# Output: struct treenode{ int data; struct treenode *left, *right; } struct treenode *tree_ptr;

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Output: 12 18 30 72 90 87. struct treenode{ int data; struct treenode *left, *right; } struct treenode *tree_ptr;"

## Transcription

1 (c) Execute the algorithm shown below using the tree shown above. Show the exact output produced by the algorithm. Assume that the initial call is: prob3(root) and that the tree nodes and pointers are defined as shown. struct treenode struct treenode *left, *right; struct treenode *tree_ptr; void prob3(struct tree_ptr *node_ptr) if (node_ptr!= NULL) if (node_ptr->data % 3 == 0) printf( %d, node_ptr->data); prob3(node_ptr->left); else if (node_ptr->data % 3 == 1) printf( %d, node_ptr->data+2); prob3(node_ptr->right); else if (node_ptr->data % 3 == 2) prob3(node_ptr->left); prob3(node_ptr->right); Output:

2 1. [ 9 pts ] For the binary tree given below root is a pointer to the root of the tree. Redraw (on the following page) the tree shown above when the following function is executed. Assume that the initial call is modifyt(root, 7, 65). struct treenode struct treenode *left; struct treenode *right; ; void modifyt(struct treenode* node_ptr, int key, int num) if (node_ptr!= NULL) if (node_ptr->data % 3 == 0) node_ptr->data += key; modifyt(node_ptr->left, key + 2, num - key); modifyt(node_ptr)->right, key 3, num + key); else if (node_ptr->data % 5 == 0) node_ptr->data -= key; modifyt(node_ptr->right, key - 4, num); modifyt(node_ptr->left, key, num + 5); else node_ptr->data = num; modifyt(node_ptr->right, key - 2, num + 10); modifyt(node_ptr->left, key + 5, num 7); Computer Science B Page 1 of 10 KEY

3 Answer for Problem 3 1 point for each correct node modification 1 point extra if the entire tree is correct Computer Science B Page 2 of 10 KEY

4 5. [ 8 pts ] Write a recursive function that compares two given binary trees. It returns 1 if two trees are different and it returns 0 otherwise. Use the node structure and the function prototype provided below: struct treenode struct treenode * left; struct treenode * right; ; int check(struct treenode *A, struct treenode *B) One possible solution: int check(struct treenode *A, struct treenode *B) if(a == NULL && B == NULL) return 0; else if(a == NULL B == NULL) return 1; else if(a->data!= b->data) return 1; if(check(a->left, B->left) check(a->right, B->right)) return 1; else return 0; Grading: Base cases: The trees are the same if both trees are NULL (1 point) The trees are different if one is NULL, the other isn t (1 point) The trees are different if neither is NULL, but the data differs (1 point) Recursive cases: The two trees are different if either the left or right is different (3 points) The two trees are the same only if both the left and right are the same (2 points) Computer Science B Page 3 of 10 KEY

5 5. a) [5 pts] Indicate in few words, the purpose of the following function. The struct treenode is the same as the one defined in problem 4 on the previous page. int f(struct treenode * p) int val; if (p == NULL) return 0; val = p->data; if (val%2 == 0) return val + f(p->left) + f(p->right); else return f(p->left) + f(p->right); Returns the sum of the nodes storing even values in the tree. Grading: 2 pts for sum, 1 pt for node values, 2 pts for even b) [5 pts] What does the function return, given the following tree? Answer: = 350 Computer Science B Page 4 of 10 KEY

6 3. (10 points) Write a recursive function to compute the height of a tree, defined as the length of the longest path from the root to a leaf node. For the purposes of this problem a tree with only one node has height 1 and an empty tree has height 0. Your function should make use of the following tree node structure: struct treenode struct treenode* left; struct treenode* right; ; int height(struct treenode* root) int leftheight, rightheight; if(root == NULL) return 0; leftheight = height(root->left); rightheight = height(root->right); if(leftheight > rightheight) return leftheight + 1; return rightheight + 1; Computer Science B Page 5 of 10 KEY

