2 Copyright and Trademark Notice Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. Other than printing one copy for personal use, no part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Citrix Systems, Inc. Copyright 2009 Citrix Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Citrix, ICA (Independent Computing Architecture), and Program Neighborhood are registered trademarks, and XenDesktop, Citrix XenApp, Citrix Presentation Server, Citrix Access Gateway, Citrix XenServer, Citrix Provisioning Server, SpeedScreen and GoToAssist are trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. This product includes software developed by The Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/). Adobe, Reader, and PostScript are trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the U.S. and/or other countries. Internet Explorer, Microsoft, MS-DOS, Windows, Windows Server, Windows NT, Windows XP, Win32, Access, Visual J#, and Active Directory are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Java is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. VMware is a trademark of VMware Inc. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their owners. Last Updated: January 9, 2009 (SC)
3 Contents 3 Contents 1 Introduction How to Use This Document Finding More Information Getting Support and Training Planning Your Deployment New Features in this Release Planning Your Farm Using Active Directory with Desktop Delivery Controller Using the Web Interface with Desktop Delivery Controller Security Planning Security Best Practices Managing User Privileges Deployment Scenarios Upgrading from Previous Versions of XenDesktop Planning the User Experience Your Environment User Types Network Environment Desktop Connection Scenarios Scenario A: Connecting from an Appliance Scenario B: Connecting from a Domain-Joined or Repurposed Computer Scenario C: Connecting from a Fat Client Device on a LAN Scenario D: Connecting from Remote Computers Using Smart Cards with XenDesktop Overview Smart Card Types and Readers Supported Endpoint Device Requirements
4 4 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide Secure Use of Smart Cards Configuring Smart Card Authentication Managing Smart Card Use Removing Smart Cards Installing XenDesktop Overview XenDesktop Installation Media What s on the Installation Media Licensing Creating the Farm Data Store Installing Desktop Delivery Controller on a Single Server To install Desktop Delivery Controller and create a farm Configuring Active Directory Using a Separate Database Server Adding Controllers to Your Farm To add a controller to a farm Installing the Management Consoles Separately To install the management consoles on a separate computer Starting the Access Management Console To configure and run discovery Installing VM Infrastructure Software To install XenServer Replacing the Default XenServer SSL Certificate Installing Citrix Provisioning Server Installing the XenDesktop Setup Wizard Installing the Virtual Desktop Agent To install the Virtual Desktop Agent To configure firewalls manually Installing the Citrix Desktop Receiver Upgrading to XenDesktop To upgrade Desktop Delivery Controller To upgrade the Virtual Desktop Agent Upgrading to a Different Edition of XenDesktop Removing XenDesktop To remove the Virtual Desktop Agent Removing Desktop Delivery Controller Components To remove the XenDesktop Setup Wizard
5 Contents 5 6 Preparing and Provisioning Desktops Overview To create a base desktop VM To create a vdisk To add the base desktop VM to the Provisioning Server database To install a target device for the x86 Platform on the base desktop VM To image the base desktop VM to the Provisioning Server vdisk To set the vdisk access mode To create a Provisioning Server VM template Creating and Updating Desktop Groups Overview To create a VM-based pooled desktop group using the XenDesktop Setup Wizard To enable logging on the XenDesktop Setup Wizard To enable Pool Management logging To create a VM-based desktop group using the Access Management Console Using More than One XenServer Pool To create multiple pools To create a PC- or blade-based desktop group Configuring Advanced Settings for Desktop Groups Configuring Access Control Setting Up an Idle Pool Configuring Logoff Behavior Specifying Client Options Importing and Exporting Desktop and User Assignment Data To export data to a file To import data from a file Updating Desktop Groups To update a desktop group To configure user-driven desktop restart To delete a desktop group Customizing Your Desktop Delivery Controller Environment Overview Creating Administrators Delegating Active Directory Access Control Delegating Desktop Delivery Controller Administration Tasks
