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1 PHOTOGRAPHING STYLES & SUBJECTS PHOTOGRAPHER ACTIVITY BADGE

2 2 CONTENTS Page 3 Badge requirements Page 4 Portraits Page 5 Still life Page 6 Landscapes and seascapes Page 7 Sport or action shots Page 8 Time-lapse photography Page 9 Black and white photography Page 10 Black and white landscapes April 2015 The Scout Association. Registered charity numbers: (England and Wales) and SCO38437 (Scotland)

3 3 BADGE REQUIREMENTS TO ACHIEVE THIS BADGE YOU NEED TO COMPLETE THE REQUIREMENTS FROM ONE OF THE OPTIONS BELOW: OPTION 1- STILL PHOTOGRAPHY Produce 12 photographs (negative or digital), taken by yourself covering at least two different techniques from this list: Portrait Still life or similar Land or seascape Sport or action Time-lapse photography HOW TO BE A PHOTOGRAPHER YOUR TASK Take inspiration from the different styles of photography on the following pages. Read them carefully and choose the ones that appeal to you the most, then plan your photo shoot! Take 12 fantastic photographs including at least two different styles. Perhaps you will go for an action shot and a portrait or maybe you will be inspired and try them all. OPTION 2- BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHY Produce six black and white photographs. Explain the steps taken to create them and the impact of using black and white as an alternative to colour images. Use a camera that allows you to modify settings and use an optical zoom. Most camera functions on smart phones and tablets don t have these features, but if you have one that does, you can use it. MORE INFORMATION The images may be high quality prints on photographic paper, or presented on-screen.

4 4 PORTRAITS TAKING PORTRAIT PICTURES IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF PHOTOGRAPHY BUT ALSO ONE OF THE MOST CHALLENGING. PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY IS ABOUT CAPTURING A SUBJECT S PERSONALITY IN AN IMAGE. f/22 HOW TO TAKE A PORTRAIT Activity steps 1. Look for an interesting face and get your picture to tell a story about the person. 2. The composition of the picture is important. Look carefully through your lens other than your subject, what else can you see? Watch out for objects poking out behind your model. 3. Try using the portrait mode on your camera or set your camera to close-up mode to make your subject stand out from the background. 4. Look at your model from different angles. Try taking some shots sitting on the floor looking up at their face or from the side to get their profile. 5. Experiment with lighting sunlight from one side can cast interesting shadows on parts of their face. f/2.8 Getting to know your subject can help you to capture their personality in the image. Meet with them before you set up your photo shoot and talk about your ideas for the images you would like to take. Some people can freeze in front of a camera. Try to put them at ease and make them feel relaxed and happy. Safety Always ask a persons permission to take photos of them. Expert : If you have access to a range of lenses, use a medium or 50mm telephoto lens for shooting portraits. This brings the background closer to the model. (Canon recommend EF 50mm f.1.8 II) Creative Landscape can be used when taking a close-up of part of a face.

5 5 STILL LIFE SINGLE FLOWERS, A BUG ON A LEAF OR A GROUP OF OBJECTS ARTFULLY ARRANGED ARE ALL EXAMPLES OF STILL LIFE PHOTOGRAPHS. THIS CAN BE ONE OF THE MOST CREATIVE KINDS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. EVEN A SHOT OF A GREASY PAN GLINTING IN THE MORNING SUN AFTER BREAKFAST CAN CAPTURE THE ESSENCE OF A CAMP TRIP. SHOOTING STILL LIFE Think carefully about the composition, arrangement is an important part of still-life photography. How you choose to display your objects can turn a picture of normal everyday things into something special. What to shoot Objects - Pictures can be taken inside or outside using ordinary objects. Photograph your shoes, a hat and brush, your necker and badges or even a row of water bottles lined up by a tap at camp. Food - Photographing food well is quite difficult, start with something simple like a steaming mug of hot chocolate on a camping table or melting marshmallows toasting on the camp fire. Wildlife - Wander around camp or your garden. Look for colourful insects or a spider s web glistening with dew. Rather than taking a photo of the whole flower bed, choose your focal point by carefully zooming in on a bug. When arranging a composition think about your audience and what message you want to give the people who will be looking at your work. SETTING UP YOUR SHOT Set your camera to close-up mode to isolate your object from the background. This uses a large aperture to produce images with a sharp central focus and a background blur. The shutter speed is fairly fast so it is easier to take photographs without the camera shaking. Remember, if you are taking pictures in low light then the flash will automatically pop up, so the effect will be less natural.

