A system for real-time calculation and monitoring of energy performance and carbon emissions of RET systems and buildings

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1 A system for real-tme calculaton and montorng of energy performance and carbon emssons of RET systems and buldngs Dr PAAIOTIS PHILIMIS Dr ALESSADRO GIUSTI Dr STEPHE GARVI CE Technology Center Democratas 5, Ergates Industral Estate, 2643 Ergates CPRUS Abstract: - The paper presents a system developed for the real-tme n-stu performance montorng of dfferent RET systems nstalled n a buldng. The system montors also the performance of the buldng as a whole n terms of CO 2 emssons. The mathematcal models on whch the system s based are presented here. All of the models are based on Internatonal Standards. The system has been desgned as a web applcaton and s currently n ts fnal stage of development. Informaton on the web applcaton specfcatons and technologes used are presented. Key-Words: - RET performance montorng, n-stu montorng, RET performance models 1 Introducton Accurate and consstent evaluaton of Renewable Energy Technology (RET) systems performance s crtcal for the contnung development of the assocated ndustry. For RET equpment and component manufacturers, performance evaluatons are benchmarks of qualty for exstng products. For RET system ntegrators/operators, montorng of system performance s an ndcator of the good operaton of the system thus a more effcent mantenance and early fault / warnng detecton can be acheved. For research and development teams, they are a key metrc for helpng to dentfy future needs. For end-users, they are vtal tools for evaluatng ther nvestment and for maxmzng ther fnancal beneft from the use of the RET systems. For natonal authortes, they are the only means of evaluatng the effectveness of a state grant and a more accurate predcton as compared to the feasblty studes of the return they have n terms of CO 2 emssons avoded. Currently, real-tme n-stu performance montorng of nstalled RET systems s qute rare and lmted. Addtonally, only a few attempts have resulted n actual commercal products. Most of those attempts regard the performance montorng of Photovoltac (PV) systems. Parameters descrbng energy quanttes for the PV system and ts components have been establshed by the Internatonal Energy Agency (IEA) Photovoltac Power Systems Program and are descrbed n the standard IEC [1]. Most commercal products for montorng PV nstallatons provde basc nformaton on the energy produced and also some functonalty on management of PV systems e.g. [2], [3]. Such systems are usually offered by nverter manufacturers. Some more complete and nverter model - ndependent solutons are offered [4], [5], but stll not assocated wth sensors for montorng the performance for both, PV modules and nverters, and thus heavly dependent on gettng electrcty producton data from the nverter. Another lmtaton of these systems s that they do not provde any smart functons such as automated detecton and analyss of faults. In addton, there s not a sngle system that ncludes montorng of a number of RET devces, such as solar thermal, geothermal and wnd turbne. Other solutons also exst for PV plants [6-10] or wnd turbnes [11]. The need for a holstc tool to montor the performance of varous RET nstallatons wthout the drawbacks of the above systems led to the development of the EnergyWarden Polcy tool (EW- P), whch s presented n the next sectons. The work s part of the Energy Warden European Project enttled Desgn and Real Tme Energy Sourcng Decsons n Buldngs [12], whch ams n the development of three dfferent modules that nteract between them: The Energy Warden Smulator (EW- S), the Energy Warden Controller (EW-C) and the Energy Warden Polcy (EW-U/P). The Smulator asssts the user n the procedure of optmzng the system n the desgn phase and defnes the set ponts for the Controller n real operaton. The Controller optmzes n real-tme the energy flows, and transmts data from sensors to the EW-U/P module whch contnuously montors the RET devces & buldng performance and carbon emssons. ISB:

2 2 The EnergyWarden Polcy Tool The man objectve of the EW-P s to draw up a hgher level functonalty, whch wll support RET systems polcy conformance and CO 2 emsson tradng, by allowng the assessment of a buldng s energy performance and of each specfc RET devce s performance, aganst exstng polces or standards. The EW-P tool functonalty s based on eght dfferent performance montorng models, almost all of whch are based on exstng nternatonal standards. The standards, n most cases, have been approprately adapted for n-stu montorng, snce they are usually meant for laboratory use. Table 1 below presents the models developed and the standards on whch they were based. The CO 2 emssons model s the only one not to be based on an nternatonal standard, snce there s not any standard for such calculatons, but ts development has been based on emsson factors defned by EU countres authortes. All mathematcal models have been ntegrated nto the unque EW-P tool, whch s currently under ts fnal development phase n the form of a web applcaton. The EW-P can be used ether n combnaton wth an EW-C nstallaton, n whch case all necessary nstallaton and real-tme sensor data can be retreved from the EW-C database, or as a stand-alone soluton for montorng (wthout controllng) any RET plant. In the last scenaro, approprate hardware guarantees that the necessary sensor data are stored n an EW-P database. EW-P model Solar PV Performance Wnd Turbne Performance Solar Thermal System Performance Geothermal Pumps Performance Inverter Performance Converter Performance Battery Performance CO 2 Emssons Standard IEC :1998 IEC :2006 E :2006, ISO :1995 E :2011 IEC 61683:1999 UL 1741:2005 Based on Inverter procedure IEC 62124:2004 SAP, DEFRA and Lenzen Table 1: The EW-P models and the nternatonal standards on whch they were based 3 The EW-P models The eght mathematcal models developed are here presented. Sgnfcant modfcatons wth respect to the standards are also emphassed. 3.1 PV Performance Model In order to contnuously montor the performance of a PV nstallaton, ths EW-P model uses a methodology based on the nternatonal standard IEC It s mportant to state though, that n order for the EW-P PV performance model to produce results that are n lne wth the IEC standard, all sensors and data acquston system should be chosen accordng to the specfed crtera descrbed n the standard. One of the man parameters calculated s the PV system s fnal yeld. The fnal PV system yeld f s the net energy output E A,d dvded by the rated output power P 0 of the nstalled PV array. It represents the number of hours that the PV array would need to operate at ts rated power to provde the same energy. E A, d f [kwh/kw] or [h] (1) P 0 The reference yeld r s the total n-plane rradance G I dvded by the PV s reference rradance G I,ref. It represents an equvalent number of hours at the reference rradance. If G I equals 1 kw/m 2, then r s the number of peak sun-hours or the solar radaton n unts of kwh/m 2. G I r [h] (2) GI, ref Another mportant parameter that the EW-P PV performance montorng module wll be montorng s the PV array s performance rato. The performance rato R p s the f dvded by the r. By normalzng wth respect to rradance, t quantfes the overall effect of losses on the rated output. f R p (3) r The model calculates also varous other energy sums and losses, as defned n the correspondng standard. Those are the array yeld, the converson effcency, the load effcency, the BOS effcency, the BOS losses and the array capture losses. All ISB:

3 model output defntons can be found n the standard on whch the model was based. 3.2 WT Performance Model The methodology followed by the EW-P Wnd Turbne performance montorng model s based on the Internatonal Standard IEC [13]. The purpose of the part of the standard utlsed s to provde a unform methodology that wll ensure consstency, accuracy and reproducblty n the measurement and analyss of power performance by wnd turbnes. The model presents measurement procedures for the power performance characterstcs of a sngle wnd turbne and apples to the testng of wnd turbnes of all types and szes connected to the electrcal power network. In addton, the model provdes specfc nformaton to be used to determne the power characterstcs of small wnd turbnes [14] (IEC : Swept area smaller than 200 m 2 and generated voltage below 1000 VAC or 1500 VDC) when connected to ether the power network or a battery bank. The measured power curve s determned by applyng the method of bns for the normalsed data sets, usng 0,5 m/s bns and by calculaton of the mean values of the normalsed wnd speed and normalsed power output for each wnd speed bn accordng to the equatons: V 1 1 P j V 1 n,, j j P 1 n,, j [m/s] (4) [W] (5),where V s the normalsed and averaged wnd speed n bn, V n,,j s the normalsed