6 6 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide Configuring USB Support To configure USB support Support for USB Mass Storage Devices Optimizing the User Experience Configuring Time Zone Settings Configuring Connection Timers Disabling RDP Removing the Shut Down Command Managing Your Desktop Delivery Controller Deployment Overview Putting Desktops into Maintenance Mode To put a desktop into maintenance mode Managing Sessions To view sessions for a desktop group To view all sessions for a particular user To disconnect or log off a session To send a message to users Manually Controlling Virtual Machines To start virtual machines To shut down and restart virtual machines Migrating Controllers to Other Farms To migrate a controller to another farm Migrating Desktops to Other Farms Updating License Server Settings To specify a license server for the farm To specify a license server for an individual controller Using XenApp for Virtual Desktops Why Use XenApp with XenDesktop? Application Streaming Versus Hosting Before Installing XenApp in a XenDesktop Environment Server Considerations Management Console Considerations Installing XenApp from the Product Media Licensing Considerations
7 Contents 7 Optimizing Application Delivery Installing the XenApp Plugins Setting up Pass-through Authentication Mapping Network Drives Using a Policy Pre-caching Streamed Applications Smart Card Support User Profile Manager Considerations Command-Line Tools Installing and Removing Controllers Using Setup.exe Examples Installing and Removing the Virtual Desktop Agent Using XdsAgent.msi Configuring Active Directory Using ADSetup Index
8 8 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide
9 1 Introduction This section describes how to use this document and provides details of the other sources of information about Citrix XenDesktop. How to Use This Document The Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide is for system administrators responsible for installing, configuring, and maintaining XenDesktop. It is part of the Citrix XenDesktop documentation set; you can download documentation for XenDesktop and its components from This document assumes knowledge of basic Windows server administration, and knowledge of Active Directory. You can find useful references to Active Directory documentation at technologies/directory/activedirectory/default.mspx/. Some of the procedures you follow to administer XenDesktop are the same as those used to administer Citrix XenApp. Most of these procedures are not repeated in this document; instead, cross-references are made to the Citrix Presentation Server 4.5 document set, which you can download from support.citrix.com/. You must refer to this version of the XenApp documentation, rather than later versions, because the functionality in later versions may not correspond to XenDesktop functionality. Finding More Information More information about using XenDesktop is available from the sources listed below. You can download all the documents from product/xd/v3.0/#tab-doc/. For information on the new features and enhancements in this release, details of the contents of each edition, and a general overview of XenDesktop, see the Citrix XenDesktop Overview.
10 10 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide The Citrix XenDesktop Readme contains information about last-minute updates and any known issues. Citrix advises you to read this document before installing the product. For step-by-step instructions on how to set up a sample pilot deployment, see the Citrix XenDesktop Evaluator s Guide. For details of the system requirements (hardware and software) for XenDesktop, see Citrix XenDesktop System Requirements. For information about installing and using the Citrix Desktop Receiver (the Windows 32 client software supplied with XenDesktop), see the Citrix Desktop Receiver Administrator s Guide. For information about installing and using Citrix User Profile Manager, see Using Citrix User Profile Manager with XenDesktop. A document is available for each third-party hosting infrastructure plug-in supported by XenDesktop. Getting Support and Training The Citrix Knowledge Center (http://support.citrix.com/) offers a variety of technical support services, tools, and developer resources. Information about Citrix training is available at To get additional support for XenDesktop, visit the XenDesktop Support forum at This forum contains upto-date information for Citrix customers and partners. Note that on Citrix forums, you can set up a forum watch to receive updates about the latest postings.
11 2 Planning Your Deployment Before you install the various components of XenDesktop you need to plan your deployment to ensure that it meets all your organization s needs. This section provides information about: New features in this release and where to find information about how to configure them Planning your farm Using Active Directory with Desktop Delivery Controller Using the Web Interface with Desktop Delivery Controller Security planning Upgrading from previous versions of XenDesktop New Features in this Release Planning Your Farm The Citrix XenDesktop Overview contains a complete list of new features at this release. The following are new features that require configuration and that are described in this guide: Feature Described in... Smart card authentication Using Smart Cards with XenDesktop on page 37 User-driven desktop restart To configure user-driven desktop restart on page 92 USB support Configuring USB Support on page 95 XenDesktop allows you to grow your deployment at the rate that best suits your organization. You can start with a simple default configuration that provides you with a working deployment on a minimum number of computers. You can then add further controllers and components to the farm as necessary.