6 6 LANDSCAPES AND SEASCAPES HOLIDAYS OR SCOUT CAMPS CAN PROVIDE THE PERFECT PICTURE TAKING OPPORTUNITIES AND IT DOESN T HAVE TO BE A SPECIAL LOCATION, THERE ARE LANDSCAPES ALL AROUND YOU, JUST CHOOSE A SCENE THAT INSPIRES YOU. HOW TO SHOOT LANDSCAPE OR SEASCAPE Activity steps 1. Research and map your area before you go out on location or visit familiar territory that you can explore safely. 2. If you want to photograph on private land always ask the owner s permission first. 3. Check the weather forecast before you shoot. Clear days are best for light and to get crisp pictures, although clouds and stormy skies can make your shots moody. 4. Look around and decide what part of the scene or features of the land or seascape stand out to you. 5. Examine the scene to identify a point of interest before you set up your shot. 6. Once you have selected a point of interest, think about how you could draw your viewer s attention to it. Expert Refer to rule of thirds when setting up a landscape or seascape shot. For seascape or scenes with running water, decide whether you want to show the water frozen or flowing, Depending on the shutter speed you can achieve either effect. Safety Water and cameras don t mix. Don t try taking underwater images unless you have a special waterproof camera. Keep away from big waves, use a zoom lens instead. Safety Never go out on location alone and always tell an adult where you are going. GOOD TO KNOW Landscape shots often use an anchor or a focal point that leads the viewer s eye into the image and towards the area of interest. This could be a line of trees in the foreground or row of beach huts on one side of your frame. SETTING UP YOUR SHOT Your camera s landscape mode helps you to shoot wide-open spaces while keeping all areas of the image clear and sharp. It does this by setting a small aperture, which brings everything into focus. The landscape mode also enhances blues and greens, colours often found in nature.

7 7 SPORT OR ACTION SHOTS IF YOU WANT TO SHOOT EVENTS OR IF YOU LOVE SPORTS, THIS IS FOR YOU BUT IS PROBABLY THE HARDEST OF ALL TYPES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. CAPTURING A PERFECT PICTURE OF SOMETHING THAT S MOVING OR UNPREDICTABLE IS A REAL CHALLENGE. YOU NEED A STEADY HAND, GREAT FOCUS AND SPEEDY REACTIONS, FROM YOURSELF AND YOUR CAMERA. HOW TO SHOOT SPORT OR ACTION Activity steps 1. Switch on the sports mode setting of your camera. This sets the highest possible shutter speed. 2. Choose a vantage point by positioning yourself carefully so that you can see what s going on. This will give you enough time to prepare for fast moving activity. 3. While waiting for the perfect shot, half press the shutter as you keep your eye on the game. When you are ready to take the shot, press the button completely. 4. Holding the shutter down activates a continuous firing mode which lets you take lots of frames one after another in quick succession. MORE INFORMATION In sports mode the automatic flash is switched off so you will have to think about the lighting. You can also use a higher ISO number of 400 or above to get faster shutter speeds. In low light you will need 800 or above. Try kneeling, lying or sitting low down rather than just shooting straight on. This can add depth to your pictures. Check where the light is coming from. If you stand with the sun behind you, then the light will be aiming towards your subject, which will help create more light for your shot. GOOD TO KNOW If you are using a camera that allows you to set your own shutter speed, set it to the highest shutter speed available. You will also need a telephoto lens of at least 200 mm to zoom in on the action. If you have the option to set how many frames per second on your camera, choose the maximum.

8 8 TIME-LAPSE PHOTOGRAPHY THIS IS WHERE YOU TAKE A SEQUENCE OF PICTURES OF THE SAME THING, PERHAPS A SCENE, A PLANT OR THE SKY AT DIFFERENT TIMES. YOU CAN MAKE THE INTERVAL BETWEEN SHOTS AN HOUR OR LESS OR TAKE THEM OVER DAYS, WEEKS OR MONTHS. HOW TO SHOOT TIME-LAPSE PHOTOGRAPHY What to shoot Seasons - Photograph your garden or a part of the local park at different times of the year. Make sure you take the exact same view each time. Plants - Take a shot of a plant just emerging from the ground, then the flower coming into bud, then blooming and then dying down. Portraits - Take pictures of a younger brother or sister over a longer period of time or a series of shots of a friend, seeing how their hairstyle and face shape changes. Still life - Set up a still life photo such as a bowl of fruit and arrange a tripod and camera so you can take a picture in the same position each day over a few days or weeks. Your pictures will record the slow decomposition of the fruit. Camp - Take photos of trees or the tents in the morning light, then later during the day with the sun streaming down or in the rain. Photograph the same scene again at dusk, and then in the dark with torches or lights shining from inside the tents. Urban settings - Try taking pictures of a tower block by day and night and in different lights. Look for the way the buildings cast shadows across the ground, how the sunlight glints off high-up windows and the lights that come on inside the building at night. A month of moons - Use time-lapse photography to record the phases of the moon. Find a window or area where you can get a good view of the night sky. Take a clear photograph with the moon at the centre of the shot every evening for a whole month. You will see how it changes shape. To get more light to your camera s sensor at night you need to set a wider lens aperture. You can also increase the camera s ISO to make the sensor more sensitive to light. Safety Don t carry expensive cameras and equipment on location without an adult.

