1 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LATIN AMERICA International Mining and Oil & Gas Law, Development and Investment Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. April 2011 Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation International Institute on International Mineral Law Ali Shakhtur S. Attorney at Law, Chile MSc in Management, Universidad Alcalá de Henares LLM in Commercial and Corporate Law, London School of Economics Alvaro Hercolani B. Attorney at Law Master in Communitarian Law, Universidad Complutense
2 1. Introduction Alternative energy simply means energy that is produced from sources other than our primary energy supply: fossil fuels. Coal, oil and natural gas are the three kinds of fossil fuels that we have mostly depended on for our energy needs, from home heating and electricity to fuel for our automobiles and mass transportation. The problem is, fossil fuels are non-renewable 1. The importance of renewable energy is indisputable. Developed countries and even oil & gas based economies are focusing and evidencing its importance. An example of this was the commitment reached by the G-20 leaders in 2009 (Pittsburgh Meeting) to rationalize and phase out over the medium term inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption (these subsidies totalized US$ 312 billion in 2009) 2. Well known is also the commitment declared by the European Union to reach a 100 percent renewable energy supply by In Latin America, renewable energy use raises to an impressive 30 percent of the total primary energy supply in comparison with the 6 percent share of renewables in the OECD countries (and the less than 1 percent in Middle East). But the numbers are not as good as they seem as generation is mostly dominated by large hydro generation plants and bio-fuel: the first heavily depending on the changing water levels (and particularly affected by droughts due to climate changes) and the second highly criticized due to its failure in reducing greenhouse gases. Latin America is in a state of continuing progress in the investment and use of renewable energy. From a very timid start we can now see various renewable projects which would soon provide more sources of energy to our countries. The technology and know-how has also been imported to Latin America and we can now see agreements with more advanced countries (in this particular field) like the one entered into between Portugal and Venezuela and the United Kingdom with Cuba. However, the market of alternative energies is far from perfection. There are a number of barriers and difficulties to overcome and therefore there is still work to be done. In this context, we will analyze other realities and some examples and cases in Latin American countries. We will finally, examine the coexistence between renewable projects, mining and 1 Fossils Fuels vs. Renewable Energy Resources: Energy's Future Today by Eric Mclamb. 2 World Energy Outlook International Energy Agency EIA.
3 hydrocarbons where their relationship is sometimes pacific and collaborative and -in some occasions- hostile and conflicting. 2. The Use Alternative Energies and Growth of Energy Requirements Worldwide According to a recent study prepared by the US Energy Information Administration 3, the use of all energy sources will raise importantly in the short and medium term ( ). It is also anticipated that the world oil prices will remain relatively high through most of the projection period as liquid fuels and other petroleum will continue to be the world's slowest-growing sources of energy. Accordingly, the expected consumption of liquid hydrocarbons will increase at an average annual rate of 0.9 percent from 2007 to 2035, whereas total energy demand should increase by 1.4 percent per year. The above must be contrasted to the case of renewables, which are the fastest-growing source of world energy, with consumption increasing by 2.6 percent per year. Today, it is estimated that fossil fuels and nuclear constitute 93% of the world energy resources, whilst renewables amount just to 7%. Consequently, the projected oil prices, as well as the widespread concern about the environmental impact of fossil fuel use and the increasingly strong government incentives to enhance the use of renewable energy in many countries around the world, improve the prospects for renewable energy sources worldwide in the outlook. If we add to this the phase-out of subsidies for fossil sources in Europe and some states in the U.S., then the future is quite promising for renewables. As we can see in the figure below (which we believe rather conservative), by 2035 renewable will double nuclear and reach an important level of consumption worldwide. As to hydrocarbon source fuels, they will continue with the same trend. The point here is that the world demand is growing but increasingly supplied by other sources of energy. Yet, the world challenge for transforming the energy grid from fossils to renewables must overcome many obstacles. 3 International Energy Outlook, July US Energy Information Administration.