7 3. Write a recursive function struct node * largest( struct node * B) which returns a pointer to the node containing the largest element in a BST ( binary search tree). The node structure is as follows: struct node int node_value; struct node * left, *right; ; [8 pts] struct node* largest(struct node *B) if ( B==NULL) return NULL; else if (B->right ==NULL) return B; else return largest(b->right); Grading: 4 pts for an iterative solution 4. In a binary tree, each node may have a single child, two children, or no child. Write a recursive function int one (struct tree_node *p) for a binary tree which returns the number of nodes with a single child. Use the node structure struct tree_node struct tree_node * left, *right; ; [10 pts] int one ( struct tree_node *p) if ( p!= NULL) if( p->left == NULL) if( p->right!= NULL) return 1+ one(p->right); else if( p->right == NULL) if( p->left!= NULL) return 1+ one(p->left); else return one (p->left) + one(p->right) ; Computer Science B Page 6 of 10 KEY

8 4) (10 pts) DSN (Binary Trees) Consider the problem of finding the k th smallest item in a binary search tree storing unique values. Write a recursive function with the prototype shown below to solve this problem. The first parameter to the function will be a pointer to the root node of the binary tree and the second value will be the 1-based rank of the item to be returned. (If k is 1, you should return the smallest item in the tree.) Note that the number of nodes in the subtree at each node is stored inside the node. You may assume that the value of k will be in between 1 and the value of numnodes in the struct pointed to by root. typedef struct treenode int numnodes; struct treenode *left; struct treenode *right; treenode; int kthsmallestvalue(treenode* root, int k) for this case. if (root->left == NULL && k == 1) return root->data; for this case. int leftcnt = root->left->numnodes; if (k - 1 == leftcnt) return root->data; // 3 pts for this case. if (k - 1 < leftcnt) return kthsmallestvalue(root->left, k); // 3 pts for this case. return kthsmallestvalue(root->right, k-leftcnt-1); Computer Science B Page 7 of 10 KEY

9 4) (10 pts) DSN (Binary Trees) Write a function that is given a pointer to the root of a valid binary search tree with unique elements and prints out a list of all the odd numbers stored in the binary search tree, in descending order. Use the struct definition and function prototype provided. typedef struct treenode struct treenode *left; struct treenode *right; treenode; void printodddescending(treenode* root) if (root == NULL) return; printodddescending(root->right); if (root->data%2 == 1) printf("%d ", root->data); printodddescending(root->left); // 1 pt // 1 pt for correct // order of calls. Computer Science B Page 8 of 10 KEY

### Data Structure with C

Subject: Data Structure with C Topic : Tree Tree A tree is a set of nodes that either:is empty or has a designated node, called the root, from which hierarchically descend zero or more subtrees, which

### Ordered Lists and Binary Trees

Data Structures and Algorithms Ordered Lists and Binary Trees Chris Brooks Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.1/62 6-0:

### OPTIMAL BINARY SEARCH TREES

OPTIMAL BINARY SEARCH TREES 1. PREPARATION BEFORE LAB DATA STRUCTURES An optimal binary search tree is a binary search tree for which the nodes are arranged on levels such that the tree cost is minimum.

### Binary Search Trees (BST)

Binary Search Trees (BST) 1. Hierarchical data structure with a single reference to node 2. Each node has at most two child nodes (a left and a right child) 3. Nodes are organized by the Binary Search

### Data Structures and Algorithms

Data Structures and Algorithms CS245-2016S-06 Binary Search Trees David Galles Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco 06-0: Ordered List ADT Operations: Insert an element in the list

### A binary search tree or BST is a binary tree that is either empty or in which the data element of each node has a key, and:

Binary Search Trees 1 The general binary tree shown in the previous chapter is not terribly useful in practice. The chief use of binary trees is for providing rapid access to data (indexing, if you will)

### 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++

Answer the following 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++ 2) Which data structure is needed to convert infix notations to postfix notations? Stack 3) The

### Algorithms and Data Structures Written Exam Proposed SOLUTION

Algorithms and Data Structures Written Exam Proposed SOLUTION 2005-01-07 from 09:00 to 13:00 Allowed tools: A standard calculator. Grading criteria: You can get at most 30 points. For an E, 15 points are

### From Last Time: Remove (Delete) Operation

CSE 32 Lecture : More on Search Trees Today s Topics: Lazy Operations Run Time Analysis of Binary Search Tree Operations Balanced Search Trees AVL Trees and Rotations Covered in Chapter of the text From

