1 Processes of urban regionalization in Italy: a focus on mobility practices explained through mobile phone data in the Milan urban region (DAStU, Politecnico di Milano)
2 New «urban questions» and challenges Exploring processes of urban regionalization in Italy Processes of multi-scalar regional urbanization are occurring worldwide, with characteristics that clearly distinguish them from processes studied by 19 th and 20 th century urban studies, through the traditional concepts of both the city, first, and the metropolis, later. Satellite image of nighttime lights (from: Brenner, Neil Theses on Urbanization. Public Culture 25 (1). Public Culture: 87) Image source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 2
3 New «urban questions» and challenges Exploring processes of urban regionalization in Italy Assuming this perspective, that we could synthetically indicate with the concept of the "post-metropolis" (Soja, 2011), we are aiming at exploring the new urban forms of contemporary Italy, with a particular attention to the production of processes of regionalization of the urban (i.e. regional urbanization). Urbanized areas in Northern Italy, 2011(image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space ) data source: ISTAT 3
4 New «urban questions» and challenges Exploring processes of urban regionalization in Italy The hypothesis is that classic categories and scales of city and metropolis must be abandoned and new socio-spatial formations, which compose the post-metropolitan space, must be taken into consideration. Three epiphenomena, according to Soja, can be identified: the flattening and shrinking of the gradient of urban density; the progressive erosion of the boundary between urban and suburban; the homogenization of the urban landscape as well as an increasing differentiation and specialization of the suburban. Among the effects, according to Soja, one can list: the disappearance of significant differences in lifestyles between urban and suburban, with the emergence of different (sub) urban ways of life; the mixing between forms of urban and suburban; the combination of paradoxical forms of decentralization and recentralization, tied on the one hand to the expulsion of some urban functions in peri-urban contexts, capable of generating new centers and to shape new geographies in the suburban and the reverse; the emergence of a new urban form: a polynuclear, densely reticulated and intensive information. 4
5 The PRIN Research Project An atlas of post-metropolitan Italian cities BEYOND BOUNDARIES Public administration and planning need hard boundaries at different levels image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 5
6 The PRIN Research Project An atlas of post-metropolitan Italian cities BEYOND BOUNDARIES but administrative geography fails to cope with processes of regional urbanization. MORPHOLOGICAL URBAN AREAS FUNCTIONAL URBAN AREAS METROPOLITAN CITY SOURCES: Istat + Database ESPON 6
7 The PRIN Research Project An atlas of post-metropolitan Italian cities The scale and patterns of urban regionalization phenomena call for the definition of analytical frames independent from administrative boundaries image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 7
8 The PRIN Research Project An atlas of post-metropolitan Italian cities 12 SQUARES (9 + 3) 100x100 km Turin, Milan, Venice, Genua, Bologna, Florence, Rome, Naples, Bari Less than 100x100 km Palermo, South-eastern Sicily, Gallura image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 8
9 The PRIN Research Project An atlas of post-metropolitan Italian cities Furthermore, the urban regionalization phenomena call for the definition of other analytical frames independent from administrative boundaries. image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 9
10 The PRIN Research Project An atlas of post-metropolitan Italian cities INTERACTIVE WEB SITE (from July 2015) MENU/LIST OF INDICATORS FULL/DEFAULT VISUALIZATION CUSTOMIZED VISUALIZATION 10
11 An atlas of post-metropolitan Italian cities The case of Milan urban region 100x100 km MILAN image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 11
12 The Milan urban region A dense urban continuum, a polycentric urban region Building density goes beyond metropolitan patterns and gradients image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 12
13 The Milan urban region The ongoing explosion of urbanized areas Land take dynamics show and ongoing isotropic process of urbanization 13
14 The Milan urban region The ongoing explosion of urbanized areas Land take dynamics show and ongoing isotropic process of urbanization From arable land to construction sites - image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 14
15 The Milan urban region An extended explosion image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 15
16 The Milan urban region An extended explosion (and implosion) image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space data source: ISTAT Census 16
17 The Milan urban region An extended explosion (and implosion) image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space data source: ISTAT Census 17
18 The Milan urban region The flattening out of the density gradient Centre-periphery gradient are becoming less prominent image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space data source: ISTAT Census 18
19 The Milan urban region The flattening out of the density gradient Centre-periphery gradient are becoming less prominent POPULATION AT DIFFERENT DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER OF MILAN image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space data source: ISTAT Census 19
20 The Milan urban region The increasing of mobility Commuting is increasing image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space data source: ISTAT Census 20
21 Exploring mobility practices Origin Destination Data Commuters fluxes > 100 (excluded fluxes for and from regional cities) Source : Istat Growing network of less hierachical relationships inside dynamic places in the urban region 21
22 The Milan urban region The flattening out of the density gradient but new functions are changing non work-related mobility image by PRIN Research Program Post-metropolitan territories as emergent forms of urban space 22
23 The Milan urban region Accessibility Urban poles Commercial poles Multiplex Road accessibility to different urban poles and facilities: Isochrone representation (15, 30, 45, 60 minutes)
24 The Milan urban region Accessibility University Railway stations Airports Milan city center
25 Exploring mobility practices through mobile phone data Mobility practices are linked with the complexity of the sociospatial fabric and the emergence of new multiple centralities. New forms of mobility are emerging and have intensified the density and typologies of movements that traditional sources are unable to describe with continuity. 25
26 Exploring mobility practices New sources vs conventional data Traditional data sources for urban investigations: pros Socioeconomic and demographic information is public, open to wider users and referred to all the population and known limitations high cost low frequency difficulty of updating Time dimension is missing New data sources can help in understanding mobility patterns, in describing and assessing urban changes and diversified uses of the city.