12 12 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide The essential elements you need to have in place for a working XenDesktop farm are: A server to host: The main delivery controller component. Citrix Licensing. By default, this is installed when you install Desktop Delivery Controller, but you can choose to use a separate server for licensing. For further information on licensing, see Licensing on page 46. A farm data store. This is where persistent information about the farm, such as configuration information and administrator account information, is stored. By default, a database for this is created locally when you create your server farm, but you can choose to use a database on a separate server. For further information on farm data stores, see Creating the Farm Data Store on page 47. Management consoles to enable you to create desktop groups and manage your deployment. These are installed by default on servers on which you install Desktop Delivery Controller, and you can also install them on separate computers if you want to manage your deployment remotely. You carry out most management tasks using the Access Management Console; the Presentation Server Console is used only for configuring printing and policies. A domain controller running Active Directory. Active Directory is required for XenDesktop, but you cannot install XenDesktop on a domain controller. For more information on using Active Directory, see Using Active Directory with Desktop Delivery Controller on page 15. VMs or physical computers hosting the desktops you want to deliver to your users. You install the Virtual Desktop Agent on these machines to manage communications and broker connections. Endpoint devices running the Citrix Desktop Receiver to enable your users to access desktops.
13 2 Planning Your Deployment 13 An initial deployment might consist of the following: This figure shows a single controller configuration of XenDesktop. Note that this single controller configuration forms a single point of failure for administration and session brokering. You can distribute the components of your deployment among a greater number of servers, or to provide greater scalability and failover by increasing the number of controllers in your farm. You can install the management consoles on separate computers to enable you to manage your deployment remotely. A distributed deployment is also necessary for an infrastructure based on remote access through Access Gateway.
14 14 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide A more distributed deployment might consist of the following: This figure shows a distributed components configuration of XenDesktop. You can also use XenServer, which is provided with all editions of XenDesktop, for scalable and cost-effective hosting of desktops, as described in Preparing and Provisioning Desktops on page 67. The Advanced, Enterprise, and Platinum editions of XenDesktop provide further components to enhance your deployment: Provisioning Server enables you to stream a single desktop image to create multiple virtual desktops on one or more servers in a data center, and then to manage images on an ongoing basis. This greatly reduces the amount of storage required compared to other methods of creating virtual desktops. For information on using Provisioning Server, see Preparing and Provisioning Desktops on page 67.
15 2 Planning Your Deployment 15 You can use XenApp for Virtual Desktops to deliver applications to your users either by streaming them to virtual desktops or hosting them on a XenApp server. For information on using XenApp for Virtual Desktops, see Using XenApp for Virtual Desktops on page 111. Ensure that your users get a consistent experience every time they log on by managing user personalization settings with Citrix User Profile Manager. For information on using Citrix User Profile Manager with XenDesktop, see Using Citrix User Profile Manager with XenDesktop. Information on using Citrix Access Gateway, Edgesight for Endpoints, WANScaler, GoToAssist, and EasyCall is provided in their own productspecific documentation, which you can download from Using Active Directory with Desktop Delivery Controller Desktop Delivery Controller uses the services provided by Active Directory. It requires that all computers in a farm are members of the same domain, or of mutually trusting domains in a single Active Directory forest. It is important to understand how Desktop Delivery Controller uses Active Directory to appreciate the implications for your Active Directory environment. Desktop Delivery Controller uses Active Directory for two main purposes: Active Directory s inbuilt security infrastructure is used by desktops to check that incoming communications from controllers come from authorized controllers in the appropriate farm. Active Directory s security infrastructure also ensures that the data exchanged by desktops and controllers is confidential. Desktop Delivery Controller uses Active Directory's inbuilt Kerberos infrastructure to guarantee the authenticity and confidentiality of communication. For more information about Kerberos, refer to Microsoft s product documentation. Active Directory is used by desktops to discover the controllers that constitute a farm. This means you can add a new controller to a farm without having to reconfigure all desktops in the farm. Instead, desktops determine which controllers are available by referring to information that controllers publish in Active Directory.