4 EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2009) 3. Barriers, Risks, Incentives and Challenges. As indicated above, renewable projects are still subject to restrictions. The slow adaptation of domestic legal systems to consider real incentives to the development of renewable energies have made things harder than they should have been. Unfortunately, there is a natural inclination to compare these projects as equal to mining and even to oil & gas, where they should be analyzed considering other motives and factors. Moreover, the abundance and progress in the development of resources such as oil, gas and hydro makes their exploitation easier and less costly. Therefore, alternative energy projects are usually much more expensive comparing cost, risk and expected benefit making the existence of public incentives so important for their viability. For example, geothermal power -a resource with an outstanding capacity factor of 85 to 95 percent- requires large exploration expenditures that normally private investors are trying to transfer or at least share with the states or public entities.
5 With the above in mind, we can be sure that the future of renewable hinges critically on strong government support 4. The role of governments is decisive to make alternative energies cost competitive. As to the perspective for renewable energies, according to the studies made by the International Energy Agency (consistent with other available studies), the most significant increase will come from the power generation sector. In effect, it is estimated that by 2035 the electricity generated by renewable will reach approximately 33 percent of the total generation. Such increase will mainly come from hydropower and wind followed by solar which -although increasing rapidly- will only amount to a 2 percent of the total power generation. The growth evidenced by renewable energies in the last decade is mainly due to specific incentives implemented in the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (US). We will see those incentives in very general terms and -with a bit of more detail- in Latin America. The European Union. Europe is definitely leading the renewable energy development. A demonstration of this is the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources through the adoption of a Directive 5 as part of the Climate & Energy Legislative Package which includes several regulations that re-launched the renewable energy policy in the EU. The Directive not only sets the objective of reaching 20 percent of the EU s energy consumption from renewable energy sources by 2020, but it includes a 20 percent reduction in primary energy use and 20 percent reduction of greenhouse gases compared to 1990 levels. In addition, in all three sectors (electricity, heating-cooling and transport) the EU states are formulating Renewable Energy Action Plans as well as a mandatory share of 10 percent renewable energy source in transport for each such member state. Forecast disclosed by EU member countries indicates that EU could reach and overtake the 20% target by The early implementation of incentives by some EU members has placed some countries in position to generate even more renewable energy than the EU requirements. The two more wide extended incentives are the feed-in tariffs (FIT) and the green certificates which intervene in the electricity generation phase, i.e. the 85% of the 500 MW wind energy installed by 2010 were under feed-in tariffs. FIT system allowed private generators of renewable electricity to be highly compensated for long terms while green certificates encourage the creation of a renewable energy sources market. 4 World Energy Outlook International Energy Agency - EIA. 5 Directive 2009/28/EC Renewable Energy Development Directive, April 2009.
6 The United States of America. Although the systems may vary from one state to another, the most common instrument for boosting renewable energies in the USA are Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs), Investment Tax Credits (ITC) and Production Tax Credit (PTC) (feed in tariffs have also been adopted recently in some states). CREBs are tax credit bonds with an interest-free finance rate. The entire interest on the bond is paid by the U.S. Treasury in the form of a tax credit. The borrower has five years to spend 95 percent of the proceeds. The tax credit rate is posted daily by the U.S. Treasury. The discount rate is designed to provide for the maximum term equal to produce 50 percent of the face amount of the bond (approximately 11 years). The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 6, extended PTC and ITC instruments -which have been critical to the growth of the renewable energy sector- to The PTC for wind -as the largest source of renewable energy today- has the greatest impact in the relevant budget. Behind we can find the PTC for incremental hydro, geothermal, municipal solid waste, bio-energy wave and tidal energy. Latin America. Latin America is an aggregation of markets with limited interconnection and diverse growth prospects due to differences in the power generation mix -including varying reliance on hydro- and in economic development, political orientation and wind resources. Wind power -for example- is a relative newcomer to Latin America, with yearly installations greater than 100 MW only in three of the last 10 years. This irregular activity has begun to stabilize thanks to more mature policies, resulting in a more coherent context of growing pipelines, installations and supply 7. An important factor in the development of renewable energies is each country s approach to them. Although governments seem to encourage the investment in new energies, there is an evident lack of adequate regulation. According to a study carried out by IHS Emerging Energy Research, they concluded that -because of this insufficient adequate regulation and inexperience- local developers can hinder industry growth by underestimating costs and creating a nebulous pipeline of noneconomical projects. 6 The Act was enacted by President Obama in February Latin America Warms to Wind, David Appleyard. Renewable Energy World Magazine, September 2010.
