patients Served 7.35 Million Dental Visits 2,672 Encounters per Dentist 1,351 Encounters per Dental Hygienist Dental Team Productivity: 2,677 *Calculated as encounters for dentists + hygienists in the numerator, with the denominator being dentist FTEs + 50% hygienist FTEs.
3 Workforce: A Challenge for Health Center Oral Health Programs A recent report by the National Association of Community Health Centers (NACHC) 48% of Health Centers reported at least one dentist vacancy Almost half of all rural Health Centers have had a vacant dentist position for 7 months or more. Nationwide in 2006 there were 169,895 professionally active dentists but only 1% (1,691) dedicated their career to serve Health Center patients. Nationwide there is a growing shortage of dentists, with more dentists retiring or leaving the profession than graduate each year.
4 Survey Of Health Center Dental Salaries NNOHA obtained funds for survey through the HRSA National Cooperative Agreement NNOHA worked with Baylor College of Dentistry and Dr. Kenneth A. Bolin in 2009 to develop and administer the survey The purpose of the survey was to provide information and analysis on dental salaries, provider satisfaction, and recruitment and retention strategies at Health Centers throughout the country. Final Report to be published soon!
5 Survey Design Dental Director and Executive Director listing obtained from HRSA Survey questions based on a survey published in February 2005 JADA Input on questions from NNOHA Workforce Committee Survey approved by Texas A & M Baylor College of Dentistry IRB
6 Responses Responses from all 10 HRSA Regions Survey completed by: 578 dentists (including 317 dental directors) 120 dental hygienists 338 executive directors. The unduplicated response rate for the dental providers was 51.4% (406/790) and 43.1% (338/784) for the executive directors.
7 Provider Survey Dentists & Dental Hygienists
8 Overview of Respondents Gender DDS RDH 53.3% Male / 46.7% Female 4.2% Male / 95.8% Female Years of Practice 59.8% of the dentists and 52.5% of the dental hygienists have been actively practicing for 10 years or longer Median number of years: 5 years for dentists and 4 years for dental hygienists Lengths of Career at Health Centers 63.1% of the dentists and 83.9% of the dental hygienists reported that their current position was their first and only clinical/dental position held at Health Centers
9 Career Prior to Health Centers: Dentists Dentist Frequency % Private practice owner/partner/associate Dental student Private practice employed dentist Local, state, public health agency/other community dental center Grad dental program/specialty program Commissioned Officer PHS/Military Retired Total
10 Career prior to Health Centers: Dental Hygienists Dental Hygienist Frequency % Private practice associate or employee Dental hygiene student Local, state, public health agency/other community dental center Total
11 Top 3 Reasons for Choosing a Health Center Career Dentists: 39.1% - Felt a mission to the dentally underserved population 13.6% - Loan repayment was available in Community Health Center practice 12.4% - Attracted by work schedule/leave policies/fringe benefits of Community Health Center practice Dental Hygienists: 42.3% - Felt a mission to the dentally underserved population 28.8% - Attracted by work schedule/leave policies/fringe benefits of Community Health Center practice 14.4% - Wished to practice dentistry/dental hygiene in a community-based setting *One answer per respondent.
12 Perception of Limited Autonomy Recognizing the sometimes limited fiscal and human resources of a CHC, respondents were asked to what extent they felt limited in their professional practice autonomy. Dentists: 57.3% - Felt limited to some degree in terms of practice autonomy Dental Hygienists: 52.9% - Felt limited to some degree in terms of practice autonomy.
13 Perception of Limited Autonomy Reason Cited %DDS %RDH Degree of patient compliance with treatment plans/appointment attendance Limited access to specialists Restrictive Medicaid policies/requirements Limited scope of services due to budget constraints Limited ability to provide comprehensive care due to budgetary issues Limited treatment offered at my Health Center Limited input into policy and budget decisions regarding dental services 8 11 Limited patient population served at my Health Center 7 4 Lack of guidance in exercising professional judgment in treatment of patients 2 2
14 Dental Salaries The category of $95,000-$110,000 had the highest percentage of respondents at 27%.
15 Dental Salaries (Cont d) The $50,001-$60,000 category (36%) was the largest category chosen by respondents.
16 Dental Salaries (Cont d) Non-salaried or part-time dentists reported a mean hourly wage of $63.17 with a median of $60/hour. Dental hygienists reported a mean hourly wage of $29.64 with a median of $30/hour
17 Comparison of Dental Salaries For Dental Directors, the category of $110,001 $125,000 was the highest, followed by >$140,000.
