10-11 March 2015 Department of Social Sciences College of Arts and Sciences Qatar University Doha, Qatar

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1 10-11 March 2015 Department of Social Sciences College of Arts and Sciences Qatar University Doha, Qatar

2 TABLE WELCOME ADDRESS OF THE HEAD OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT 1 CONFERENCE ORGANIZATION 2 PROGRAM OVERVIEW 3 TUESDAY 10 MARCH WEDNESDAY 11 MARCH AUTHORS MAILS 21

3 Welcome Address of the Head of the Social Sciences Department It is my great pleasure to welcome you all to the Fifth International Social Sciences Conference at Qatar University, entitled Understanding the Rise of Global Radicalism. One cannot open a newspaper today without being aware of how important this topic is to our world. From the Gulf region to China, from Europe to Africa and from Canada to South America it is clear that radicalism is on the rise. These insurgencies challenge our basic notions of the nature of the state, how the state can protect its different social and religious sub- groups, and the extent to which the state can control what its citizens choose to do when they are outside of its borders. It is, therefore, a new world in which the basic principles of the state are being challenged. What is particularly perplexing is how quickly these movements can emerge, how powerful they can be and how difficult they are to control. They often emerge suddenly and violently, and leave analysts at a loss to explain how they came to be so powerful so quickly. What is it that drives radicalism? What social or political failures lead people to turn to radical agendas? Why do some people choose this path while others do not, even when they come from the same socio- economic background? How, in short, do we explain the rise of radicalism? We are, moreover, in an increasingly globalized world. With the growth in the use of the internet and social media, messages of all types can move faster than any state can regulate or control. Political groups of any type can organize themselves in ways that would be unheard of only a generation ago. All of this brings us to the need to understand why radicalism is growing, and why it can be found in so many different parts of the world. What is it that the state can do to moderate the effects of radicalism and bring peace and prosperity to all groups? How is it that we can meet the demands of particular groups while ensuring that the needs of other groups are also met? I therefore welcome you to our part our academic role - in seeking to understand the issues surrounding the rise of global radicalism. Dr. M. Khalifa Head, Department of Social Sciences 1

4 Conference Organization The Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, is the organizer of the 5th International Social Sciences Conference: Understanding the Rise of Global Radicalism held on March, 2015 at Qatar University. The Conference Understanding the Rise of Global Radicalism will bring together scholars and public figures to discuss why radicalism is on the rise worldwide in recent times. While much of this activity has been focused on the Middle East, the Conference takes a broader view, looking at the underpinnings of radicalism wherever it is found, in a search for understanding what produces this social and political shift. Given the timeliness and the high level of relevance of this topic in the Middle East and elsewhere today, the Conference aims to make an important academic contribution to understanding radicalism and why radicalism is on the rise. ORGANIZING COMMITTEE M. Khalifa (Head, Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) C. A. Andressen (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) A. S. Alyafei (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) A. Soliman (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) T. Bellaj (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) J. G. Martinos (External Relations, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE C. A. Andressen (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) D. Varisco (Humanities and Social Sciences Center, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) A. Soliman (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) T. Bellaj (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) M. Khalifa (Head, Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU) CONTACT DETAILS Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University Fax : Phone:

5 Program overview Fifth International Social Sciences Conference: Understanding the Rise of Global Radicalism March 2015 Day 1, March 10 8:30-9:00: Reception. 9:00-9:10: Welcome from the Head, Department of Social Sciences Dr. M. Khalifa. 9:10-9:20: Welcome from the VPCAO, Dr Mazen Hasna. 9:20-9:40: Speech by the UK Ambassador HE Mr. Nicholas Hopton. Session 1: Destroying the world to save it: Social underpinnings of the apparent rise of global radicalism (Moderator: Dr. Mohammed Ahmedna: Associate Dean for Research, College of Arts and Sciences, QU). 9: : Keynote Address Prof. William Beeman (Chair, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, USA). 10:15-10:45: Discussion. 10:45-11:00: Coffee Break. Session 2: Sociological Determinants of Radicalism (Moderator: Mahjoob Zweiri: Head, Department of Humanities, College of Arts and Sciences, QU). 11:00-11:20: Armageddon in Social Media: The Christian Right on Islamic Radicalism. Prof. Daniel Varisco (Humanities and Social Sciences Center, Qatar University). 11:20-11:40: Globalization and Radicalism. Prof. Layachi Anser (Research Director, Qatar Foundation for Social Work). 11:40-12:00: االعنفف االجذذرريي: محاوولة في فهھمم علاقة االا ررهھھھابب بالثقافة Dr. Bouazizi Mohsen and Dr. M. Khalifa (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). 12:00-12:30: Discussion. 12:30-1:30: Lunch & Student Poster Exhibition. Session 3: The Psychology of Radicalism (Moderator: Daniel Varisco: Assistant Director, Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, QU). 1:30-1:50: Online radicalism: from sympathizing to radicalizing. Dr. Yousri Marzouki (Université Aix- Marseille, France). 3