9 9 BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHY YOUR TASK Black and white photography takes a special skill, looking carefully at contrasts, shadows and lighting to create clever and beautiful shots. Produce six black and white photographs. They can be landscapes, portraits, still life, or any of the styles we talked about in option 1. Then explain how you created your collection and why you think that using black and white had a greater impact than colour for your images. BLACK AND WHITE PORTRAITS Black and white photography works very well with portraits allowing the photograph to capture the person s character and personality. ACTIVITY Try taking a quick selfie or a shot of a friend in colour and then in black and white. Notice what stands out the most in both pictures. From this you will get an idea of what to look for to take a really sharp and effective black and white picture. MORE INFORMATION Butterfly lighting is also known as Paramount lighting because it was popular with photographers taking black and white images of Hollywood stars for Paramount (film company) in the 1930s. LIGHTING TECHNIQUES Adding side lighting is particularly effective when taking portraits as it gives a strong contrast creating highlights and shadows. ACTIVITY STEPS 1. Place your model close to a light source such as a window or a lamp. Watch where the light falls on their face. Does it shine on their cheeks or do their eyes glint? 2. Split lighting - make sure that your light source is 90 degrees to the side of the models face. Check where the light falls on their face and then maybe move the light slightly behind their head. If you have set it up correctly, only the eye on the shadow side of the face will pick up light. 3. Loop lighting - move the light or your model until you find a position where soft shadows are created on the side of the face that gently emphasises their features or cheekbones. A small shadow of their nose will appear that looks like a little loop. This creates a natural kind of light and is the most flattering. 4. Butterfly or Paramount lighting - Position the light behind and above the camera and shine onto the model s face to create shadows under the cheeks and chin. Think of a classic movie star photograph. The technique is called Butterfly lighting because a butterfly-shaped shadow is created under the nose. Look at the styles and subjects section for detailed advice on taking different types of photographs including portraits, still life and landscapes. Expert tip In loop lighting, the light source is slightly higher than eye level.

10 10 BLACK AND WHITE LANDSCAPES COMPOSITION AND CONTRAST ARE THE KEY ELEMENTS OF BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHS. WINTER LANDSCAPES CAN LOOK STUNNING AS THERE IS OFTEN LITTLE COLOUR AT THIS TIME OF YEAR SO IT IS EASIER TO SEE CONTRASTS AND SHADOWS. Most modern cameras will have a Monochrome or black and white setting on them. You may need to select this using the menu options on your camera. MORE INFORMATION Monochrome means something is one colour or shades of one colour. 10 TIPS FOR SHOOTING MONOCHROME 1. Focus on the outlines of buildings and the shapes of plants and trees. 2. Try shooting at different times of the day to see how the light and shadows affect the contrast of your scene. 3. Pick out interesting silhouettes, the roofs of houses, a bridge, or a landmark building with a great shape. 4. Try shooting after a rainfall when streetlamp light glistens on wet cars and the ground. 5. Shoot the same scene twice, first in colour and then in black and white. Compare both pictures on your camera s LCD screen. 6. Look at the scene from different angles, and identify natural patterns created by surfaces to create interesting textures and shadows in your pictures. 7. Work out what to photograph in monochrome and what to avoid by experimenting with pictures you have already and converting colour pictures to black and white. 8. A scene that looks good in colour might not work in black and white. A shot of vibrant red poppies against a green meadow will look great in colour. But in black and white, you may find that the red and the green both convert to similar shades of grey. 9. Use filters to change the tones in an image. Yellow and red filters absorb blue light, making blue skies appear darker in the image. This makes the scene more dramatic and increases the contrast between white clouds and the sky. 10. Shoot your images using RAW files, then you have more control over editing later on.

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