18 Benefits and Work Environment Continuing education (CE) allowances were offered to 93% of dentists and to 87% of dental hygienists with a median number of 5 days allowed for both groups. A median of $2,000 of CE expense was reimbursed for dentists and a median of $800 of CE expense was reimbursed for dental hygienists. The median number of days offered for vacation and sick leave combined was 26 days for dentists and 24 days for dental hygienists.
19 Benefits and Work Environment Respondents answering yes. %Dentist %RDH Continuing Education Allowance Salary Incentive Plan Offered b or Similar Plan Offered b or Similar Plan Match Adequate Insurance Coverage Adequate Amount of Leave Time Professional Dues Reimbursed 60 37
20 Benefits and Work Environment Respondents answering yes. %Dentist %RDH Adequate Number of Dental Assistants Adequate Quality of Dental Assistants Adequate Clerical Support Adequate Administrative Support Adequate Number of Dentists Adequate Number of Dental Hygienists Building and Appearance Very Good or Good Equipment and Supplies Very Good or Good 69 66
21 Benefits and Work Environment Dental Director administrative time and reporting structure. Mean clinical hours for Dental Director 31.5 Mean administrative hours for Dental Director 7.5 Dental Directors reporting adequate administrative hours 29% Dental Directors reporting to CEO s 66% Dental Directors reporting to CMO/ Medical Director 16% Dental Directors reporting to COO/ Director of Operations 6%
22 Job Satisfaction and Career Longevity 80% of dentists and 93% of dental hygienists indicated intent to remain in Health Center practices. For those dentists who intended to leave Health Center practice, 61% planned to do so in the next 2 5 years, 29% within one year, and 10% planned to leave as soon as possible.
23 Reasons Given for Intent to Leave Health Center Practice: Dentists Enter private practice 54% Need to increase salary 51% Increase scope of practice 37% Desire more autonomy 35% Need a change in work hours 27% Plan on retiring 13%
24 Reasons Given for Intent to Leave Health Center Practice: Dental Hygienists Need to increase salary 75% Need a change in work hours 50% Increase scope of practice 38% Enter private practice 38% Desire more autonomy 13% Plan on retiring N/A
25 Executive Director Survey
26 Number of Dentists and Dental Hygienists The mean number of full time dentists employed was 2.7, and the mean full time dentists positions budgeted were 3.4. Correspondingly, the mean number of full time dental hygienists employed was 1.3, with the mean number of positions budgeted being 1.6.
27 Dental Vacancies Of the 338 executive directors surveyed, 132 (39%) reported having at least one dentist vacancy, and of those vacancies, over half (52%) were of greater than six months duration. In contrast, only 47 executive directors (14%) reported at least one dental hygienist vacancy, and of those vacancies, 40% were of greater than six months duration at the time of the survey. An additional 12 executive directors (4%) reported more than one vacancy in the dental component of their Health Centers.
28 Recruitment Methods The most commonly used method indicated by executive directors for recruiting dentists was Working with the NHSC (28%) The most commonly used method for recruiting dental hygienists was Newspaper advertisement (10%). Other cited methods were Networking with Primary Care Associations, and Community Health Center web postings.
29 Salaries & Benefits of Dental Staff Budgeted salary for a dentist with 10+ years of experience Mean: $145,015 Median: $120,000 The highest paid dentist on staff earning a mean of $124,765 and median of $122,209. Budgeted salary for a dental hygienist with 10+ years of experience Mean: $58,357 Median: $61,046 The highest paid hygienists salaries reported had a mean of $57,533 and a median of $58,120.