6 .االتططررفف وواالعنفف وواالاررهھھھابب غرربة عنن االذذااتت وواالاخرر: ررو ؤيیة منن منظظوورر نفسي :2:10-1:50 Dr. Asma Abdallah Al- Ataya and Dr. Ahmad Mohamed Majria (Department of Psychological Sciences, College of Education, Qatar University). 2:10-2:30: علمم االنفسس وو االا منن االقوومي Prof. Mohamed Najeeb Al Sabouah (Cairo University). 2:30-2:50: The use of psychological models in the explanation of radicalism. Dr. Abdrabo Moghazi Soleman, Dr. Tarek Bellaj, and Dr. M. Khalifa (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). 2:50-3:20: Discussion. 3:20-3:30: Closing Remarks: Dr. Curtis Andressen (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). 19:00-21:00: Working Dinner. 8:30-9:00: Reception. Day 2, March 11 9:00-9:05: Recap and welcome to day 2: Dr. Youssef Hasan (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). Session 4: Understanding the Violence Continuum (Moderator: Dr. Asma Abdulla Al-Attiyah, Head Department of Psychological Sciences, College of Education). 9:05-9:25: Keynote Address: Understanding the Violence Continuum in Yemen: Jihadis, Southerners, Huthis, Drones and the Security Apparatus. Prof. Laurent Bonnefoy (Institut D Etudes Politiques, Paris, CNRS Research Fellow/CERI). 9:25-9:45: Negotiated radicalism: Hizbullah s pendulum swing between hard and soft power. Prof. Joseph Alagha (Haigazian University, Beirut, Lebanon). 9:45-10:05:.تحليیلل سووسيیوولووجي للعشرريیة االسووددااء بالجززااي رر Dr. Lilia Bensouilah (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). 10:05-10:30: Discussion. 10:30-10:45: Coffee Break. Session 5: Education and Radicalism (Moderator: Ibrahim Alkaabi, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, QU). 10:45-11:05: Radicalism in Education in Nepal. Dr. Leela Pradham (University of Kathmandu, Nepal). 4

7 11: 05-11:25: االددوورر االووقاي ي لمهھنة االخددمة االاجتماعيیة لحمايیة االشبابب منن االتططررفف وواالاررهھھھابب. Dr. Magdy Mahfouz Abeeta (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). 11:25-11:45: The impact of political affiliation, political participation and life satisfaction on the types of radicalism among university students. Prof. Diab M. Al- Badayneh (Police Training Institute, Doha, Qatar) and Dr. Khawla Al- Hasan (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). 11:45-12:05: Radicalizing Young Arab People: Education, Unemployment and Despair. Dr Hamud Al- Olimat (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). 12:05-12:30: Discussion. 12:30-1:30: Lunch and networking. 1:30-2:30: Round table discussion and closing remarks, Dr. M. Khalifa. 2:30-7:00: Cultural Program. 5

8 Tuesday 10 March 2015 Keynote Address Destroying the world to save it: Social underpinnings of the apparent rise of global radicalism. Prof. William Beeman (Chair, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, USA). The rise of radicalism in the contemporary world is presented as more apparent than real. Radicalism has been a feature of human society since the beginning of recorded time. It is seen as extreme disruptive action in contrast to gradual social change extreme, because as its etymology implies, it seeks to change social order from the roots. Radicalism results from perceived social disjunctions in three principal dimensions: historical, hierarchal and cultural. Historical disjunction is the contrast between present perceived negative social conditions and an imagined golden past when these negative conditions did not exist, and often a utopian future, where these social conditions will be eliminated. Hierarchical disjunction results from perceived social inequalities of power and resources between groups seen as having grown to become intolerable. Cultural disjunction results from perceived inequalities in ideologies or beliefs, often resulting from conquest, population movements or the spread of memes from one group to another. When these three disjunctions coincide, they serve as powerful motivating forces for individuals to eradicate the perceived underlying inequalities through active engagement often leading to violent action. Groups embodying these engagement tactics are seen as radical by those affected by their actions. Perceived radicalism can take many forms, designed to inspire action in adherents religious, political and economic being three of the most common. Whatever form it takes, it is of necessity disruptive of social order. Radicalism s effects can be mitigated through understanding its root causes and working to accommodate the perceived disjunctions that give it rise. 6

9 Armageddon in Social Media: The Christian Right on Islamic Radicalism. Prof. Daniel Varisco (Research Professor, Humanities and Social Sciences Center, Qatar University). This paper will focus on the apocalyptic scenarios of radical literalists on the Christian Right who believe that current events in the Islamic World are fulfillment of biblical prophecy. The rise of the ISIS caliphate in Syria and Iraq and the prominence of Turkey s President Erdogan have stimulated a variety of Youtube videos, Facebook sites, and Twitter accounts that relate the rise of Islamic radicalism to prophecies of the Old Testament prophets and the New Testament Book of Revelation. One of the most sophisticated is Armageddon News, which uses a variety of conspiratorial tropes to associate the number 666 (the Mark of the Beast) with the Arabic name Allah and the Antichrist as President Erdogan of Turkey. I place these latest Christian Fundamentalist postings in the context of the long history of associating Islam with end- time scenarios and focus on the role of social media in propagating this Islamophobic propaganda. Who is putting out these sites, who is the intended audience, and to what extent do radical elements on the Christian right act as a mirror image of Islamic radicalism? 7

10 Globalization and Radicalism Pr. Layachi Anser (Research Director, Qatar Foundation for Social Work) Radicalism or extremism in all its forms and practices occupies a growing space in the traditional and modern media outlets today and is on the increase. Moreover, radicalism has become a major topic of research and academic studies, intellectual conferences and seminars, and specialized reports in think tanks and policy- making circles. This fact raises an important question. Is there any relationship between globalization and radicalism in the world today? If there is a link, and that is what we claim, what is its nature? What are the mechanisms behind it? And how does it manifest itself? These are the major questions this paper attempts to answer considering a series of events that shook the contemporary world; events that have wide- ranging repercussions and continue to generate more radical practices. 8