### Analysis of Algorithms I: Optimal Binary Search Trees

Analysis of Algorithms I: Optimal Binary Search Trees Xi Chen Columbia University Given a set of n keys K = {k 1,..., k n } in sorted order: k 1 < k 2 < < k n we wish to build an optimal binary search

### Analysis of Algorithms I: Binary Search Trees

Analysis of Algorithms I: Binary Search Trees Xi Chen Columbia University Hash table: A data structure that maintains a subset of keys from a universe set U = {0, 1,..., p 1} and supports all three dictionary

### Algorithms and Data Structures Exercise for the Final Exam (17 June 2014) Stack, Queue, Lists, Trees, Heap

Algorithms and Data Structures Exercise for the Final Exam (17 June 2014) Stack, Queue, Lists, Trees, Heap Singly linked list (1) Data about exam results are stored into a singly linked list. Each list

### Lecture Notes on Binary Search Trees

Lecture Notes on Binary Search Trees 15-122: Principles of Imperative Computation Frank Pfenning André Platzer Lecture 17 October 23, 2014 1 Introduction In this lecture, we will continue considering associative

### TREE BASIC TERMINOLOGIES

TREE Trees are very flexible, versatile and powerful non-liner data structure that can be used to represent data items possessing hierarchical relationship between the grand father and his children and

### Why Use Binary Trees?

Binary Search Trees Why Use Binary Trees? Searches are an important application. What other searches have we considered? brute force search (with array or linked list) O(N) binarysearch with a pre-sorted

### The following themes form the major topics of this chapter: The terms and concepts related to trees (Section 5.2).

CHAPTER 5 The Tree Data Model There are many situations in which information has a hierarchical or nested structure like that found in family trees or organization charts. The abstraction that models hierarchical

### Lecture Notes on Binary Search Trees

Lecture Notes on Binary Search Trees 15-122: Principles of Imperative Computation Frank Pfenning Lecture 17 March 17, 2010 1 Introduction In the previous two lectures we have seen how to exploit the structure

### Chapter 14 The Binary Search Tree

Chapter 14 The Binary Search Tree In Chapter 5 we discussed the binary search algorithm, which depends on a sorted vector. Although the binary search, being in O(lg(n)), is very efficient, inserting a

### Conditionals (with solutions)

Conditionals (with solutions) For exercises 1 to 27, indicate the output that will be produced. Assume the following declarations: final int MAX = 25, LIMIT = 100; int num1 = 12, num2 = 25, num3 = 87;

### Binary Search Trees. A Generic Tree. Binary Trees. Nodes in a binary search tree ( B-S-T) are of the form. P parent. Key. Satellite data L R

Binary Search Trees A Generic Tree Nodes in a binary search tree ( B-S-T) are of the form P parent Key A Satellite data L R B C D E F G H I J The B-S-T has a root node which is the only node whose parent

### Binary Heap Algorithms

CS Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture Slides Wednesday, April 5, 2009 Glenn G. Chappell Department of Computer Science University of Alaska Fairbanks CHAPPELLG@member.ams.org 2005 2009 Glenn G. Chappell

### Binary Trees and Huffman Encoding Binary Search Trees

Binary Trees and Huffman Encoding Binary Search Trees Computer Science E119 Harvard Extension School Fall 2012 David G. Sullivan, Ph.D. Motivation: Maintaining a Sorted Collection of Data A data dictionary

### Help on the Embedded Software Block

Help on the Embedded Software Block Powersim Inc. 1. Introduction The Embedded Software Block is a block that allows users to model embedded devices such as microcontrollers, DSP, or other devices. It

### Algorithms Chapter 12 Binary Search Trees

Algorithms Chapter 1 Binary Search Trees Outline Assistant Professor: Ching Chi Lin 林 清 池 助 理 教 授 chingchi.lin@gmail.com Department of Computer Science and Engineering National Taiwan Ocean University

### Questions 1 through 25 are worth 2 points each. Choose one best answer for each.

Questions 1 through 25 are worth 2 points each. Choose one best answer for each. 1. For the singly linked list implementation of the queue, where are the enqueues and dequeues performed? c a. Enqueue in

### 12 Abstract Data Types

12 Abstract Data Types 12.1 Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: Define the concept of an abstract data type (ADT).