wnd speed of data set j n bn, P s the normalsed and averaged power output n bn, P n,,j s the normalsed power output of data set j n bn and s the number of 10 mn data sets n bn. Generc AEP s estmated by applyng the measured power curve to dfferent reference wnd speed frequency dstrbutons. A Raylegh dstrbuton, whch s dentcal to a Webull dstrbuton wth a shape factor of 2, s used as the reference wnd speed frequency dstrbuton. AEP estmatons are made for hub heght annual average wnd speeds of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 m/s, accordng to the equaton: P 1 + P AEP h [ F( V ) ( )] 1 F V [kwh] (6) 1 2, where h s the number of hours n one year (8760) and s the number of bns and: π V F( V ) 1 exp 4 V ave 2 (7), where F(V) s the Raylegh cumulatve probablty dstrbuton functon for wnd speed, V ave s the annual average wnd speed at hub heght and V s the wnd speed. The summaton s ntated by settng V -1 equal to V -0,5 m/s and P -1 equal to 0 kw. The model calculates also the uncertantes n all measurements as well as some addtonal coeffcents defned n the nternatonal standard on whch t has been based. The model outputs are: The measured power curve of the wnd turbne, the wnd turbne annual energy producton measured for dfferent annual average wnd speeds, the wnd turbne annual energy producton extrapolated for all dfferent annual average wnd speeds, the power coeffcent of the wnd turbne as well as all the varous category A, B and Combned uncertantes. 3.3 Inverter/ Converter Performance Model The methodology the EW-P nverter model s based on the parameters calculated n the Internatonal Standard IEC [15]. Ths standard provdes the means to evaluate the ntrnsc effcency of power condtoners n the factory. evertheless, the major quanttes calculated n the standard can also be calculated n real tme operaton and the methodology has been adjusted n the EW-P module to serve ths purpose. A smlar approach s also used n the converter performance montorng model. The man model output s the nverter effcency. Inverter effcency s a percent measure of the converson of DC electrcty from the solar panels and other renewable sources or from the batteres to AC electrcty. Ths effcency descrbes the rato between the nput and output power and the qualty of the power electroncs. When the nverter s operatng below ts rated output, the effcency can also be referred to as partal effcency. The EW-P nverter performance montorng module contnuously montors the output power (P out ) and nput power (P n ) of the nverter and calculates ts nstant effcency. For each effcency value calculated, the output power value s also stored, n order to be able to calculate the two weghted effcency values: The European weghted (EU) effcency, and the Calforna Energy Commsson ISB:

4 (CEC) effcency. The dfference between EU and CEC effcency les manly n the way each nput level s weghted. They are calculated usng the followng formulas: 0.04 CEC 10% 20% 30% (8) % 50% % 75% % +... EU 5% 10% 20% 30% (9) , where xxx% s the nstant nverter effcency at xxx% of ts nomnal output power: P out x% (10) Pn The energy effcency s another parameter that the EW-P model calculates n an hourly bass. It s useful as an ndex of performance, but t s related to the whole system functonalty, snce the nverter effcency s hghly dependent on the output power requred. Energy effcency s calculated from measured data as: W o E (11) W, where W o s the output energy durng one hour of operaton and W s the nput energy durng one hour of operaton. The model montors also the nverter harmonc dstortons, accordng to the IEC standard. 3.4 Battery Performance Model The method followed by the EW-P battery performance montorng module s based on the nternatonal standard IEC [16]. Even though the standard s meant for use wth PV-based systems, the parts that regard the battery performance can be perfectly adjusted for use wth the EW-P system. The battery performance s not possble to be montored n real tme n the same way wth the earler descrbed system components. The battery s usually charged and dscharged at random rates, accordng to the user needs and the controller decsons. In addton, the battery s remanng charge depends on the rate at whch t wll be dscharged and the battery s full charge capacty decreases wth tme. Even though the battery SOC and power n and out are contnuously montored n the EW system, a specal procedure needs to be followed once a year, to accurately calculate the battery s maxmum capacty and calbrate the system. The performance test conssts of an ntal check of the battery capacty whch s done mmedately after system nstallaton and an evaluaton test whch s performed yearly, n order to calculate the new maxmum battery capacty and estmate ts losses. The battery capacty shall not decrease more than 10% over the testng perod, expressed by (UBC 0 UBC 1 ) / UBC 0 < 10% for the frst year and (UBC n-1 UBC n ) / UBC n-1 < 10% for the next years. UBC stands for Usable Battery Capacty. 