11 االعنفف االجذذرريي: محاوولة في فهھمم علاقة االا ررهھھھابب بالثقافة Dr. Bouazizi Mohsen and Dr. M. Khalifa (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). تتساءلل هھھھذهه االمدااخلة عن مصدرر االا ررهھھھابب ووترااهه في ررحم االثقافة. هھھھذاا االعنف االس اكن في االبنى االعميیقة االلاووااعيیة للثقافة يیستفيیق متى تم تا جيیج كواامنهھ االتارريیخيی ة. وومن ا أسبابهھ قهھر حاضر ا أوو سابق ووهھھھزيیمة بنيیويیة يیماررسهھا مقهھورر.االسو االل ا إذذنن عن ذذهھھھنيیة االا ررهھھھابب ووما يیت خذهه من معنى ممتد يیطالل كل ما يیت صل با شكالل االعنف االجذرريي وومنهھ ااختزااليیة االعوددةة ا إلى االا صل وواالتشد دد في االتحريیم االذيي يیت خذ ا أقصى ا أشكالهھ عندما يیتحو لل ا إلى ا آلة قتل باسم االهھويی ة مثلا. وويیمتد االاهھھھتمامم ا أيیضا ا إلى جذوورر االا ررهھھھابب االكامنة في االثقافة وواالتي ترس بت عبر االتارريیخ. ووهھھھا هھھھي تتجل ى نمطيیاتت وومسل ماتت في االحيیاةة االيیوميی ة ووهھھھا ا إنن االموتت صارر معيیشا يیوميیا نستهھلكهھ في صورر تبث هھا االتلفزةة با يیقاعع منتظم يیراافق قهھوةة االص باحح فتطب ع االعنف لدىى ا أططفالل ما يیزاالونن في االمهھد يیرتطمونن بصوررهه كل صباحح حت ى تكو نن لديیهھم نوعع من االا لفة مع االموتت. هھھھذاا االعنف االجذرريي االذيي يیرعب حيین يینبثق من االش اشة يیبدوو ا أكثر ووططا ةة من عنف االحيیاةة لا ن هھ يیتلب س االرا أسس وواالمخيیالل عنف تدوورر ررحاهه في عالم االذ هھھھن بتكاثر سرططاني. ووددوورراانهھ في عالم االذهھھھن لا يیعني ا أن هھ يی عمل االفكر بل يیمنعهھ.كما تحاوولل هھھھذهه االمدااخلة في مستوىى ا آخر ا أنن تنزعع عن االفكر االجذرريي (االراادديیكالي) ما علق بهھ من معيیارريی ة لا ترىى فيیهھ ا إلا بعدهه االتفكيیكي وواالحالل ا أن هھ ووررغم قصووويیتهھ قد يیكونن في صلب االقطيیعة حيین يیضع االساي د موضع سو االل بحثا عن بدااي ل نقيیضة.هھھھذهه هھھھي االا ثاررةة االثانيیة االتي تطرحهھا هھھھذهه االوررقة. ا أم ا االثالثة فتبحث في ما يیمكن ا أنن يیحدثث من اانزلاقق من االفكر االجذرريي ا إلى االعنف االجذرريي االذيي يیسم ى االيیومم االا ررهھھھابب: االا وو لل قد يیحمل بدااي ل وواالثاني يینعكس على ذذااتهھ ليیدم ر نفسهھ بنفسهھ: قدررةة صم اء على تدميیر االذ ااتت من االد ااخل. وويیبدوو ا أنن هھھھذاا هھھھو ميیكانيیزمم االا ررهھھھابب االيیومم: االنارر تا كل بعضهھا. 9

12 Invited speaker Online radicalism: from sympathizing to radicalizing. Dr. Yousri Marzouki (Université Aix- Marseille, Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, CNRS, France). According to the extensive field work of the cognitive anthropologist Atran, individuals now mostly radicalize horizontally rather than vertically; which implies that radicalization is easily promoted through peers belonging to small groups (real and virtual) with low hierarchy rather than high- order institutional structures (e.g., Atran, 2010). Thus, by taking into consideration the increasingly growing penetration rate of social media in our lives, I'll try to provide an explanation of the psychological factors that facilitate the emergence and the online thriving of these radical social networks by combining two levels of analysis. The first level is rooted in the individual standpoint and stems from the recently developed framework of "uncertainty- identity theory" (e.g., Hogg & Smith, 2007). Especially, how people who feel uncertain identify more strongly with groups that promotes low status such as radical groups. The second level is rooted in the social network standpoint and stems from the emerging framework of Virtual Collective Consciousness (VCC) (Marzouki et al., 2012). Indeed, such self- uncertainty is more likely expected to trigger and boost a collective but virtual identification process because of the anonymity, the virality and the speed with which online communication spreads. Hence, persons with uncertain selves rely more easily on the support of online networks to mentalize their ideals, from sympathizing to radicalizing, through active online participation. 10