### Converting a Number from Decimal to Binary

Converting a Number from Decimal to Binary Convert nonnegative integer in decimal format (base 10) into equivalent binary number (base 2) Rightmost bit of x Remainder of x after division by two Recursive

### Stacks. Linear data structures

Stacks Linear data structures Collection of components that can be arranged as a straight line Data structure grows or shrinks as we add or remove objects ADTs provide an abstract layer for various operations

### Tree Properties (size vs height) Balanced Binary Trees

Tree Properties (size vs height) Balanced Binary Trees Due now: WA 7 (This is the end of the grace period). Note that a grace period takes the place of a late day. Now is the last time you can turn this

### Full and Complete Binary Trees

Full and Complete Binary Trees Binary Tree Theorems 1 Here are two important types of binary trees. Note that the definitions, while similar, are logically independent. Definition: a binary tree T is full

### Section IV.1: Recursive Algorithms and Recursion Trees

Section IV.1: Recursive Algorithms and Recursion Trees Definition IV.1.1: A recursive algorithm is an algorithm that solves a problem by (1) reducing it to an instance of the same problem with smaller

### Chapter 4 C Program Control

Chapter 4 C Program Control Objectives of this chapter: Repetitions will be considered in greater detail for.. repetition do while repetition Also multiple selection switch case statement will be learned.

### root node level: internal node edge leaf node CS@VT Data Structures & Algorithms 2000-2009 McQuain

inary Trees 1 A binary tree is either empty, or it consists of a node called the root together with two binary trees called the left subtree and the right subtree of the root, which are disjoint from each

### A binary search tree is a binary tree with a special property called the BST-property, which is given as follows:

Chapter 12: Binary Search Trees A binary search tree is a binary tree with a special property called the BST-property, which is given as follows: For all nodes x and y, if y belongs to the left subtree

### CS 241 Data Organization Coding Standards

CS 241 Data Organization Coding Standards Brooke Chenoweth University of New Mexico Spring 2016 CS-241 Coding Standards All projects and labs must follow the great and hallowed CS-241 coding standards.

### Data Structures, Practice Homework 3, with Solutions (not to be handed in)

Data Structures, Practice Homework 3, with Solutions (not to be handed in) 1. Carrano, 4th edition, Chapter 9, Exercise 1: What is the order of each of the following tasks in the worst case? (a) Computing

### Learning Outcomes. COMP202 Complexity of Algorithms. Binary Search Trees and Other Search Trees

Learning Outcomes COMP202 Complexity of Algorithms Binary Search Trees and Other Search Trees [See relevant sections in chapters 2 and 3 in Goodrich and Tamassia.] At the conclusion of this set of lecture

### Parallelization: Binary Tree Traversal

By Aaron Weeden and Patrick Royal Shodor Education Foundation, Inc. August 2012 Introduction: According to Moore s law, the number of transistors on a computer chip doubles roughly every two years. First

### Balanced Binary Search Tree

AVL Trees / Slide 1 Balanced Binary Search Tree Worst case height of binary search tree: N-1 Insertion, deletion can be O(N) in the worst case We want a tree with small height Height of a binary tree with

### Lecture 6: Binary Search Trees CSCI 700 - Algorithms I. Andrew Rosenberg

Lecture 6: Binary Search Trees CSCI 700 - Algorithms I Andrew Rosenberg Last Time Linear Time Sorting Counting Sort Radix Sort Bucket Sort Today Binary Search Trees Data Structures Data structure is a

### In our lecture about Binary Search Trees (BST) we have seen that the operations of searching for and inserting an element in a BST can be of the

In our lecture about Binary Search Trees (BST) we have seen that the operations of searching for and inserting an element in a BST can be of the order O(log n) (in the best case) and of the order O(n)

### BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Network Security. & BSc. (Hons.) Software Engineering

BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Network Security & BSc. (Hons.) Software Engineering Cohort: BIS/05/FT BCNS/05/FT BSE/05/FT Examinations for 2005-2006 / Semester

