Is there a common currency for measuring consumer engagement? Is there any evidence that Television has more ability to engage than other media?

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1 Is there a common currency for measuring consumer engagement? Is there any evidence that Television has more ability to engage than other media? Have levels of engagement been quantified on TV and/or any other media? Can social media command the same type of engagement? Engagement is turning on a prospect to a brand idea enhanced by the surrounding context (ARF, 2006). Engagement is related to attention which is connected to the direction in which our conscious mind is being focused (Heath, 2009). Television advertising is very entertainment-oriented and creates emotion; therefore, engagement is higher in this medium whereas online advertising generates higher levels of attention. To make the most of a creative campaign, a brand should be exposed on TV (to achieve engagement) as well as online (to generate attention) (Cooper, 2010). Predominant methods to measure engagement include the surveying of consumers exposed to a campaign and consumers not exposed to a campaign online, site intercept studies that sample people in real time as they are using the Internet as well as sampling members of existing online panels (Cheong, Gregorio & Kim, 2010; Lavrakas, Mane & Laszlo, 2010). Additionally, the methods that have been used in the relevant studies in order to estimate media engagement by consumers were experimental approaches, including psychological measures such as Electroencephalography (EEG), eye fixation experiments and facial response, as well as more traditional advertising testing methodologies that continue to work with dial meters and verbal rating statements (Heath, 2009; World Advertising Research Center Limited, 2006). Furthermore, engagement is most often measured analyzing viewers answers to various questions about a particular attitude toward media (ranking attitudes towards brands and the likelihood of recommendation) as well as measuring involuntary responses such as brain-wave-activity and eye-tracking during media exposure (Marich, 2008). Studying brain waves, it was found that consumers feel much more involved in TV advertising and are more able to identify with the scenarios played out on the TV screen than online (Cooper, 2010). As attitudes can be changed without active conscious processing (therefore: implicit), the level of engagement a consumer has with advertising will be entirely dictated by the amount of feeling or emotion being used. Therefore, TV advertising can be highly effective when it communicates creative values and ideas through emotional content (Heath, 2009). However, TV advertising can get high attention, but not engage much feeling; or it can engage strong feelings but not get much attention (Heath, 2009). Marketers can only enhance media engagement through cross-channel integration, which is to leverage the convergence of different media. Consumers may find cross-channel integration of advertising useful since it provides them with more opportunities to process product or brand information and feel involved in the process. This means that featuring advertising messages in more than one medium might increase media and therefore also brand engagement (Wang & Calder, 2009). In conclusion, studies have positively linked television advertising engagement to the likelihood of purchasing products.

2 TV advertising generates a 30% higher engagement than other marketing methods because people are better able to immerse themselves in the campaign (Cooper, 2010) Online advertising generates higher levels of attention because it is a lean forward or active medium (Cooper, 2010) Television advertising receives far less attention than print advertising, even though it appears to be an excellent brand builder (Heath, 2009) Social engagement (watching TV with others) can mean higher overall engagement (World Advertising Research Center Limited, 2006) Multichannel context (TV, Online) engages consumers additionally (World Advertising Research Center Limited, 2006)