13 5th International Social Sciences Conference ﺍاﻟﺗﻁطﺭرﻑف ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﻧﻑف ﻭوﺍاﻻﺭرﻫﮬﮪھﺎﺏب ﻏﺭرﺑﺔ ﻋﻥن ﺍاﻟﺫذﺍاﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻻﺧﺭر : ﺭرﺅؤﻳﯾﺔ ﻣﻥن ﻣﻧﻅظﻭوﺭر ﻧﻔﺳﻲ Dr. Asma Abdallah Al- Ataya and Dr. Ahmad Mohamed Majria (Department of Psychological Sciences, College of Education, Qatar University). ﻳﯾﺸﻬﮭﺪ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍاﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻅظﺎﻫﮬﮪھﺮﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﺮﻑف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓة ﺍاﺻﻌﺪﺓة ﻭوﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺓة ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﯾﺎﺕت ﻭو ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻫﮬﮪھﺬﻩه ﺍاﻟﻈﺎﻫﮬﮪھﺮﺓة ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﺪﺍا ﻏﻴﯿﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻗﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﯾﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻨﻪﮫ ﺇإﺫذ ﻟﻢ ﻳﯾﻌﺮﻑف ﺗﺎﺭرﻳﯾﺦ ﺍاﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥن ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﮬﮪھﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﻅظﻴﯿﻒ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﯿﺎ ﺍاﻟﺤﺪﻳﯾﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍاﻳﯾﻘﺎﻉع ﺍاﻷﺫذﻯى ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻷﺭرﺽض. ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝل ﺣﺪﺍا ﻏﻴﯿﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻗﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺪﺓة ﻭوﻁطﺄﺓة ﺃأﺛﺎﺭرﻫﮬﮪھﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍاﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥن ﺍاﻳﯾﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥن ﺣﻴﯿﺚ ﻳﯾﻘﻮﻡم ﺍاﻻﻋﻼﻡم ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍاﻻﺣﺪﺍاﺙث ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭرﺓة ﻭوﺍاﻟﺼﻮﺕت ﻓﻮﺭر ﻭوﻗﻮﻋﻬﮭﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺑﻨﻮﺩد ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﺮﻑف ﺃأﻭو ﻧﺎﺟﻢ ﻋﻨﻪﮫ. ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﺮﻑف ﻓﻲ ﺍاﻵﺭرﺍاء ﻭوﺍاﻻﻓﻜﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍاﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﮬﮪھﺎﺕت ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍاﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﯾﺎ ﺍاﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﯿﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﯿﺎﺳﻴﯿﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺪﻳﯾﻨﻴﯿﺔ ﻅظﺎﻫﮬﮪھﺮﺓة ﺍاﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﯿﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻬﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍاﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕت ﻭوﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﯿﻊ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭر. ﻭوﻟﻜﻨﻬﮭﺎ ﺃأﺧﺬﺕت ﺑﻌﺪﺍا ﺟﺪﻳﯾﺪﺍا ﻓﻲ ﺍاﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺤﺪﻳﯾﺜﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍاﺭرﺗﺒﻄﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺣﻴﯿﺚ ﻳﯾﻠﺠﺄ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍاﻟﻤﺘﻄﺮﻓﻮﻥن ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﯿﺪ ﻭوﺟﻮﺩدﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻭوﺍاﻥن ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍاﻷﺑﺮﻳﯾﺎء ﻭوﺗﺨﺮﻳﯾﺐ ﺍاﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻡم ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭوﺯزﻋﺰﻋﺔ ﺍاﻷﻣﻦ. ﻭوﻋﻠﻰ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭو ﺭر ﺍاﻟﺠﻮﻫﮬﮪھﺮﻱي ﻟﻸﻣﻦ ﻟﻤﻮﺍاﺟﻬﮭﺔ ﻫﮬﮪھﺬﻩه ﺍاﻟﻈﺎﻫﮬﮪھﺮﺓة ﻓﺎﻷﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﯿﺲ ﻛﺎﻑف ﻻﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﺮﻑف ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﮭﺎ ﺃأﺑﻌﺎﺩد ﻧﻔﺴﻴﯿﺔ ﻭوﺍاﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﯿﺔ ﻭوﺗﺮﺑﻮﻳﯾﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﯾﺔ ﻭوﺳﻴﯿﺎﺳﻴﯿﺔ, ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝج ﺍاﻟﻰ ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﺍاﺳﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻘﺼﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻬﮭﻤﻬﮭﺎ. ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻄﺮﻑف ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱي ﻫﮬﮪھﻮ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍاﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﻓﻜﺮﺍا ﺃأﻭو ﺳﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﺑﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻻﻓﻜﺎﺭر ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥن ﺩدﻳﯾﻨﻴﯿﺔ ﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪﻳﯾﺔ ﺃأﻭو ﺳﻴﯿﺎﺳﻴﯿﺔ ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﯾﺔ ﺃأﻭو ﻏﻴﯿﺮﻫﮬﮪھﺎ, ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻬﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﻼﻙك ﺍاﻟﺤﻘﻴﯿﻘﺔ ﺍاﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻭوﺗﺨﻠﻖ ﻓﺠﻮﺓة ﺑﻴﯿﻨﻪﮫ ﻭوﺑﻴﯿﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﺴﻴﯿﺞ ﺍاﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﯾﻌﻴﯿﺶ ﻓﻴﯿﻪﮫ ﻭوﻳﯾﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇإﻟﻴﯿﻪﮫ. ﺍاﻷﻣﺮ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﯾﺆﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﻰ ﻏﺮﺑﺘﻪﮫ ﻋﻦ ﺫذﺍاﺗﻪﮫ ﻭوﺟﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪﮫ ﻭوﻳﯾﻌﻮﻗﻪﮫ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻤﺎﺭرﺳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕت ﺍاﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻴﯿﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻪﮫ ﻓﺮﺩدﺍا ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ.. ﻭوﻣﻦ ﻫﮬﮪھﻨﺎ ﻳﯾﺒﺪﻭو ﺃأﻫﮬﮪھﻤﻴﯿﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﺍاﺳﺔ ﻭوﻫﮬﮪھﺪﻓﻬﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍاﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﮬﮪھﺬﻩه ﺍاﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ :.1 ﻣﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻮ ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﺮﻑف ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱي ﻭوﻣﻈﺎﻫﮬﮪھﺮﻩه ﻭو ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪﮫ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭوﺍاﻻﺭرﻫﮬﮪھﺎﺏب.2 ﻣﺎ ﺍاﻟﻌﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﺍاﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺓة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﺮﻑف ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱي ﻭو ﻛﻴﯿﻒ ﻳﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻤﻌﻴﯿﻨﺔ ﻣﻮﺍاﺟﻬﮭﺘﻪﮫ? 11