3.5 Solar Thermal System Performance Model Ths specfc model s actually based on two separate sub-models, namely the Solar Collector performance montorng model and the Storage Tank performance montorng model. For the Collector, the procedure gven n European Standard E [17] have been adapted to the EW-P needs, whch calculates the collector performance by measurng the transfer flud s enterng and extng temperature and the correspondng solar rradance. The recorded nstant effcency values, combned wth correspondng solar rradaton G and Temperature dfference T m values are used to obtan an nstantaneous effcency curve of the form: * ( T ) 2 α T α G (12) * 0 1 m 2 m The three coeffcents 0, a 1, a 2 permt to plot the collector effcency curve for varous water temperature dfferences and rradaton levels and compare t to the manufacturer s values, usually avalable for 400, 700 and 1000 W/m 2 and temperature dfferences of 10, 30, 50 K. Regardng the storage tank s performance, ths s measured n terms of ts heat loss coeffcent. The methodology followed s based on the Internatonal Standard ISO [18]. 3.6 Ground Source Heat Pump Performance Model A geothermal heat pump, or ground source heat pump (GSHP), transfers heat from under the ground to the nsde of a buldng, where t can be used for space heatng or water heatng. The Coeffcent of Performance (CoP) of a geothermal heat pump s used to descrbe how effcently a partcular heat pump s operatng n practce. It s the rato of ISB:

5 useful heat movement to energy nput. CoP, as defned n E [19], s the rato of the heatng capacty to the effectve power nput of the unt, expressed n Watt/Watt. The EW-P estmates n real tme the nstant COP of the GSHP, as: CoP heatng Q H / W (13) CoP coolng Q C / W (14), where CoP heatng s the coeffcent of performance for heatng a buldng, CoP coolng s the coeffcent of performance for coolng a buldng, Q H s the heat suppled to the nteror of the buldng n order to heat t, Q C s the heat removed from the buldng n order to cool t and W s the electrcal energy used to operate the heat pump. In order to normalze the CoP to standard test results, a CoP capacty factor, f COP s defned: f COP CoP / CoP REF (15) and a heatng capacty factor, f Q, s gven by: f Q Q / Q REF (16), where the subscrpt REF denotes the reference value beng used from the manufacturers data at reference condtons of 35 o C output temperature delvered to the buldng and a brne temperature, relatng to ground temperature, of 0 o C. 3.7 CO 2 Emssons Model The EW-P calculates the CO 2 emssons of each specfc RET devce/and of the buldng as a whole, by multplyng the energy generated by each energy source (ncludng the grd) by a predefned factor. CO 2 emsson factors are avalable from the authortes of each country and from the lterature. The CO 2 emssons attrbutable to kwh of energy consumed, for a factor F, are equal to: F x [kg CO 2 ] (17) In general, the total CO 2 emssons n kg of CO 2 are gven by the followng summaton: Type of fuel F Mans electrcty n Cyprus 0.79 Mans electrcty n the EU (avg) 0.38 Electrcty generated by wnd Electrcty generated by solar PV Table 2: CO 2 emsson factors 4 The EW-P web-applcaton The above models outputs are presented to the user through the EW-P web applcaton. Each of the models calculates varous parameters and ndexes, not all of whch are of nterest for all the varous EW-P user categores. In total, three user categores have been defned n the EW-P web applcaton: (a) Buldng owner/resdent, (b) Renewable systems manufacturers/nstallers/operators, (c) Certfcaton bodes and montorng authortes. The most complete nterface s the one for the Certfcaton bodes, whch ncludes all avalable outputs. The EW-P web applcaton s currently n ts fnal development phase. ASP.ET s used for the webste s front-end, Mcrosoft SQL Server for data keepng and processng and the Kentco CMS system for end users to be able to alter webste content. The platform