Functional Area Systems Lecture 5

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1 ACS-1803 Introduction to Information Systems Instructor: David Tenjo Functional Area Systems Lecture ACCOUNTING TRANSACTION SYSTEMS 2 1

2 Business Transaction Cycles 3 Business Transaction Cycles Transaction cycle: An interlocking set of business transactions. Most business transactions can be aggregated into a set of transaction cycles related to the sale of goods, payments to suppliers, payments to employees, and payments to lenders. Sales Cycle Purchasing Cycle Payroll Cycle Financing Cycle 4 2

3 Baseline Accounting and Business Transaction Cycles 5 Accounting process for a Customer / Sales Transaction Example of the baseline accounting process for a customer / sales transaction within a company: Company with an ecommerce website Customer places an online order The order is processed The order shipment is confirmed the company s warehouse which fulfils the order, ships the product and notifies Accounting Accounting Generates the invoice and sends it to the customer How is the accounting / sales system designed in order to manage this business process? 6 3

4 Sales Transaction Cycle 7 2. FINANCE INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8 4

5 Finance Information Systems Finance Area: Acquires and manages cash for a business Acquire trough shares or loans Invest Cash wisely Company must maintain liquidity Need to analyze considerable financial information 9 Finance Information Systems 10 5

6 Tactical Systems in Finance Budgeting Systems Plan Revenues and expenses line-by-line Can summarize in various ways Can compare this year s budget to last year s Can compare actual expenses vs. budgeted (Get actual results from General Ledger System Variance analysis Spreadsheet-type systems useful for budgeting (use of formulas) Can use previous budget as basis for next year, 5 years, 10 years How is such system tactical? 11 Tactical Systems in Finance Cash Management Systems Ensure that the business has sufficient cash to meet its needs Day-to-day operations For acquisition of long-term assets Important output is the Cash Flow Report Can forecast cash flows of a period of time Flow = total cash receipts - total cash payments 12 6

7 Tactical Systems in Finance Capital Budgeting Systems Provide help with planning acquisition (disposal) of major plant assets that will be used by the business during many years Provide outgoing and incoming cash for the life of the asset Use assumptions Consider the time value of money (net present value) E.g. Can help decide whether to lease or buy a new printer 13 Tactical Systems in Finance Investment Management Systems Oversee organization s investment in stocks, bonds, and other securities Online databases provide immediate updates for stick and bond prices Value screen inputs the current price of each stock and calculates the gain or loss the company s investment portfolio would generate if sold now 14 7

8 Strategic Systems in Finance Support very high-level managers Strategic systems relate to organizational goals Often, such systems use internal data (which may have originated in organizational AIS) and external data (eg. From online databases that contain economic, social, demographic, etc., info) 15 Strategic Systems in Finance Financial Condition Analysis Systems Provide insightful analysis of financial statements and data (e.g. Debt:equity ratio, current ratio) Online databases can allow for financial analysis of competitors, suppliers, buyers and other organizations 16 8

9 Strategic Systems in Finance Long Range Forecasting Systems May use both internal and external data Apply statistical techniques Heavy use of graphics Analyze trends Corporate Planning Systems Use data from past, like forecasting systems More elaborate. It contains simulation models for various aspects of business Models must have valid assumptions 17 HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEMS 18 9

10 Operational Systems in HR Historically, payroll was the first But, we consider it to be part of the AIS Related to expenditure cycle Employee information systems Maintain information on every employee for various reporting purposes Employee profile: basic personal data, education, previous experience, employment history in org., preferred location for work. 19 Operational Systems in HR Employee Information System May contain skills inventory component Employee s work experience, work preferences, test scores, interests, special skills How could this be used Attendance recording systems May use negative reporting (only when absent) Include overtime credits etc

11 Operational Systems in HR Performance management systems: Collect and store textual data e.g., written comments of supervisor Need careful documentation of employee performance and how performance was measured (e.g., for grievance hearings) May have tactical components Which supervisors give high number of poor evals. Which labour sources provide unacceptable workers 21 Tactical Systems in HR Position control systems Keep data on each job position in the org. E.g. task content Can be useful for job redesign Which job positions require data entry? Which require statistical analysis Recruiting systems Provide list of planned retirements List skills, preferences of current employees Analyze turnover rates among various classes of employees 22 11

12 Tactical Systems in HR Compensation and benefit systems cafeteria style benefits for employees to choose from Considerable data storage here Tactical: how much to increase compensation plans to attract high quality employees What kind of benefits are different categories of employees choosing? May be available on organizational intranet 23 Strategic Systems in HR Labour negotiation support systems Must be timely and have ad hoc capacity Assist in bargaining sessions with unions Keep track of: Negotiating teams Information about previous negotiations Bargaining items Bargaining stages Long-term workforce planning What are the HR needs to meet organization s strategic plan for next 5-10 years? Forecasting supply and demand of required workforce 24 12

13 25 HRMS Software Characteristics HR systems store much more textual data than other functional systems There are specific HR systems for sale (OTS) Use of HRMS is not as widespread in small to medium businesses Security is of great concern 26 13

14 MARKETING AND SALES 27 The Marketing Function Process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, sales and distribution of ideas, goods and / or services to create exchanges that satisfy individual (customer) and organizational (business ) goals. Ideal marketing systems must be coordinated with other organizational systems: Order Entry Manufacturing Inventory Credit management 28 14