3 Related abstracts Does Anyone Really Know If Online Ad Campaigns Are Working? An Evaluation of Methods Used to Assess the Effectiveness of Advertising on the Internet Lavrakas, P; Mane, S and Laszlo, J. (2010). ""Does Anyone Really Know If Online Ad Campaigns Are Working?"?" Journal of Advertising Research 50(4): Given the growing importance of Internet advertising, in 2008, the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) commissioned an independent study of the predominant methodologies that are used to measure Internet advertising effectiveness (IAE). Those methodologies include the surveying of consumers exposed to a campaign and consumers not exposed to a campaign online, site intercept studies that sample people in real time as they are using the Internet as well as sampling members of existing online panels. Keep in mind how a human brain works Cooper, L. (2010). "Keep in mind how a human brain works." Marketing Week ( ) 33(29): With the growth of online channels, marketers are left to wonder which direction is most effective for their brand. A neuroscience study commissioned by the television marketing body Thinkbox reveals that TV advertising generates greater levels of engagement, whereas online advertising generated higher levels of attention. The study found that TV advertising generates a 30% higher engagement than other marketing methods because people are better able to immerse themselves in the campaign. Studying brain waves, the study found that consumers feel much more involved in TV advertising and are more able to identify with the scenarios played out on the TV screen than online. TV is very entertainment-oriented and creates emotion; therefore, engagement is higher. However, online advertising generates higher levels of attention because it is a lean forward or active medium. In order to make the most of a creative campaign, a brand should be exposed on TV (to achieve engagement) as well as online (to generate attention).

4 The Power of Reach and Frequency In the Age of Digital Advertising Offline and Online Media Demand Different Methods Cheong, Y; de Gregorio, F and, Kim, K. (2010). "The Power of Reach and Frequency In the Age of Digital Advertising." Journal of Advertising Research 50(4): A survey conducted of 104 US advertising-agency media directors found that traditional exposure-based criteria such as reach-and-frequency distribution remain important and often are used in evaluations of offline media schedules. However, for online media, a majority of agencies rely on qualitative assessments followed by cost-based criteria or Internet-specific measures. Overall, the study attempts to address the gap in understanding perceptions of current practices in media planning. In order to set the topic into the context, the authors defined effective frequency as the amount of exposures needed for an ad to become effective whereas the effective reach addresses the number of people who are exposed at that level. The results of the study showed, however, that media planners rely to a greater extent on qualitative, non-quantifiable, considerations such as instincts, experience, or the feel of a medium. More than a third of the sample believes that the reach-and-frequency models currently used are more than 11% off from reality. Regarding online measurements, media directors in this study evidenced clear preference for online-specific factors such as clickthrough-rates, number of page-views, ad impressions and unique visitors. However, overall, the proportion of respondents using reach and effective reach for offline media have increased since a study undertaken in Measuring and maximizing the value of online friending Webb, J. (2009). Measuring and maximizing the value of online friending. Admap, 44(3) 503, As the media landscape becomes increasingly fragmented, with billions of web pages, hundreds of TV channels, on-demand access to content and the ability to record, pause and fast-forward live television, the ways in which we can bypass traditional advertising continue to grow. Advertising has to be where consumers spend most of their time and, increasingly, this is on social networking sites. Many consumers choose it as their favourite way to spend their free time ( if you had 15minutes of free time > 17% social networking vs. 14% watch TV (n = 1081, 14-19yrs)). Social networking sites are more personal than TV or print and consumers are wary of having their space intruded upon by advertisers. Old-style, direct and broad-brush advertising has no place in such an individualized space, where relationships are on a more equal level and consumers expect to be engaged in a more targeted way.

5 Emotional Engagement: How Television Builds Big Brands At Low Attention Heath, R. (2009). "Emotional Engagement: How Television Builds Big Brands At Low Attention." Journal of Advertising Research 49(1): 62. The difficulty of defining engagement has been demonstrated by the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF) in a white paper in 2006, where 25 different opinions mark the possible meaning of the word. However, a working definition of engagement emerged where engagement is turning on a prospect to a brand idea enhanced by the surrounding context (ARF, 2006). Most commonly, engagement is further related to attention attention is connected to the direction in which our conscious mind is being focused. In this paper, the authors defined level of attention as the amount of conscious thinking directed at an advertisement at any particular time. The study found that attitudes can be changed without active conscious processing (therefore: implicit), the level of engagement a consumer has with advertising will be entirely dictated by the amount of feeling or emotion being used. Therefore, level of engagement was defined as the amount of subconscious feeling going on. Evaluating the relationship between attention and engagement, an eye fixation experiment was undertaken. The results implied that television advertising receives far less attention than print advertising, even though it appears to be an excellent brand builder. This means that although TV advertising engages viewers/consumers, it does not appear to get much attention. Concluding, TV advertising can be highly effective when it communicates creative values and ideas through emotional content. The problem remains: TV advertising can get high attention, but not engage much feeling; or it can engage strong feelings but not get much attention. Get the measure of social media response Gibbon, T. & Hawkes, R. (2009). Get the measure of social media response. Admap, 44(5) 505, As web 2.0 content gains media prominence, it is vital for brand to measure their impact online. With so many variables to consider, marketers should always remember that all digital activity can be measured and made accountable. The following are things that need to be looked for when measuring social media: - the breadth, depth and impact of conversation and dialogue - the sentiment whether it is indifferent, positive or negative - the quantitative and qualitative value of conversations, debate ad discussions, and what timescale they unfold in - ways to calculate the ROI, such as through social media audience growth, awareness, perception, sentiment, clickthroughs and sales