16 16 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide When you create a farm, a corresponding Organizational Unit (OU) must be created in Active Directory. The OU can be created in any domain in the forest that contains your computers. As best practice the OU should also contain the delivery controllers in the farm, but this is not enforced or required. A domain administrator with appropriate privileges can create the OU as an empty container. This administrator can then delegate administrative authority over the OU to the Desktop Delivery Controller administrator. If, however, the installing administrator has CreateChild permissions on a parent OU, this administrator can create the farm OU through the Active Directory Configuration wizard during installation. You can use the standard Active Directory Users and Computers MMC snap-in to configure these permissions. For further information about how to create the OU, see Configuring Active Directory on page 50. During the Desktop Delivery Controller installation process, a small number of objects that are essential for the operation of the farm are created in the OU. Note: Only standard Active Directory objects are created and used by Desktop Delivery Controller. It is not necessary to extend the schema. The set of objects created includes: A Controllers security group. The computer account of all controllers in the farm must be a member of this security group. By default, this is done as part of installing Desktop Delivery Controller on a server. Desktops in a farm accept data from controllers only if they are members of this security group. Ensure that all controllers have the Access this computer from the network privilege on all virtual desktops running the Virtual Desktop Agent. You can do this by giving the Controllers security group this privilege. If controllers do not have this privilege, virtual desktops will fail to register. A Service Connection Point (SCP) object that contains meta-information about the farm, such as the farm s name. Note: If you use the Active Directory Users and Computers administrative tool to inspect a farm OU, you may have to enable Advanced Features in the View menu to see SCP objects. A container called RegistrationServices, which is created within the farm s OU. This contains one SCP object for each controller in the farm. The SCP is created when Desktop Delivery Controller is installed on a server. Each
17 2 Planning Your Deployment 17 time the controller starts, it validates the contents of its SCP and updates them if necessary. If multiple administrators are likely to add and remove controllers after the initial installation is complete, they need permissions to create and delete children on the RegistrationServices container and Write properties on the Controllers security group. (These permissions are granted automatically to the administrator who installs the farm.) Either the domain administrator or the original installing administrator can grant these permissions, and Citrix recommends setting up a security group to do this. The following points are important to bear in mind when you are using Desktop Delivery Controller: Information is written to Active Directory only when installing or uninstalling Desktop Delivery Controller, or when a controller starts and needs to update the information in its SCP (for example, because the controller was renamed or because the communication port was changed). By default, the installation routine sets up permissions on the objects in the farm s OU appropriately, giving controllers Write access to their SCP. The contents of the objects in the farm OU are used to establish trust between desktops and controllers. You should ensure that: Only authorized Desktop Delivery Controller administrators can add or remove computers from the Controllers security group, using the security group s access control list (ACL) Only authorized administrators and the respective controller can change the information in the controller s SCP Depending on your Active Directory infrastructure, you should be aware of replication and its impact on a Desktop Delivery Controller implementation. Refer to Microsoft s documentation to understand the concepts of replication and associated delays. This is particularly important if you create the farm s OU in a domain that has domain controllers located in multiple Active Directory sites. Depending on the location of desktops, delivery controllers, and domain controllers, changes that are made to Active Directory when you are initially creating the OU for the farm, installing or uninstalling controllers, or changing controller names or communication ports may not be visible to desktops until that information is replicated to the appropriate domain controller. The symptoms of such replication delay include desktops that cannot establish contact with controllers and are, therefore, not available for user connections. Desktop Delivery Controller uses some of the standard computer object attributes in Active Directory to manage desktops. Depending on your setup, the machine object s fully qualified domain name, as stored in the desktop s Active Directory record, can be included as part of the connection