### The ADT Binary Search Tree

The ADT Binary Search Tree The Binary Search Tree is a particular type of binary tree that enables easy searching for specific items. Definition The ADT Binary Search Tree is a binary tree which has an

### Binary Search Trees. Ric Glassey glassey@kth.se

Binary Search Trees Ric Glassey glassey@kth.se Outline Binary Search Trees Aim: Demonstrate how a BST can maintain order and fast performance relative to its height Properties Operations Min/Max Search

### 1. Constants. 2. Variables. 3. Reserved words or key words. 4. Constants. Character set in C

Character set in C We should use only the following characters in writing a C program. These characters can be combined to create C words. Alphabet: A, B, C, D.. Z, a, b, c, d..z Numeric digits: 0, 1,

### VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM NAGAR, KATTANKULATHUR 603 203 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS QUESTION BANK IN REVISED BLOOM S TAXONOMY

ACADEMIC YEAR: 0 7 VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM NAGAR, KATTANKULATHUR 0 0 SEMESTER: ODD BRANCH: MCA YEAR: I SEMESTER: I SUBJECT CODE AND NAME: MC70 Problem Solving and Programming NAME OF THE FACULTY

### Illustration 1: Diagram of program function and data flow

The contract called for creation of a random access database of plumbing shops within the near perimeter of FIU Engineering school. The database features a rating number from 1-10 to offer a guideline

### C++FA 5.1 PRACTICE MID-TERM EXAM

C++FA 5.1 PRACTICE MID-TERM EXAM This practicemid-term exam covers sections C++FA 1.1 through C++FA 1.4 of C++ with Financial Applications by Ben Van Vliet, available at www.benvanvliet.net. 1.) A pointer

### Data Structures CSC212 (1) Dr Muhammad Hussain Lecture - Binary Search Tree ADT

(1) Binary Search Tree ADT 56 26 200 18 28 190 213 12 24 27 (2) Binary Search Tree ADT (BST) It is a binary tree with the following properties 1. with each node associate a key 2. the key of each node

### Heap. Binary Search Tree. Heaps VS BSTs. < el el. Difference between a heap and a BST:

Heaps VS BSTs Difference between a heap and a BST: Heap el Binary Search Tree el el el < el el Perfectly balanced at all times Immediate access to maximal element Easy to code Does not provide efficient

### A binary heap is a complete binary tree, where each node has a higher priority than its children. This is called heap-order property

CmSc 250 Intro to Algorithms Chapter 6. Transform and Conquer Binary Heaps 1. Definition A binary heap is a complete binary tree, where each node has a higher priority than its children. This is called

### Symbol Tables. Introduction

Symbol Tables Introduction A compiler needs to collect and use information about the names appearing in the source program. This information is entered into a data structure called a symbol table. The

### Previous Lectures. B-Trees. External storage. Two types of memory. B-trees. Main principles

B-Trees Algorithms and data structures for external memory as opposed to the main memory B-Trees Previous Lectures Height balanced binary search trees: AVL trees, red-black trees. Multiway search trees:

### Binary Heaps. CSE 373 Data Structures

Binary Heaps CSE Data Structures Readings Chapter Section. Binary Heaps BST implementation of a Priority Queue Worst case (degenerate tree) FindMin, DeleteMin and Insert (k) are all O(n) Best case (completely

### Data Structure and Algorithm I Midterm Examination 120 points Time: 9:10am-12:10pm (180 minutes), Friday, November 12, 2010

Data Structure and Algorithm I Midterm Examination 120 points Time: 9:10am-12:10pm (180 minutes), Friday, November 12, 2010 Problem 1. In each of the following question, please specify if the statement

Graduate Assessment Test (Sample) CS201-203 1. Fibonacci sequence is defined by a recurrence relation. The series is: 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,... Write a complete recursive method/function that returns the fibonacci

### B-Trees. Algorithms and data structures for external memory as opposed to the main memory B-Trees. B -trees

B-Trees Algorithms and data structures for external memory as opposed to the main memory B-Trees Previous Lectures Height balanced binary search trees: AVL trees, red-black trees. Multiway search trees:

### Sample Questions Csci 1112 A. Bellaachia

Sample Questions Csci 1112 A. Bellaachia Important Series : o S( N) 1 2 N N i N(1 N) / 2 i 1 o Sum of squares: N 2 N( N 1)(2N 1) N i for large N i 1 6 o Sum of exponents: N k 1 k N i for large N and k

Linked Lists Ch 17 (Gaddis) Introduction to Linked Lists A data structure representing a A series of nodes chained together in sequence CS 3358 Summer I 2012 Jill Seaman - Each node points to one other

### CS 141: Introduction to (Java) Programming: Exam 1 Jenny Orr Willamette University Fall 2013

Oct 4, 2013, p 1 Name: CS 141: Introduction to (Java) Programming: Exam 1 Jenny Orr Willamette University Fall 2013 1. (max 18) 4. (max 16) 2. (max 12) 5. (max 12) 3. (max 24) 6. (max 18) Total: (max 100)

### Big Data and Scripting. Part 4: Memory Hierarchies

1, Big Data and Scripting Part 4: Memory Hierarchies 2, Model and Definitions memory size: M machine words total storage (on disk) of N elements (N is very large) disk size unlimited (for our considerations)

### Rotation Operation for Binary Search Trees Idea:

Rotation Operation for Binary Search Trees Idea: Change a few pointers at a particular place in the tree so that one subtree becomes less deep in exchange for another one becoming deeper. A sequence of

### Class Notes CS 3137. 1 Creating and Using a Huffman Code. Ref: Weiss, page 433

Class Notes CS 3137 1 Creating and Using a Huffman Code. Ref: Weiss, page 433 1. FIXED LENGTH CODES: Codes are used to transmit characters over data links. You are probably aware of the ASCII code, a fixed-length

### 1 2-3 Trees: The Basics

CS10: Data Structures and Object-Oriented Design (Fall 2013) November 1, 2013: 2-3 Trees: Inserting and Deleting Scribes: CS 10 Teaching Team Lecture Summary In this class, we investigated 2-3 Trees in

### Operations: search;; min;; max;; predecessor;; successor. Time O(h) with h height of the tree (more on later).

Binary search tree Operations: search;; min;; max;; predecessor;; successor. Time O(h) with h height of the tree (more on later). Data strutcure fields usually include for a given node x, the following

### Binary Search Trees. Data in each node. Larger than the data in its left child Smaller than the data in its right child

Binary Search Trees Data in each node Larger than the data in its left child Smaller than the data in its right child FIGURE 11-6 Arbitrary binary tree FIGURE 11-7 Binary search tree Data Structures Using

### Outline BST Operations Worst case Average case Balancing AVL Red-black B-trees. Binary Search Trees. Lecturer: Georgy Gimel farb

Binary Search Trees Lecturer: Georgy Gimel farb COMPSCI 220 Algorithms and Data Structures 1 / 27 1 Properties of Binary Search Trees 2 Basic BST operations The worst-case time complexity of BST operations

### Binary Search Trees 3/20/14

Binary Search Trees 3/0/4 Presentation for use ith the textbook Data Structures and Algorithms in Java, th edition, by M. T. Goodrich, R. Tamassia, and M. H. Goldasser, Wiley, 04 Binary Search Trees 4

### Union-Find Problem. Using Arrays And Chains

Union-Find Problem Given a set {,,, n} of n elements. Initially each element is in a different set. ƒ {}, {},, {n} An intermixed sequence of union and find operations is performed. A union operation combines

### AS-2261 M.Sc.(First Semester) Examination-2013 Paper -fourth Subject-Data structure with algorithm

AS-2261 M.Sc.(First Semester) Examination-2013 Paper -fourth Subject-Data structure with algorithm Time: Three Hours] [Maximum Marks: 60 Note Attempts all the questions. All carry equal marks Section A

### Merge Sort. 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia. Merge Sort 1

Merge Sort 7 2 9 4 2 4 7 9 7 2 2 7 9 4 4 9 7 7 2 2 9 9 4 4 Merge Sort 1 Divide-and-Conquer Divide-and conquer is a general algorithm design paradigm: Divide: divide the input data S in two disjoint subsets