6 Emotional Engagement: how TV builds brands at low attention Heath, R. (2009). Emotional Engagement: how TV builds brands at low attention. Admap, 44(7), 507, The consumer love affair with TV and its advertising reached its peak some years ago. Research more than a decade ago showed 2/3s of viewers doing some other activity when watching television, up to 40% leaving the room when the ads break came on, and 70% playing ads fast-forward in previously recorded material; more recent research puts this last figure at 100%! As for engagement, in a 2006 ARF White Paper, Taddy Hall says that successful engagement begins with a conscious or, more likely, unconscious emotional response triggered by a piece of copy. The level of engagement a consumer has with advertising is going to be entirely dictated by the amount of feeling that goes on at that start of the process. Therefore, level of engagement should be defined as the amount of subconscious feeling going on. The level of attention on the other hand is defined as the amount of conscious thinking going on when an advertisement is processed. The best advertising is the one that receives attention as well as engage feelings. However, for this to be able to happen, advertising messages would have to genuinely new and interesting, which is, more often than not, not possible. Few brands have anything to say which is of real news to the consumer. However, any brand can produce unique and empathetic creativity, and the evidence is that it is this creativity that builds strong brand relationships. MTV study finds TV ads influence youth MTV study finds TV ads influence youth. Admap, 44(6) 506, 7. MTV has produced a study claiming TV is the best medium for reaching young people. The MTV Networks International (MTVNI) authors of the report, A Beta Life Youth, found 25% of year olds said their first exposure to brands came from seeing them on TV ads. Nearly two-thirds also claimed television ads influenced their purchasing decision.

7 Cross-channel integration of advertising: does personal involvement matter? Wang, J. and B. J. Calder (2009). "Media engagement and advertising: Transportation, matching, transference and intrusion." Journal of Consumer Psychology (Elsevier Science) 19(3): Marketers are eager to enhance the effectiveness of their advertising messages by enhancing consumers engagement. As consumers increasingly consume media on different platforms, marketers can only enhance media engagement through cross-channel integration, which is to leverage the convergence of different media. Additionally, personal involvement plays a role in enhancing consumers media engagement. Personal involvement means the level of perceived personal importance and relevance evoked by a stimulus within a particular condition. Personal involvement plays a contingent part in the consequence of advertising processing that corresponds to the media involved in the process. Consumers may find cross-channel integration of advertising useful since it provides them with more opportunities to process product or brand information and feel involved in the process. Higher levels of involvement usually result in increasingly durable cognitive and attitudinal effects. Therefore, the effectiveness of cross-channel integration of advertising depends on consumers levels of personal involvement. If consumers are highly involved, they might perceive higher media engagement from cross-channel integration of advertising messages. For marketers, this means that featuring their advertising message in more than one medium might increase media and therefore brand engagement. Do Measures of Media Engagement Correlate with Product Purchase Likelihood? Kilger, M. and E. Romer (2007). "Do Measures of Media Engagement Correlate with Product Purchase Likelihood?" Journal of Advertising Research 47(3): Media providers, advertising agencies and advertisers are increasingly interested in the engagement of consumers in media. The Advertising Research Council (or Advertising Research Foundation (ARF)) gave the following definition in 2006: Engagement is turning on a prospect to a brand idea enhanced by the surrounding context (ARF, 2006). This study by Kilger and Romer examined advertising from television, magazines and the Internet. The extensive research undertaken consisted of a total of 29,044 interviews (12,361 from the television module, 8,813 from the magazine module, 7,870 from the Internet module). An interesting aspect of the study by Kilger and Romer has been the cross-media nature of it. However, engagement signatures for each media channel, for the most part, followed each other rather closely surprisingly, as each medium contains different content and different stylistic presentations. Overall, a link between media engagement and advertising engagement exists. Moreover, engagement is positively related to the likelihood of purchasing products that have been advertised within the three media vehicles (TV, print, Online). This suggests that advertising placed within engaging media vehicles may increase the sales of products that have been featured in those ads.