18 18 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide settings that are returned to the user to make a connection. It is, therefore, important to ensure that this information is consistent with information held in your DNS environment. Using the Web Interface with Desktop Delivery Controller Three Web sites are installed on all servers on which you install Desktop Delivery Controller. These sites are provided through the Citrix Web Interface, which is also installed automatically. This topic provides details about the additional options you have in relation to the Web Interface and the default Web sites. To make best use of the information provided here, you should be familiar with the Web Interface and have access to the Web Interface documentation. The default sites are typically created in the following locations when the Web Interface is installed: The desktop appliance connector site, for XenDesktop-ready desktop appliances, is: \Inetpub\wwwroot\Citrix\DesktopAppliance The XenDesktop Services site, for full-screen-only use with domain-joined Windows XP and XPe appliances, is: \Inetpub\wwwroot\Citrix\PNAgent The XenDesktop Web site, for window view mode users who need to be able to access multiple desktops or to access desktops from a browser, is: \Inetpub\wwwroot\Citrix\DesktopWeb This is the default site that users are presented with if they browse just to the controller address. To modify the desktop appliance connector site, you must edit the configuration files as described in the Web Interface Administrator s Guide. The other default sites are standard Web Interface sites and you can modify them through the Access Management Console Web Interface extension. This extension is not installed as part of a XenDesktop installation. It is provided on the Desktop Delivery Controller installation media for you to install manually if necessary. If you do not want to install the Web Interface and the default sites when you install XenDesktop, perhaps because you already have Web Interface set up in your environment, you must carry out the installation through the command line, using Setup.exe with the -nosites option, as described in Installing and Removing Controllers Using Setup.exe on page 119.
19 2 Planning Your Deployment 19 Security Planning For remote access through Access Gateway, you need to create a new Web Interface site. To do this, you must install the Web Interface and the Access Management Console Web Interface extension. Both are available on the Desktop Delivery Controller installation media: The Web Interface is at: \Web Interface\WebInterface.exe The Web Interface Access Management Console extension is at: \Administration\Access Management Console\ Setup\ ASC_WebInterface.msi For information about installing the Web Interface and creating sites, see the Web Interface Administrator s Guide. To modify the user interface of the site to refer to desktops rather than applications, edit the configuration files as described in the Web Interface Administrator s Guide. This topic describes: General security best practices when using XenDesktop, and any securityrelated differences between XenDesktop and a conventional computer environment Managing user privileges Deployment scenarios and their security implications Your organization may need to meet specific security standards to satisfy regulatory requirements. This document does not cover this subject, because such security standards change over time. For up-to-date information on security standards and Citrix products, consult https://www.citrix.com/security/, or contact your Citrix representative. Note: Citrix Secure Gateway is not a component of Citrix XenDesktop. However, Citrix XenDesktop supports delivering desktops within a deployment that includes Secure Gateway.
20 20 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide Security Best Practices Keep all computers in your environment up to date with security patches. One advantage of XenDesktop is that you can use desktop appliances as terminals, which simplifies this task. Protect all computers in your environment with antivirus software. Protect all computers in your environment with perimeter firewalls, including at enclave boundaries as appropriate. If you are migrating a conventional environment to XenDesktop, you may need to reposition an existing perimeter firewall or add new perimeter firewalls. For example, suppose there is a perimeter firewall between a conventional client and database server in the data center. When XenDesktop is used, that perimeter firewall must instead be placed so that the desktop and endpoint device are on one side of it, and the database servers and delivery controllers in the data center are on the other side. You should, therefore, consider creating an enclave within your data center to contain the servers and controllers used by XenDesktop. All computers in your environment should be protected by a personal firewall on the computer. When the Virtual Desktop Agent is installed, it prompts for consent to adjust the configuration of the Microsoft Windows Firewall to add any necessary program exceptions or port exceptions so that the Virtual Desktop Agent will operate correctly. These exceptions are displayed by Windows Firewall in the usual way. The exceptions are removed if the Virtual Desktop Agent is uninstalled. If you are using a personal firewall other than Windows Firewall, you must adjust the firewall configuration manually. For further details about configuring firewalls, see To configure firewalls manually on page 60. Note: TCP ports 1494 and 2598 are used for ICA and CGP and are therefore likely to be open at firewalls so that users outside the data center can access them. Citrix recommends that you do not use these ports for anything else, to avoid the possibility of inadvertently leaving administrative interfaces open to attack. Ports 1494 and 2598 are officially registered with the Internet Assigned Number Authority (see All network communications should be appropriately secured and encrypted as appropriate to match your security policy. You can secure all communication between Microsoft Windows computers using IPSec; refer to your operating system documentation for details about how to do this. In addition, communication between endpoint devices and desktops is secured through Citrix SecureICA, which is configured by default to 128-bit encryption. You can configure SecureICA when you are creating or updating a desktop group; see Creating and Updating Desktop Groups on page 75. For further information on SecureICA settings, see the Citrix Presentation Server Administrator s Guide.