14 علمم االنفسس وو االا منن االقوومي Prof. Mohamed Najeeb Al Sabouah (Department of psychology, Cairo university). تشهھد االمنطقة االعربيیة هھھھذهه االا يیامم ااحدااثث عنف ووتطرفف يیمتد تا ثيیرهھھھا االى جميیع جواانب حيیاةة االموااططن االعربي نفسيیا ووااجتماعيیا وودديینيیا. هھھھذهه االاثارر االسلبيیة لا يیقف تا ثيیرهھھھا على االجيیل االحالي فحسب بل يیمتد االى االا جيیالل االقاددمة. ووتتطلب تلك االتغيیرااتت وواالاحدااثث تكاتف االجهھودد من االعلومم االاجتماعيیة وواالعلومم االطبيیعيیة علي حد االسوااء للقيیامم بدوورر فعالل في االامن االقومي االعربي. يیلعب علم االنفس ددوورر مهھم في االامن االقومي لمختلف االثقافاتت االتي يیحتل فيیهھا مكانتهھ االعلميیة االلاي قة. يیقومم علماء االنفس جنبا االى جنب بدوورر فعالل مع صانعي االسيیاساتت ووصانعي االقرااررااتت من ناحيیتيین: االاوولي في االفهھم وواالتفسيیر وواالتنبو بسلوكك االعنف وواالتطرفف وواالا ررهھھھابب وومن االناحيیة االا خرىى ااعداادد االخطط االعلاجيیة وواالتدرريیبيیة لتخفيیض حدهه تلك االسلوكيیاتت االراادديیكاليیة. في االدررااسة االرااهھھھنة يیستعرضض االباحث ااهھھھم االا ددوواارر االفعالة االتي يیقومم بهھا االاخصاي يیيین االنفسيیيین في مساعدهه صانعي االقراارر في مقاوومة االا ررهھھھابب وواالتطرفف ووكذلك ااستعرااضض االنظريیاتت وواالتوجهھاتت االنفسيیة االمختلفة في تقديیم االخدماتت االسريیريیة وواالقيیاسس االنفسي من تصميیم ووتقنيین ا أددووااتت نفسيیة ووتقنيینهھا ووتعرفف ا أنماطط االسلوكك االراادديیكالي ووكذلك مناقشة براامج ا إعاددةة االتا هھھھيیل االنفسي للا فراادد االمتوررططيین في قضايیا االعنف وواالا ررهھھھابب ووططرقق االاندماجج في االمجتمع. كمما تتعرضض االدررااسة ا أيیضا للتجارربب االناجحة في االولايیاتت االمتحدةة االامريیكيیة لدززرر علم االنفس في االامن االقومي ووكذلك تتناوولل مقترحا لتفعيیل ددوورر علم االنفس ووتطبيیقاتهھ في االامن االقومي االعربي. 12

15 The use of psychological models in the explanation of radicalism. Dr. Abdrabo Moghazi Soleman, Dr. Tarek Bellaj, and Dr. M. Khalifa (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). The present study aims at testing three of the most promising models that explain the cognitive and behavioral profile of radical individuals based on empirical data from a large sample of participants (N =312). The data from a sample of Tunisian and Egyptian adults was classified into two groups (right vs. left wing radical groups) based on scores on a self- report measure of religious extremeness. Each of the three models were tested individually to reach the model with best fit. Such procedure was run for each group independently. The two best fitting models for the two groups were combined for a multi- group confirmatory factor analysis testing for measurement invariance in order to investigate the similarities and differences in the two models across the two groups through three hierarchical testing models. These models include: a configure model invariance that tests the similarities in the construct conceptualization across the two group, the metric model invariance that assesses whether individuals across groups attribute similarly the meaning to the latent construct under examination, Scalar invariance, that implies whether the meaning of the construct and the levels of the underlying items are equal in both groups. Finally, full metric invariance was used to measures whether the latent construct is measured identically across groups. The findings showed that each of the three models fitted quite well with the data and none was totally comprehensive. These results suggest the adoption of an integrated model to explain complex phenomena such as radicalism and radical mind. 13