7 At the same time, governments intend to implement, control and monitor the investments and development of renewable energy usually by centralizing everything in one or two state departments or agencies (including regulation, organization of tenders, control of investment for applying special benefits and so on). In many cases the centralization has lead to excessive delays which ultimately result in a discouragement for companies wanting to invest, for example, delays in wind power tenders in Argentina and in geothermal power in Chile. Another phenomenon to be considered relates to the rapid economic growth in some developing countries: the necessity of satisfying the dramatic raise in the energy demand has created the urgency of implementing large generation projects capable of satisfying such growing demand. But things are starting to change. Latin American countries such as Brazil, Uruguay, Peru and Panama are making real efforts in receiving more developers for projects. In other countries, tenders for single projects are also generating some competition. Such is the case of Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic. Accordingly, the challenge today in Latin America is to rightly develop the abundant available renewable energy sources, which vary depending on the geographical features of each country. To have an idea, wind has an important presence in Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries and also some presence in the southern cone. But the trend may change according to a study 8 which anticipates that Brazil -by will lead in wind energy with 31,6 GW installed, followed by Mexico way behind with 6,6 GW and then Chile. Solar on its part, is more evenly distributed in the region and except for site specific adverse microclimates it is a reliable and predictable resource 9. The small hydroelectric resources have a large potential given the rather exclusive development use of large scale projects that characterized the region in last decades. Geothermal resources are wide present in the Andes related countries and Mexico but still without relevant presence in the grid. Undoubted is the enormous potential of energy available in the ocean for coastal countries but still subject to a large economical and technical gap. 8 Latin America Power Markets and Strategies: Renewable Energy World Magazine Renewable Energy Resources in Latin America. Global Energy Network Institute
8 The case of Mexico. Until recently, the Mexican Constitution banned private development of renewable energy power plants stating that electricity generation for public use was an activity reserved exclusively to public entities. This has now changed due to a new law that regulates renewable energy production for private use, facilitating the injection of this energy in the electricity grid: the Law for the use of Renewable Energy and the Financing of the Energy Transition 10. This regulation substantially improves the legal framework for private investment in renewable energy projects regulating renewable energy electricity generation for purposes other than providing public electricity services. The law states that the use of renewable energy for electricity generation is possible for private use and any excess energy can be sold (always subject to the approval of Mexico s energy regulatory body, the CRE). On the other hand, the large reserves of fossil fuels have obviously conditioned the Mexican electricity grid, which is dominated by combined-cycle power plants. Natural gas turbine technology that fomented the long term supply contracts dominates the generation. The current share of renewables in the generation mix is approximately 2%. At this rate of growth, Mexico will only reach 4.5 percent renewables in the electricity mix by The case of Brazil. Brazil is a leading actor in the environmental area and renewable sources with the best energy matrix among the top economies. In fact, in 2009, 90 percent of the energy generated in Brazil came from renewable sources, primarily hydro (83.7%), biomass (5.9%) and wind (0.3%) 11. The Country s electricity sector is aimed to diversify the national energy matrix away from the historical dependence on large hydropower plants in order to reduce the dependency between energy produced and rainfall level. Few years ago, the hydroelectric power represented about 90 percent of the installed capacity and by 2008 this participation had dropped to a 74 percent due to the construction of power plants based in other sources such as thermoelectric (natural gas and biomass). Brazil advances in the renewable energy sector today are a model for other countries interested in diversifying their energy portfolio being the world leader in renewable energy. Brazil has one of the lowest carbon electricity matrices in the world with nearly three quarters of the country s 10 Ley para el Aprovechamiento de Energías Renovables y el Financiamiento de la Transición Energética. October Empresa de Pesquisa Energética (EPE).