21 2 Planning Your Deployment 21 Managing User Privileges You should grant users only the capabilities they require. Microsoft Windows privileges continue to be applied to desktops in the usual way: configure privileges through User Rights Assignment and group memberships through Group Policy. One advantage of XenDesktop is that it is possible to grant a user administrative rights to a desktop without also granting physical control over the computer on which the desktop is stored. When planning for desktop privileges, note: By default, when nonprivileged users connect to a desktop, they see the time zone of the system running the desktop instead of the time zone of their own endpoint device. For information on how to allow users to see their local time when using desktops, see Configuring Time Zone Settings on page 98. A user who is an administrator on a desktop has full control over that desktop. If a desktop is a pooled desktop rather than an assigned desktop, the user must be trusted in respect of all other users of that desktop, including future users. All users of the desktop need to be aware of the potential permanent risk to their data security posed by this situation. This is equivalent to the security of an ordinary computer: the users of a computer must trust the administrators of that computer. This consideration does not apply to assigned desktops, which have only a single user; that user should not be an administrator on any other desktop. Note: For information about how to use standard Windows procedures to grant users administrative privileges only over the desktop to which they are connected, see A user who is an administrator on a desktop can generally install software on that desktop, including potentially malicious software. The user can also potentially monitor or control traffic on any network connected to the desktop. Again, this is equivalent to the security of an ordinary computer.
22 22 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide Deployment Scenarios Your user environment can consist of either endpoint devices that are unmanaged by your organization and completely under the control of the user, or of endpoints that are managed and administered by your organization. The security considerations for these two environments are generally different. Managed Endpoint Devices Managed endpoint devices are under administrative control; they are either under your own control, or the control of another organization that you trust. You may configure and supply endpoints directly to users; alternatively, you may provide terminals on which a single desktop runs in full-screen-only mode (XenDesktopready desktop appliances). You should follow the guidelines described in Security Best Practices on page 20 for all managed endpoints. XenDesktop has the advantage that minimal software is required on an endpoint. A managed endpoint device can be set up to be used in full-screen-only mode or in window mode: If an endpoint is configured to be used in full-screen-only mode, users log on to it with the usual Log On To Windows screen. The same user credentials are then used to log on automatically to XenDesktop. If an endpoint is configured so that users see their desktop in a window, users first log on to the endpoint, then log on to XenDesktop through the XenDesktop Web site supplied with XenDesktop. Unmanaged Endpoint Devices Endpoint devices that are not managed and administered by a trusted organization cannot be assumed to be under administrative control. For example, you might permit users to obtain and configure their own endpoints, but users might not follow the general security best practices described above. XenDesktop has the advantage that it is possible to deliver desktops securely to unmanaged endpoints. These endpoints should still have basic antivirus protection that will defeat keylogger and similar input attacks. Pooled or Assigned Desktops When using XenDesktop, you can prevent users from storing data on endpoint devices that are under their physical control. However, you must still consider the implications of users storing data on desktops. It is not good practice for users to store data on desktops; data should be held on file servers, database servers, or other repositories where it can be appropriately protected. Your desktop environment may consist of pooled desktops or assigned desktops: Users should never store data on pooled desktops.