16 Wednesday 11 March 2015 Keynote Address Understanding the Violence Continuum in Yemen: Jihadis, Southerners, Huthis, Drones and the Security Apparatus. Prof. Laurent Bonnefoy (Institut D Etudes Politiques, Paris, CNRS Research Fellow/CERI). The issue of violence in contemporary Yemen is contentious and increasingly seen as a threat to international security. Dominant accounts tend to either disconnect phenomena of violence from wider political and social processes or to over- interpret the relevance of ideology as a driver of radicalization. This paper intends to look into the diverse forms of (intentional and political ) violence in Yemen as a continuum, highlighting the connections that exist between them. A such, violence linked to al- Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula cannot be understood without taking into account its complex relations with the state or international policies and other phenomena of contestation in Yemen, in particular the Southern movement. This paper will show how a relevant holistic approach should focus on the relational nature of violence, stressing the fact it is both a cause and an effect of various social and political relations that structure contemporary Yemen. Consequently, rise in violence since the late 2000s, either in the context of the war against terror or in the framework of the Saada war against the Huthis has been contingent on a wide variety of variables, in particular state and international repression and tribal competition. Finally, the paper will show how trajectories of violence in Yemen (as elsewhere) should be seen as two way- streets on which individuals, frequently multi- situated with multiple allegiances and rationalities, can move, seeing the level or form of their militancy and radicalization evolve. As such, the paper will stress the varieties of engagement in phenomena of violence, highlighting the functional inanity of combatant/civilian distinctions that legitimize repression and drone strikes and ignore the idea of a continuum of violence. 14

17 Invited speaker Negotiated radicalism: Hizbullah s pendulum swing between hard and soft power. Prof. Joseph Alagha (Haigazian University, Beirut, Lebanon). The Lebanese Hizbullah is infamous for its terrorist global reach and militant face. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Hizbullah abducted Westerners in Lebanon and battled the Israeli Army until it withdrew in In the Arab Uprisings, Hizbullah is fighting alongside the Syrian regime and lending logistical support to the Iraqi and Yemeni Shi ite armed militias. Employing political disenfranchisement discourse and tactics, Hizbullah seems to shift within the parameters of pan- Islamism and pan- Arabism, while maintaining its Lebanese national identity at the center. Notwithstanding, Hizbullah resilience and assertiveness allows it to move between militancy (hard power) and integration (soft/smart power), the former exemplifies its hawkish policy during the Arab Uprisings, while the latter illustrates its dovish domestic face of being an integral part of the Lebanese state, from which it derives its legitimacy. This shift fueled Sunni- Shi a discord (fitna), threatening a serious spillover of the Syrian civil war into Lebanon after al- Qa ida affiliates ISIL and Nusra Front battled Hizbullah and the Lebanese Army on Lebanese soil. In spite of that, Hizbullah exploits the concepts of cultural citizenship and cultural politics to promote, in mixed gender spaces, purposeful performing arts: music, dancing, revolutionary theater, and satire (soft power). To my knowledge, Hizbullah is the only Islamic party that has an orchestra of more than 100 musicians who play more than 44 instruments. Many Islamists such as the Taliban and ISIL classify these as instruments of the Devil. 15

18 تحليیلل سووسيیوولووجي للعشرريیة االسووددااء بالجززااي رر Dr. Lilia Bensouilah (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). تركز هھھھذهه االمدااخلة على بحث عديید االعواامل االتي شكلت منطلقاتت ااساسيیة لانبعاثث موجة االاررهھھھابب وواالعنف االتي ا أسست لفترةة ظظلاميیة مرتت بهھا االجزااي ر سنوااتت االتسعيیناتت من االقرنن االعشريین ااصطلح على تسميیتهھا االعشريیة االسوددااء ا أوو االحمرااء نظراا لدمويیتهھا بكل ما شهھدتهھ من صرااعع مسلح خاضتهھ مو سساتت االدوولة االجزااي ريیة ضد االافعالل االاررهھھھابيیة للجماعاتت االمسلحة االتي تتبنى اافكارر موااليیة للجبهھة االاسلاميیة للا نقاذذ وواالاسلامم االسيیاسي. ووتبرزز االدررااسة كذلك مظاهھھھر هھھھذهه االاعمالل االاررهھھھابيیة االتي خلفت ا ألافف االقتلى االمفقودديین االعديید من حالاتت االاغتصابب وواالاعتدااء فضلا عن االتفجيیرااتت االانتحارريیة االتي ددمرتت االكثيیر من االمراافق وواالاملاكك االعموميیة ووااستهھدفت تحديیداا اافراادد االشرططة وواالقطاعع االعسكريي ووتم تروويیج فتوىى من االجماعاتت االمسلحة االمنسلخة عن االاحزاابب االاسلاميیة ا أنن كل موظظفي االدوولة هھھھم كفرةة يینبغي قتالهھم ووشن االحرووبب ضدهھھھم. ووبذلك تعد هھھھذهه االدررااسة من االدررااساتت االوصفيیة االتحليیليیة االتي تستهھدفف ااضافة االى ما سبق بحث مختلف توجهھاتت االسيیاسة االاسترااتيیجيیة االتي ااعتمدتهھا االجزااي ر لمكافحة االاررهھھھابب ووخلق شرووطط االاستقراارر وواالامن وواالسلم االامر االذيي ااستدعى االرجوعع االى بحث االاططارر االتشريیعي باعتباررهه رركيیزةة ا أساسيیة لتوجهھاتت هھھھذهه االسيیاسة ووقد تبيین حجم ما يیكرسهھ هھھھذاا االاططارر من نصوصص قانونيیة تدعو االى نهھج االعفو وواالتسامح وواالوي امم االمدني سنة 1999 ثم االعفو االشامل ووميیثاقق االسلم وواالمصالحة االوططنيیة االذيي وواافق عليیهھ االشعب في ااستفتاء 25 سبتمبر 2005 كما تم االتكفل مو خراا بتعويیض االا شخاصص االطبيیعيیيین االذيین تعرضواا لا ضراارر جسديیة ا أوو مادديیة جرااء ا أعمالل ا إررهھھھابيیة ا أوو حوااددثث تدخل في ا إططارر مكافحة االا ررهھھھابب ووجاء ااصداارر مرسومم 6 فبراايیر 2014 بمنح صفة "االضحايیا" للنساء االلوااتي تعرضن للاغتصابب من ططرفف مجموعاتت مسلحة خلالل تسعيینيیاتت االقرنن االماضي مانحة ا إيیاهھھھن فرصة االاستفاددةة من االتعويیض حيیث تعتبر ضحيیة عمل مسلح "كل اامرا أةة تعرضت للاغتصابب من قبل ا إررهھھھابي ا أوو جماعاتت ا إررهھھھابيیة". ووبهھذهه االاجرااءااتت تكونن االجزااي ر قد تخطت من جهھة خطوررةة مرحلة كانت تستهھدفف ااشاعة حربب ااهھھھليیة بيین تشكيیلاتت عدةة على مساحة ووااسعة تصنف االدوولة االاوولى اافريیقيیا ووا إنن ااختلفت ررددوودد فعل االمجتمع االجزااي ريي من سيیاسة االسلطة االامنيیة ذذااتت االابعادد االعلاجيیة لاحتوااء ظظاهھھھرةة االاررهھھھابب بيین مو يید لهھذهه االسيیاسة وومعاررضض لهھا. وومن جهھة ثانيیة حظيیت االجزااي ر با شاددةة ددووليیة خاصة من قبل ا أمريیكا االتي ااعتبرتهھا بلداا مصدرراا للا من وواالسلم وواالاستقراارر في االعالم ووجاء تا كيید ااهھھھميیة ددوورر االمقارربة االجزااي ريیة ووااسهھامهھا في االاسترااتيیجيیة االعالميیة لمكافحة االاررهھھھابب حيیث ااصبح يی عتد بهھا كطرفف خبيیر في هھھھذاا االمجالل. 16