### Outline. Conditional Statements. Logical Data in C. Logical Expressions. Relational Examples. Relational Operators

Conditional Statements For computer to make decisions, must be able to test CONDITIONS IF it is raining THEN I will not go outside IF Count is not zero THEN the Average is Sum divided by Count Conditions

### Standard printing function in C is printf Prints everything numbers, strings, etc. May be complex to use. Standard C library is called libc

Arrays and Structs and Pointers, Oh My! Programming in C Input and output Using printf Standard input and output Pointers Arrays Structures Combining these things together Arrays and Structs and Pointers,

### Writing Functions in Scheme. Writing Functions in Scheme. Checking My Answer: Empty List. Checking My Answer: Empty List

Writing Functions in Scheme Writing Functions in Scheme Suppose we want a function ct which takes a list of symbols and returns the number of symbols in the list (ct (a b c)) 3 (ct ()) 0 (ct (x y z w t))

### DNS LOOKUP SYSTEM DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS PROJECT REPORT

DNS LOOKUP SYSTEM DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS PROJECT REPORT By GROUP Avadhut Gurjar Mohsin Patel Shraddha Pandhe Page 1 Contents 1. Introduction... 3 2. DNS Recursive Query Mechanism:...5 2.1. Client

### ECE 250 Data Structures and Algorithms MIDTERM EXAMINATION 2008-10-23/5:15-6:45 REC-200, EVI-350, RCH-106, HH-139

ECE 250 Data Structures and Algorithms MIDTERM EXAMINATION 2008-10-23/5:15-6:45 REC-200, EVI-350, RCH-106, HH-139 Instructions: No aides. Turn off all electronic media and store them under your desk. If

### Data Structures. Jaehyun Park. CS 97SI Stanford University. June 29, 2015

Data Structures Jaehyun Park CS 97SI Stanford University June 29, 2015 Typical Quarter at Stanford void quarter() { while(true) { // no break :( task x = GetNextTask(tasks); process(x); // new tasks may

### UNIVERSITY OF LONDON (University College London) M.Sc. DEGREE 1998 COMPUTER SCIENCE D16: FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING. Answer THREE Questions.

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON (University College London) M.Sc. DEGREE 1998 COMPUTER SCIENCE D16: FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING Answer THREE Questions. The Use of Electronic Calculators: is NOT Permitted. -1- Answer Question

### Sample CSE8A midterm Multiple Choice (circle one)

Sample midterm Multiple Choice (circle one) (2 pts) Evaluate the following Boolean expressions and indicate whether short-circuiting happened during evaluation: Assume variables with the following names

### Chapter 7. Ch.7 Problem Solving and Algorithms

Chapter 7 Ch.7 Problem Solving and Algorithms QUIZ: Match the steps in Polya s method to the ones in the computer method for problem solving Devise a plan Look back Understand Carry out the plan Analysis

### Binary Heaps * * * * * * * / / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ * * * * * * * * * * * / / \ / \ / / \ / \ * * * * * * * * * *

Binary Heaps A binary heap is another data structure. It implements a priority queue. Priority Queue has the following operations: isempty add (with priority) remove (highest priority) peek (at highest

### Binary Search Trees. basic implementations randomized BSTs deletion in BSTs

Binary Search Trees basic implementations randomized BSTs deletion in BSTs eferences: Algorithms in Java, Chapter 12 Intro to Programming, Section 4.4 http://www.cs.princeton.edu/introalgsds/43bst 1 Elementary

### Algorithms and Data Structures

Algorithms and Data Structures Part 2: Data Structures PD Dr. rer. nat. habil. Ralf-Peter Mundani Computation in Engineering (CiE) Summer Term 2016 Overview general linked lists stacks queues trees 2 2

### Chapter 5. Recursion. Data Structures and Algorithms in Java

Chapter 5 Recursion Data Structures and Algorithms in Java Objectives Discuss the following topics: Recursive Definitions Method Calls and Recursion Implementation Anatomy of a Recursive Call Tail Recursion

### Lecture 12 Doubly Linked Lists (with Recursion)

Lecture 12 Doubly Linked Lists (with Recursion) In this lecture Introduction to Doubly linked lists What is recursion? Designing a node of a DLL Recursion and Linked Lists o Finding a node in a LL (recursively)