23 2 Planning Your Deployment 23 If users store data on an assigned desktop, that data should be removed if the desktop is later made available to other users. Further advice about this is provided in To update a desktop group on page 90. Upgrading from Previous Versions of XenDesktop You can upgrade from XenDesktop 2.0 or XenDesktop 2.1 to XenDesktop 3.0. For instructions on how to do this, see Upgrading to XenDesktop 3.0 on page 61. You cannot upgrade servers running earlier versions of XenDesktop, Desktop Delivery Controller, or Desktop Server. You must uninstall the old version, then install Version 3.0. Citrix does not support mixed farms of servers running more than one version of XenDesktop. The only exception to this is that support is provided for the period during which you are upgrading a farm from one version to another. You cannot upgrade from XenApp to XenDesktop. After you have installed XenDesktop 3.0 you can import data from earlier versions of XenDesktop and from Desktop Server 1.0. For information about importing and exporting data, see Importing and Exporting Desktop and User Assignment Data on page 87.
24 24 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide
25 3 Planning the User Experience This section describes how users experience connecting to virtual desktops and the factors that can affect this experience. Administrators should examine each factor while planning their deployment. Read this section in conjunction with the Citrix Desktop Receiver Administrator s Guide, which contains full instructions for installing, configuring, and using the Desktop Receiver to connect to virtual desktops. This section includes information about: The characteristics of your environment that affect the user experience A set of typical connection scenarios covering most deployments Your Environment This topic describes the user types supported by XenDesktop deployments and aspects of your network that you should consider while planning. Both sets of characteristics directly affect your configuration decisions and the user experience when connecting to virtual desktops. User Types How users need to access and interact with virtual desktops is an important consideration. For the purposes of desktop access and interaction, there are two key user types: Task workers. These users need access to a single, conventional virtual desktop to connect to standardized resources with which they perform repetitive tasks. For example, these users may be call-center workers, branch workers, or other task-based staff. Knowledge workers. These users need access to one or more personalized virtual desktops with the control to perform non-repetitive, complex tasks. For example, these users may be office workers, software developers, or traders.
26 26 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide Task workers require a user experience that mimics as closely as possible the familiar interaction with a local desktop and a minimum of new concepts that they must learn before they access their resources. Virtual desktops presented in full-screen-only mode are ideal for task workers. In full-screen-only-mode, the virtual desktop effectively replaces the local desktop, allowing the user to interact with the virtual desktop as if it is their local desktop. Full-screen-only mode is also useful for knowledge workers who need access to just one virtual desktop. If knowledge workers require access to more than one virtual desktop, or need to be able to switch between their virtual and local desktops, presenting those desktops in separate windows is a better alternative. Network Environment The endpoint features available across all supported environments are broadly similar. For example, full-screen-only desktops are available from endpoints running Windows or Linux; virtual desktops running in separate windows can be used through a local area network (LAN) or remotely; and these features can be used on a variety of hardware. However, your hardware and software environment affects the details of how users connect to desktops created with Desktop Delivery Controller. Factors that you may want to consider include: Endpoint hardware. Does your organization use XenDesktop-ready desktop appliances, thin clients, or more powerful endpoint devices? Operating system.which of the supported operating systems do your endpoints run? Browser availability. Will users have access to a browser? Endpoint location. Is the endpoint domain-joined? Is the user local or remote? The following table summarizes a variety of network environments as a set of scenarios. For each, the recommended user experience and access point used to achieve it are given. The recommended access points are Web sites that are created when you install Desktop Delivery Controller. Note that the recommended access points do not apply to environments where users log on using smart cards. For more details, see Using Smart Cards with XenDesktop on page 37.