19 Radicalism in Education in Nepal. Dr. Leela Pradham (University of Kathmandu, Nepal). The present paper deals with the experiment of new democrative (NDE) education as the alternative to the mainstream education in Nepal. It was carried out in Nepal by Maoist during People s war from 1996 to 2006.The philosophical base of NDE was officially defined by the basic policies and programs formulated by the 1st national conference of United Revolutionary People Council in Along the emergence of new people s government in western hilly districts of Nepal by 2003,the concrete foundation was laid to establish new democratic schools with their own curriculum. Such a radical intervention was an attempt to oppose the present education system. The philosophical base of NDE included the principle of dialectical materialism by replacing the idealistic foundation of state driven education. The primary focus of the new curriculum was on the development of the students materialistic understanding of nature, human society, culture and history. Curriculum draft mentioned that primary level students shall be encouraged to adopt a materialistic way of thinking, develop self- confidence free from blind traditions and superstitious, become laborious, honest and self- reliant. In the primary level students were offered subjects like Nepali and local language, art, social studies, politics, economics, military science, simple arithmetic and English language. The customary practices of mainstreaming education such as extended curriculum, heavy textbooks, long periods of schooling, rote learning, unfriendly examination patterns, isolation from larger domains of socio- political life regimented schooling and forceful treatment of students, highlighted the need of radical reform. The task of NDE movement was to oppose the mainstreaming schooling system and to help in the direction of developing a new model of democratic education. 17