27 Exploring mobility practices A new research field In contemporary urban research debate, there is a growing interest in the study of the behavior of people in urban spaces, in the definition and in the analysis of urban populations and of community practices and how these reshape the boundaries of the city. The main element of interest is how to qualify different places according to their use with a specific focus on emerging spatial and temporal patterns and how to acquire novel information on the different practices that happen in these places.
28 Active and passive mobile positioning Data Research area Purpose Privacy Issues Data volume Tracks of displacements of individuals of a small selected sample (case study) Tracks of calls of individual phone users (active mobile positioning) Spatial distribution of cell phone network traffic intensity (derived from cellular network log files) Tracking technologies (GPS, SMS, ) Network science Mobile landscapes Study of mobility behaviour of specific group/population category Study of geometrical patterns of the mobility of individuals (deprived of the specific geographical reference) Study of the density of use of a territory
29 Mobile phone data Measure of traffic intensity - Erlang Georeferenced Erlang matrices for Lombardia Region - Matrices of mobile phone traffic (voice) expressed in Erlang: traffic is anonymously recorded by each cell of the network as the average number of concurrent contacts in a time unit. time Temporal resolution: 15 minutes Spatial resolution: 250 m. x 250 m. (pixel dimension) Period: the mobile phone traffic data spatial resolution superimposed to building blocks, the more detailed available statistical unit, for the central area of Milan.
30 Mobile phone data Erlang analysis 2011 International Design Week Micro scale analysis II Impact of a special event on the urban system Elaboration: map of the ratio between the activity of a whole day with events and a whole normal weekday (ratio of daily aggregated Erlang values) Variability of cell phone traffic (Erlang) at the Rho-Pero Exhibition District during the 2009 International Design Week (black) and in a typical weekday, without events (gray).
31 Mobile phone data Erlang analysis 2011 International Design Week cell phone traffic on 16 April 2010 from h. 17 to h. 23. Increasing intensity of red color corresponds to higher cell phone traffic. It is possible to observe the parts of the city where phone activity is high, largely due to the International Design Week activities. Numbered boxes highlight areas of particular interest: 1 = Exhibition District; 2 = Milan city centre; 3 = Tortona District; 4 = San Siro Stadium.
32 Mobile phone data The treelets decomposition methodology Aim: identification of useful information on hidden patterns of mobile phone use. These hidden patterns regard different usages of the city in time and in space which are related to individual mobility, outlining the potential of this technology for the urban planning community. The methodology allows to obtain a reference basis that reports the specific effect of some activities on the Erlang data recorded and a set of maps showing the contribution of each activity to the local Erlang signal. We selected some results as significant for explaining specific mobility and city usages patterns (commuting, nightly activities, distribution of residences, non systematic mobility) and tested their significance and their interpretation from an urban analysis and planning perspective at the Milan urban region scale.
33 Mobile phone data The «average use» Reference Basis Wednesda y Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Map Treelet 1 The average use treelet map. The treelet contains different temporal patterns of mobile phone activity (i.e. daily, working day versus week end) that fit with actual city usage.
34 Mobile phone data Mobility practices Treelet 82 (left) and 83 (right) - Mobility practices. Weekdays commuting flows at the Milan urban region scale: morning rush hours (letf) vs to evening rush hours (right).
35 Mobile phone data Mobility practices Reference Basis Map Treelet 93 - Mobility practices. Saturday (10am- 8pm), shopping and leisure activity.
36 Mobile phone data Aggregated OD tracks localized and aggregated tracks of anonymized mobile phone users (period: 2011) Tilab + DAStU research group Tessellation Blind system (aggregation) Timeseries of OD matrices C D R Call Detail Records (sensitive accounting informations) Number of localized phone users: 3M Number of users with more than 8 activities per day: ~ 35%
37 Mobile phone data vs conventional data for mobility analysis
38 Prevalent fluxes of mobility Main hourly distribution of origin destination movements of a huge sample of people (more than one million per day). Goal: display a synthetical view of fluxes of mobility at different hour of a typical working day Set of maps of the sum vector moving from each zone at different hours has been produced in order to highlight the main patterns of mobility during a typical working day
39 Systematic mobility going to work h. 9 a.m. 19th October 2011
40 Non-systematic mobility h. 17, 19th October 2011 complex chains of movements multiple purposes
41 Conclusion Urban regionalization processes are distressing the administrative boundaries and conventional data; Mobility is one of the most relevant issues within urban regionalization processes because it interrelates spatial development, urban practices and lifestyles; New data, tools and methodologies are needed by urban studies and policies to address the complexity of contemporary urban regions; Mobile phone data (Erlang and aggregated OD tracks) show new spatial-temporal patterns of mobility and complex usages of urban and suburban spaces. 41
42 References and contact PRIN Research Program website (from July 2015)
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