### 2013 Five years Integrated M.Sc.(IT) Semester 1 060010101 - Fundamentals of Programming

03 Five years Integrated M.Sc.(IT) Semester 00000 - Fundamentals Programming File should contain. Problem Statement. Algorithm 3. Flowchart. Program in C language(code) 5. Output and sample calculation

### CS177 MIDTERM 2 PRACTICE EXAM SOLUTION. Name: Student ID:

CS177 MIDTERM 2 PRACTICE EXAM SOLUTION Name: Student ID: This practice exam is due the day of the midterm 2 exam. The solutions will be posted the day before the exam but we encourage you to look at the

### UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APS 105 Computer Fundamentals Midterm Examination October 27, 2009 12:20 p.m. 1:50 p.m. Examiners: J. Anderson, T. Fairgrieve, H. Ghaderi,

### Optimal Binary Search Trees Meet Object Oriented Programming

Optimal Binary Search Trees Meet Object Oriented Programming Stuart Hansen and Lester I. McCann Computer Science Department University of Wisconsin Parkside Kenosha, WI 53141 {hansen,mccann}@cs.uwp.edu

### Huffman Assignment Intro

Huffman Assignment Intro James Wei Professor Peck April 2, 2014 Slides by James Wei Outline Intro to Huffman The Huffman algorithm Classes of Huffman Understanding the design Implementation Analysis Grading

### Q1. For the following grammar: S a S b c E E d f E a

Chapter 3 (3.1 3.3) Describing Syntax and Semantics Chapter 4 Lexical and Syntax Analysis Chapter 5 Names, Binding, Type Checking and Scopes Chapter 6 Data Types Chapter 7 Expressions and Assignment Statements

### CS 253: Algorithms. Chapter 12. Binary Search Trees. * Deletion and Problems. Credit: Dr. George Bebis

CS 2: Algorithms Chapter Binary Search Trees * Deletion and Problems Credit: Dr. George Bebis Binary Search Trees Tree representation: A linked data structure in which each node is an object Node representation:

### EE2204 DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHM (Common to EEE, EIE & ICE)

EE2204 DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHM (Common to EEE, EIE & ICE) UNIT I LINEAR STRUCTURES Abstract Data Types (ADT) List ADT array-based implementation linked list implementation cursor-based linked lists

### Persistent Binary Search Trees

Persistent Binary Search Trees Datastructures, UvA. May 30, 2008 0440949, Andreas van Cranenburgh Abstract A persistent binary tree allows access to all previous versions of the tree. This paper presents

### B+ Tree Properties B+ Tree Searching B+ Tree Insertion B+ Tree Deletion Static Hashing Extendable Hashing Questions in pass papers

B+ Tree and Hashing B+ Tree Properties B+ Tree Searching B+ Tree Insertion B+ Tree Deletion Static Hashing Extendable Hashing Questions in pass papers B+ Tree Properties Balanced Tree Same height for paths

### ASCII Encoding. The char Type. Manipulating Characters. Manipulating Characters

The char Type ASCII Encoding The C char type stores small integers. It is usually 8 bits. char variables guaranteed to be able to hold integers 0.. +127. char variables mostly used to store characters

### The Tower of Hanoi. Recursion Solution. Recursive Function. Time Complexity. Recursive Thinking. Why Recursion? n! = n* (n-1)!

The Tower of Hanoi Recursion Solution recursion recursion recursion Recursive Thinking: ignore everything but the bottom disk. 1 2 Recursive Function Time Complexity Hanoi (n, src, dest, temp): If (n >

### CS104: Data Structures and Object-Oriented Design (Fall 2013) October 24, 2013: Priority Queues Scribes: CS 104 Teaching Team

CS104: Data Structures and Object-Oriented Design (Fall 2013) October 24, 2013: Priority Queues Scribes: CS 104 Teaching Team Lecture Summary In this lecture, we learned about the ADT Priority Queue. A

### DATABASE DESIGN - 1DL400

DATABASE DESIGN - 1DL400 Spring 2015 A course on modern database systems!! http://www.it.uu.se/research/group/udbl/kurser/dbii_vt15/ Kjell Orsborn! Uppsala Database Laboratory! Department of Information