20 االددوورر االووقاي ي لمهھنة االخددمة االاجتماعيیة لحمايیة االشبابب منن االتططررفف وواالاررهھھھابب Dr. Magdy Mahfouz Abeeta (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). تحظي ظظاهھھھرةة االتطرفف وواالاررهھھھابب باهھھھتمامم بالغ من كافة االمهھن وواالتخصصاتت االعاملة في مجالل االعمل االاجتماعي وواالنفسي وواالتربويي ووذذلك علي ااعتبارر ا أنن االمشكلة ااصبحت ااكثر تعقيیداا وواانتشارراا في بلداانن كثيیرةة علي مستويي االعالم ا أجمع. وولذاا فا نن االجهھودد االعلاجيیة وواالوقاي يیة يیجب ا أنن تتم في ا إططارر مخطط وومدررووسس لنستطيیع االحد من هھھھذهه االظاهھھھرةة ووموااجهھتهھا با ساليیب علميیة ووووااقعيیة من خلالل مو سساتت االمجتمع االحكوميیة وواالا هھھھليیة علي حداا سوااء وواالتي يیعمل من خلالهھا االاخصاي يیيین االاجتماعيیيین وواالنفسيیيین ووغيیرهھھھم من االتربويیيین مما يیمكنهھم من حمايیة االشبابب من االانخرااطط في ااعمالل االتطرفف وواالاررهھھھابب. ووتنطلق االوررقة من حقيیقتيین رري يیسيیتيین هھھھما : ا أنن في ة االشبابب هھھھي االتي تنخرطط في االا عمالل االا ررهھھھابيیة علي مستويي االعالم ا أجمع. وولعل ما يیدلل علي ذذلك ما قامت بهھ االجماعاتت االاررهھھھابيیة في مصر وواالعرااقق ووليیبيیا ووفرنسا وواالدنمارركك وواالولايیاتت االمتحدةة االامريیكيیة... ووغيیرهھھھا. ا أنن االخدمة االاجتماعيیة كمهھنة اانسانيیة تسعي ا إلي تحقيیق ا أهھھھداافف علاجيیة ووووقاي يیة وواانماي يیة. في شتي مجالاتت االمماررسة االمتنوعة وواالمتعدددةة. وومن هھھھذاا االمنطلق فا نن االخدمة االاجتماعيیة من خلالل مماررستهھا االمهھنيیة مع في ة االشبابب في االمدااررسس وواالجامعاتت وومرااكز االشبابب وواالجمعيیاتت االاهھھھليیة ووغيیرهھھھا من مو سساتت االمجتمع االمدني تستطيیع االقيیامم با ددوواارر اايیجابيیة ترتبط بالتثقيیف ووززيیاددةة االوعي وواالتمكيین ووتطويیر االشخصيیة. ووعلي االرغم من ذذلك فا نن االجهھودد االمهھنيیة االتي يیقومم بهھا االاخصاي يیونن االاجتماعيیونن تنصب علي االجهھودد االعلاجيیة وواالتروويیحيیة ددوونن االاهھھھتمامم بالبعد االوقاي ي االذيي نحتاجج االيیهھ في االوقت االرااهھھھن.ووهھھھذاا ما ددفعنا االي ااختيیارر قضيیة االوقاي يیة باعتباررهھھھا محورريیة لمنع ااوو االحد من تطرفف االشبابب. وولذاا تهھدفف ووررقة االعمل االي ططرحح االعناصر االاتيیة : 1 االتحديید االاجرااي ي لمفاهھھھيیم (االاررهھھھابب ووما يیرتبط بهھ من مفاهھھھيیم االشبابب االمتطرفف االخدمة االاجتماعيیة االوقاي يیة ( 2 االاسبابب االمو دديیة االي االتطرفف وواالاهھھھابب. 4 االا ثارر االسلبيیة فكريیا وونفسيیا ووااقتصادديیا ووسيیاسيیا للتطرفف وواالا ررهھھھابب علي االمجتمع ووفي ة االشبابب. 5 ا أبعادد االدوورر االوقاي ي للخدمة االاجتماعيیة لحمايیة االشبابب من االتطرفف االا ررهھھھابب. 6 االا نشطة االوقاي يیة االلاززمة لتحقيیق االحمايیة من االتطرفف وواالاررهھھھابب. 7 االتوصيیاتت االلاززمة للتخطيیط للبراامج وواالانشطة االوقاي يیة مع االشبابب لحمايیتهھ من االتطرفف. 18

21 The impact of political affiliation, political participation and life satisfaction on the types of radicalism among university students. Prof. Diab M. Al- Badayneh (Police Training Institute, Doha, Qatar) and Dr. Khawla Al- Hasan (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of e The Impact of Political affiliation, Political participation and life satisfaction on the types of Radicalization Among University Students. A sample of 1116 students was drawn from four different Jordanian universities, namely Mutah University, Jordan University, Tafila University and Yarmuk University). A scale was developed for the study based on the extant literature. The construct validity of the scale was estimated by calculating the correlation between the radicalization items and the negative emotion items. A positive significant relationship was found (0.12, α= 0.000), a sign of validity of the scale. The scale reliability was also strong and was estimated at 0.90 using Cronbach s alpha. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant impact of Political affiliation, Political participation and life satisfaction on religious, (F=8.5, α 0.000) political(f=4.9, α 0.002), and violent radicalization (F=2.7, α 0.04) Among University Students. However, no significant impact was found on Personal and social Radicalization. Some preventive, recruitment and political implications are discussed. 19

22 Radicalizing Young Arab People: Education, Unemployment and Despair. Dr Hamud Al- Olimat (Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University). The purpose of this paper is to present a situation analysis of the conditions of Young Arabs and the various challenges facing them, with particular emphasis on the meager opportunities of education, employment and the resultants miserable conditions including limited choices and opportunities whilst shouldering huge responsibilities. Also the paper will examine the possible correlation between unemployment, education level and risk behaviors among young Arabs. in order to achieve the goals of the proposed analytic paper, it will rely on the available official statistics on education, unemployment, poverty and the Sociodemographic characteristics of young Arabs. Besides, it will gather data on risk behaviors among Young Arabs including violence and inclination towards extremism. The paper reports findings on the conditions of Young Arabs, the challenges facing them, their aspirations and opportunities. Findings on the correlation between the limited education, and employment opportunities and risk behavior will be reported. Major conclusions of the paper will be reported based on the objectives and research questions of the paper. The paper will propose a number of recommendations based on its findings and conclusions. 20

23 Authors mails Name First name address Al- Ataya Asma Abdallah Al- Badayneh M. Diab Al- Hasan Khawla Al- Olimat Hamud Al Sabouah Mohamed Najeeb Alagha Joseph Anser Layachi Beeman William Bellaj Tarek Bensouilah Lilia Bonnefoy Laurent Bouazizi Mohsen Curtis Arthur Andressen Khalifa Mahar Mahfouz Abeeta Magdy Majria Ahmad Mohamed Moghazi Soleman Abdrabo Pradham Leela Marzouki Yousri Varisco Daniel 21

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