15 Operational Systems in Marketing Customer contact management systems Provide information on past contacts with specific customers Output: call report: No. of sales calls made by a salesperson No. and dollar amount of sales made by this person 29 Operational Systems in Marketing Sales Process/Activity Management Include a sequence of sales activities Guide sales reps through each discrete step in the sales process Sales process Opportunity Opportunity Generated Generated Lead allocated Prospect contacted Prospect qualified Solution identified Order placed Sales activity 30 15

16 Operational Systems in Marketing Customer contact management systems Provide information on past contacts with specific customers Output: call report: Number of sales calls made by a salesperson Number and dollar amount of sales made by this person 31 Operational Systems in Marketing Telemarketing systems Identify customers and automatically call them Use electronic phone directories Can make notes about calls In a LAN-based system, 200 telemarketers can use the same system at the same time Direct mail advertising systems Create mailing labels Delivery tracking and routing systems Help plan optimal delivery routes 32 16

17 Tactical Systems in Marketing Objective of tactical marketing managers: To reach the sales goals set by top marketing executives They must make tactical decisions such as: How sales territories should be shaped How to allocate salespersons to territories What products should be offered to what customers Sales management systems help here 33 Strategic Systems in Marketing May contain both strategic and tactical elements Sales forecasting systems Forecast sales for entire industry For entire organization For each product For market segments for a product Employ sophisticated statistical models and may produce considerable graphic output Market research systems Process results of surveys and interviews Provide analyses of statistical significance Use considerable data from outside the company 34 17

18 CRM Highly Related to Marketing Using data on previous contacts with a specific customer to enhance future contacts with that customer Enables customization of products / services Will be covered later 35 PRODUCTION / OPERATION SYSTEMS 36 18

19 Computers in Manufacturing As there are different types of inventories in a manufacturing organization: Raw materials inventories Work-in-process inventory Finished goods inventory There are systems that keep track of quantities, costs, (an other aspects) 37 Manufacturing Resource Planning Master production schedule (tactical) Materials Resource Planning (MRP) (tactical / operational) Capacity Requirements planning (tactical / operational) Shop floor control (operational / tactical) Quality control (operational / tactical) Cost allocation (material, labour, overhead) to finished goods This is a comprehensive, integrated way of managing manufacturing 38 19

20 Manufacturing Resource Planning 39 Bill of Materials A list of raw materials needed to produce one unit of finished product and the quantity of each material 40 20

21 Materials Requirements Planning Process that uses BOMs, raw material and work-in-process (RM/WIP) inventory status data, open order data, and the MPS to calculate a time-phased order requirements schedule. With Materials Planning & Scheduling (MPS) and Bill of Materials (BOM), a system can produce time-phased purchase orders for raw materials (main output of MRP) 41 Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) Uses info from the MPS and time-phased order requirements schedule to develop detailed machine and labor schedules that consider the feasibility of production schedules based on available Capacity Route Sheet shows sequence of required operations and the standard time allowed for each operation (usually person + machine) How much machine time and worker time do we have? May need to rent more floor space and / or machines May need to hire temp workers CRP generates a detailed production schedule It releases manufacturing orders to the production floor 42 21

22 Production Planning and Control Raw materials acquisition (when, how much) Machine and worker requirements Detailed production schedules Gathering evaluation statistics Sensors, scanners, shop floor terminals Quality control Comparing performance data to plans Cost accounting for manufactured goods goods 43 MRP Strategic Planning Inventory levels Supply Capacity Amounts to be produced Staffing levels (MRP) Evolution to MRP2 Tactical Planning Capacity Requirements Planning Quality control Shop floor control Operational Planning 44 22

23 Operational & Tactical Systems Master Production Scheduling system Material requirements planning system Capacity requirements planning system Detailed Production Schedule Shop floor control (comp. to schedule) Quality control (comp. to quality standards) Inventory Control Cost accounting Put together in MRP II (Mfg Resource Planning) Just-In-Time (JIT) Manufacturing Raw materials arrive just when they are needed on the production floor Minimizes inventory Requires complex information systems (operational) May have vendor managed inventory (supplier s computers tap into buyer s inv. systems) 46 23

24 JIT 47 JIT suppliers are gaining access to an organization s production planning schedules to assure an ability to fulfill orders producing organization is opening its systems to the customer to allow the customer to view inventory and production levels before placing orders 48 24

25 IT Considerations in Manufacturing Large databases designed for varied and quick retrieval Data capture in variety of ways (incl. sensors, measurement devices, scanning) Connectivity throughout production facilities Both operational and tactical (eg. Shop floor control) Integration with system outside mfg. 49 Evolution of MRP into ERP 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Inventory Management & Control Material Requirement Planning (MRP) Manufacturing Requirements Planning (MRP II) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) combination of information technology and business processes of maintaining the appropriate level of stock in a warehouse. Activities include identifying inventory requirements, setting targets, providing replenishment techniques and options, monitoring item usages, reconciling the inventory balances, and reporting inventory status. utilizes software for scheduling production processes. Generates schedules for the operations and raw material purchases based on the production requirements of finished goods, the structure of the production system, the current inventories levels and the lot sizing procedure for each operation. utilizes software for coordinating manufacturing processes, from product planning, parts purchasing, inventory control to product distribution. Uses multi-module software for improving the performance of the internal business processes. ERP systems often integrates business activities across functional departments, from product 50 planning, parts purchasing, inventory control, product distribution, fulfillment, to order tracking. ERP systems may include application modules for supporting marketing, finance, accounting and human resources. 25

26 51 MRP2 - Evolution to ERP MRP2 Evolved to 26

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