8 Measuring Engagement Marich, R. (2008). "Measuring Engagement. (Cover story)."broadcasting & Cable 138(17): This short magazine article focuses on how audience metric exerts increasing influence on ad spending. Advertising industry executives say that over time, the TV industry will find that its traditional data currency of audience viewership precisely eyeballs is no longer the singularly important factor for ad placement. TV programs and channels with similar eyeball profiles will increasingly attract uneven advertising revenue due to marketers reliance on their proprietary formulae of engagement as a tie-breaker in directing the flow of ad dollars. With regards to audience metrics, consumer engagement (= quantifying the degree to which creative content and media context of any marketing communications results in meaningful communications regarding the brand) is more popular with consumer marketing research executives than return on investment (RoI). Engagement is most often measured analyzing viewers answers to various questions about a particular attitude toward media ranking attitudes towards brands and the likelihood of recommendation are oftentimes measured. Additionally, measuring involuntary responses such as brain-wave-activity and eye-tracking during media exposure are commonly used methods. In general, the articles concludes by stating that disagreement is prevalent on whether the ad research industry will eventually develop a standard set for calculating engagement that is accepted by the entire media industry. However, agreement can be reached on that an audience measure that goes beyond simply counting eyeballs or readers. The Advertising Magnifier Effect: An MTV Study (2006). The Advertising Magnifier Effect: An MTV Study, World Advertising Research Center Limited. 46: Engagement has become an increasingly important topic in the advertising industry. In 2006, the ARF unveiled a working definition: Engagement is turning on a prospect to a brand idea enhanced by the surrounding context (ARF, 2006). A more engaged viewer of TV has more value to marketers/advertisers than a less engaged one however, increasing evidence states that even background experiences have some subconscious effect. Many methodologies have been used to estimate media engagement by consumers, ranging from experimental approaches, including psychological measures such as Electroencephalography (EEG) and facial response, to more traditional advertising testing methodologies that continue to work with dial meters and verbal rating statements. However, each different approach to measure emotional response to advertising draws different conclusions about emotional responses even when investigating the same commercial.

9 In this research, the MTV Video Music Awards (VMA) were being investigated. The study found that social engagement (watching TV with others) can mean higher overall engagement. Furthermore, presenting the awards in a multichannel context (TV, Online) engaged consumers additionally. Also, those viewers who watched the show from beginning to end were emotionally more engaged. Overall, a stronger level of emotional engagement with the VMA show was related to a stronger response to the embedded advertising. Additionally, advertising liking was significantly impacted by emotional engagement with the program. A strong emotional engagement with programming can magnify engagement with embedded advertising for some measures such as liking, motivation, and perceptions of a brand. Concluding, the authors state that advertising is the non-linear variable in a linear world too often thought of only in terms of media tonnage creativity is still the trump card in the game.

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