27 3 Planning the User Experience 27 Scenario Typical Endpoint Configurations Endpoint Location Recommended User Experience Recommended Access Point Use if A Appliances and other nondomain-joined endpoints running Windows XP Embedded, Windows CE, or Linux On a LAN Full-screen-only mode Desktop appliance connector Your existing hardware does not support Windows operating systems or you have existing endpoint devices which you do not want to include in your domain. B Domain-joined Windows XP Embedded or repurposed Windows XP Professional endpoints On a LAN Full-screen-only mode XenDesktop Services site You have existing hardware that can be re-purposed to support connections to virtual desktops or you want to manage endpoint devices using Active Directory Group Policy. C All supported Windows operating systems with a Web browser; Mac OS X On a LAN Citrix Desktop Receiver window and toolbar XenDesktop Web site Users in your environment require access to more than one virtual desktop. D All supported Windows operating systems with a Web browser; Mac OS X Remote through Access Gateway Citrix Desktop Receiver window and toolbar XenDesktop Web site Users in your environment require access to more than one virtual desktop. Note that the Citrix Desktop Receiver window and toolbar are not available on endpoints running Mac OS X. Users connecting to multiple virtual desktops from endpoints running Mac OS X can use Spaces to display those desktops. Each virtual desktop is displayed in a separate space and users switch between those desktops using the Dock. Users can also use Spaces to switch between a virtual desktop and the local desktop. Desktop Connection Scenarios This topic contains a set of typical scenarios designed to help you understand how users interact with virtual desktops in a number of environments. The end-to-end experience of connecting to, using, and logging off from a virtual desktop is described. In each case, the following prerequisites apply:
28 28 Citrix XenDesktop Administrator s Guide The appropriate client software must be installed on the endpoint (except for scenarios involving XenDesktop Web sites, which can prompt the user to download the software when it is needed) Virtual desktop groups must be created correctly, using the instructions in Creating and Updating Desktop Groups on page 75 Note that the scenarios do not contain information about logging on using smart cards. For more details, see Using Smart Cards with XenDesktop on page 37. Scenario A: Connecting from an Appliance This scenario is suited to task workers and knowledge workers who require access to a single virtual desktop. The desktop is presented to users in full-screenonly mode. Typical hardware for this scenario includes XenDesktop-ready desktop appliances and non-domain-joined computers. XenDesktop-ready desktop appliances are devices that, while having limited functionality compared to computers with a full operating system and set of applications, are preinstalled with software designed for accessing virtual desktops created with XenDesktop. XenDesktop-ready desktop appliances run on Windows XP Embedded, Windows CE, and Linux. For more information about administering these desktop appliances, consult the manufacturer s documentation. For more general information about XenDesktopready desktop appliances, see The user experience in this scenario is as follows. Depending on the appliance manufacturer and any customization that is performed, the screen appearance may vary: 1. The user turns on their local appliance and a connection is established to a desktop appliance connector (or a load-balanced address) on a server running Desktop Delivery Controller. 2. After the startup sequence on the appliance is complete, a Please Wait screen appears while a customized shell loads. 3. The Welcome screen appears.
29 3 Planning the User Experience 29 This figure shows the logon screen for a full-screen-only desktop accessed from a XenDesktop-ready desktop appliance running Windows. 4. The user enters their credentials and logs on. Any errors (for example, if an incorrect password is entered) appear at the bottom of the logon screen. 5. A Please Wait screen appears while the virtual desktop starts and a connection to it is established. The system keeps the user informed of connection progress at each stage. 6. If the desktop is taking a long time to appear, the user can restart it by clicking the Restart button on the Please Wait screen. The desktop restarts automatically. Note that the Restart button is available only if the administrator has enabled user-driven desktop restart when creating the desktop group. 7. When the virtual desktop becomes available, it appears as a local one because it is not displayed in a window but instead it automatically fits to the size of the local monitor. This is the virtual desktop in full-screen-only mode. The user can create and save work normally on the virtual desktop, use the mouse and keyboard in the usual way, and access network resources and most types of external device. Almost all input is directed to the virtual desktop. The user never interacts directly with the local desktop except for a few reserved key combinations (which may vary between operating systems). For more information about these key combinations in Windows environments, see the Citrix Desktop Receiver Administrator s Guide. If USB support is enabled, when a user plugs in a USB device it is automatically remoted to the virtual desktop. The virtual desktop is responsible for controlling the USB device and displaying it in the user
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