facltates data acquston from a wde range of hgh-end sensors calbrated by accredted laboratory and provdes a real-tme dsplay of the readngs as nformaton flows nto the system. It ncludes several smart modules ncludng automated fault detecton and analyss, forecast predctons of revenues as well as advanced fnancal analyss and reportng. It enables users to dsplay trend charts of multple nstallatons and sensors across selectable tme perods and to export the data to databases, text fle and Ms Excel spreadsheets. A screenshot s shown n the followng fgure. Ɖ (F x ) [kg CO 2 ] (18), where F s the CO 2 emsson factor for the th fuel and s the correspondng energy n kwh. For exportng to grd, F wll have a negatve value and wll be the number of KWh exported to the grd. The total energy generated locally and suppled to the grd, multpled by the correspondng F factor, s commonly referred to as CO 2 emssons avoded. Some example factors are gven n the table below and are avalable from [20-22]. ISB:

6 Fg. 1: Screenshot of the EW-P web-applcaton 5 Conclusons The EW-P tool has been presented, wth emphass on the mathematcal models developed for the realtme n-stu performance montorng of varous RET devces and systems. Performance calculatons and sensor accuraces/uncertantes are based on latest Internatonal Standards. A web-applcaton has also been desgned and s currently n ts fnal stage of development. The EW-P system presents sgnfcant benefts for all possble users, wth the most drect one beng the fnancal beneft for the end-user, because of the mmedate fault detecton and more accurate forecast predctons for revenues. It s also expected that the use of EW-P wll lead to an ncrease of qualty of servces and products snce manufacturers and servce provders (nstallers, mantenance) wll beneft from a real tme performance montorng tool. Informaton obtaned can also be used to refne gudelnes, mprove system desgn and develop best practce gudes. EW-P when runnng n combnaton wth the smulator (EW-S), t can predct accurately for each devce the performance at varous condtons, thus t can tran EW-S to desgn more accurately a new system wth smlar devces whle when runnng wth the Controller (EW-C) t can predct better the system electrcty or thermal energy generated thus performng more accurately any control decsons. Addtonally, data collected can be used by the buldngs and energy (electrcty, thermal) ndustres to evaluate the sutablty of each technology n varous cases and locatons. As an ndrect beneft from the use of EW-P, t s realstc to assume an ncrease of RET devce sales due to hgher accuracy of fnancal projectons of RET plants. Fnally, more accurate estmaton of 2020 atonal Targets can be acheved, because of the accurate predctons of CO 2 calculatons of a RET plant. References: [1] IEC, Photovoltac System Performance - Gudelnes for Measurement, Data Exchange, and Analyss, Internatonal Standard IEC 61724, [2] 6A2BBDB2-CABAB706/fronus_nternatonal/ hs.xsl/83_16076_eg_html.htm [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] Energy Warden, Grant Agr. o: , Desgn and Real Tme Energy Sourcng Decsons n Buldngs, funded by EC, DG IFSO under the FP7 Program, Webste: [13] IEC, Wnd turbnes Part 12-1: Power performance measurements of electrcty producng wnd turbnes, Internatonal Standard IEC , [14] IEC, Wnd turbnes Part 2: Desgn requrements for small wnd turbnes, Internatonal Standard IEC , [15] IEC, Photovoltac systems Power condtoners Procedure for measurng effcency, Internatonal Standard IEC 61683, [16] IEC, Photovoltac (PV) stand-alone systems Desgn verfcaton, Internatonal Standard IEC 62124, [17] E, Thermal solar systems and components Solar collectors Part 2: Test methods, European Standard E , [18] ISO, Solar heatng - Domestc water heatng Systems - Part 2: Outdoor test methods for System Performance characterzaton and yearly Performance predcton of solar--only Systems, Internatonal Standard ISO , [19] E, Ar condtoners, lqud chllng packages and heat pumps wth electrcally drven compressors for space heatng and coolng, European Standard E 14511, [20] BRE, The Government s Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Ratng of Dwellngs, 2009 edton. [21] Department for envronment, food and rural affars, UK publshed fgures, [22] Lenzen, M., Lfe cycle energy and greenhouse gas emssons of nuclear energy: A revew, Energy Converson and Management, Vol. 49, pp , ISB:

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