30 Salaries & Benefits of Dental Staff (Cont d) Contract dentists were used in 20% of Health Centers (64/315). The lowest median hourly wage reported was $68.00 and the highest median hourly wage was $ In contrast only 5% (14/309) of the executive directors reported using contract hygienists who were not employees. The lowest and highest median hourly wage was $30.00.
31 Analysis and Discussion
32 No Significant Association Between Intention to leave Health Center practices and: HRSA region The population of the location in which the center was located The dentist s position in the Health Center Salary reported (for either dentists or dental hygienists) Perception of on-call responsibilities Number/experience/quality of dental assistants Number of dental hygienists employed
33 Statistical Associations Significant associations were found between intent to leave the Health Center practice and the following variables: Gender Males are more likely to leave than females Years of Health Center practice and total experience Providers planning to stay in Health Center practice had a mean experience of 8.12 years and those planning to leave had a mean experience of 4.65 years Level of autonomy in practice Receiving state loan assistance
34 Statistical Associations (Cont d) Pre-existing altruistic motivation Those not indicating a pre-existing altruistic motivation were more likely to indicate intent to leave the Health Center practice than those who did indicate such a motivation Pre-existing value placed on loan repayment Those selecting loan repayment as their first ranked reason for choosing the Health Center practice were more likely to indicate an intention to leave Adequacy of Support Those who perceived that the administrative support available was adequate in the Health Center practice were more likely to indicate an intention to remain in that practice than those who perceived administrative support as inadequate Type (title) of supervisor to which the dental director directly reported Dental directors who reported to a CMO/Medical Director were 2.2 times more likely to indicate intent to leave than those dental directors who reported to a CEO/Executive Director
35 Putting It All Together Characteristics of satisfied providers Females reported an intent to leave less than males, more experienced providers and providers who had been employed by the Health Center longer indicated less of an intention to leave. Providers that came to Health Centers because they felt a sense of mission, who reported directly to the CEO of the Center instead of a Medical Director, felt they had sufficient administrative, clerical support and adequate facilities and equipment were more likely to indicate they wanted to stay. Finally, those providers who indicated they came to the Health Center mainly for loan repayment were less likely to want to stay at the Health Center.
36 Implications and Strategies The results should not be generalized! Does not mean that you can paint a broad brush and assume that every male, inexperienced dentist who joined a Health Center because of loan repayment will intend to leave your Health Center in the near future. What it means is that you should take into consideration other factors besides salary when you are trying to retain quality employees. Satisfaction was measured by the intention to leave Health Center practice. Salary alone is not the main reason that dental health care providers choose to leave or remain in Health Center practices.
37 Implications and Strategies (Cont d) The NACHC report suggests: Evolution in dental education to involve a more diverse student body, greater attention to public health, and collaboration with other oral health providers as well as primary care providers will help improve access to oral health care in the long term. According to the 2009 NNOHA Salary and Retention Survey, 4 in 10 responding executive directors are reporting at least one dentist vacancy. Majority of dental providers currently working in Health Center practices are more experienced and came from private practice settings. Recruitment efforts should be aimed at that labor source rather than simply working with the NHSC, PCAs, and dental school/dental hygiene school postings.
39 Thank You Wayne W. Cottam DMD, MS National Network for Oral Health Access Phone: Website:
40 NNOHA Webinar Series Archived Presentations from the NNOHA Webinar Series are available online For registration, or viewing archived presentations, visit: inars.html
41 Join NNOHA Today! National Network for Oral Health Access (NNOHA) is a network of Health Center dental providers committed to improving the health of the underserved. Join us today ($25 per individual / $250 per organization) for benefits including: Access to the NNOHA Listserv Online Job Bank Newsletter Member Discounts Mentoring for New Dental Directors The National Primary Oral Health Conference For more information, visit:
42 Please Check the NNOHA Website for Health Center Dental Operations Manual Health Center Dental Career Job Bank Dental Forms Library Frequently Asked Questions Webinar Information Best Practices How to Start a Dental Clinic Practice Management Links
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