9 total installed capacity of 107 GW coming from hydro sources, both, large and small. Among renewables, ethanol clearly dominates the investment with approximately 70 percent of all new renewable energy projects. The country is supporting its use through a mandatory 25 percent ethanol blend in gasoline and a 5 percent biodiesel mandatory blend. Brazil has been so successful that the Government was able to cut most of the incentives for ethanol as it is already prepared to compete directly with fossil fuels. At the same time, there are also numerous projects in wind, biomass, solar and hydro energy which are being boosted by the Government through the Incentive Program for Alternative Electric Energy Sources (PROINFA) and the regular power generation auctions that are held every year. Strong energy policies, the renewable energy auctions and aid programs should allow Brazil significant growth in wind energy investment and to reach the world s highest biomass and small-hydro power capacities. Potential investment in renewables from 2010 to 2020 is forecasted to reach $67 billion, permitting the installation of 25 GW of renewable energy generating capacity. The case of Argentina. Historically, the oil and natural gas share in the Argentine energy matrix has been dominating. Today, in spite of the increasing demand for oil and natural gas in Argentina -only temporarily eased by the slowdown resulting from the world financial crisis- domestic production of hydrocarbons is decreasing. Since that decline has a direct impact in the energy system, it is inevitable to conclude that the current composition of the Argentine energy matrix, the E&P 12 activities crisis, the global financial crisis and growing environmental issues will pave the road for the development of renewable energies. In this context, Argentina has the potential to become a leading producer of alternative energies. Photovoltaic and geothermal energy could be successfully developed in Argentina. The country is well known for its abundant sunlight and many volcanic sites along The Andes, where hot water and steam could be used to generate electricity. In the regulation side it is worth mentioning that Argentina is one of the few countries in the region that implemented feed-in tariff policies, even 12 Exploration and Production of Oil & Gas.
10 though they are not as generous as the European Union system providing generators an additional US$0.23/kwh for solar photovoltaic installations on top of the regulated electricity price 13. The case of Chile. In Chile, Law introduced -effective from the mandate for the generating companies with more than 200 MW installed to produce at least 5 percent of their energy from renewable sources and, as of 2014, this obligation shall rise 0.5 percent annually until reaching 10 percent by This significant boost should enhance the electricity generated from renewable energy up to MW by Considering the 6 percent expected average growth of Chile, the country will need to pass from its MW installed today to approximately MW in 15 years. The mandated quota is in the right path although insufficient for a country with a strong economy. The current heavy drought in the country has dropped the hydro generation from the regular 60 percent to a worrying 32 percent. The high level of electricity price in Chile -one of the highest in Latin Americahas encouraged investments in renewable energy from diverse sources. Wind energy projects portfolio reached almost 300 MW in the short term while investments in solar energy should reach US$1.300 in the next 10 years taking advantage from the large desert in the North of the country. Although this positive environment for the renewable energy, in parallel large coal power projects have been approved threatening the diversification of the power grid to give room to renewable energy. 4. Interplay Between Alternative Energies and Mining/Oil & Gas Projects As we can observe from the above analysis, there is an important relationship between alternative energy projects on the one side and mining and oil and gas projects on the other. We will first refer to the superficial and operation rights and then to the energy generation point of view. a) The superficial and operation rights: As we can anticipate, we may have two or three different rights in nature covering the same geographic area (usually with interests in different geological depths). For instance the right to install and operate wind 13 Other countries with feed-in-tariffs are Ecuador and Nicaragua. 14 Ley de Fomento de las Energías Renovables No Convencionales, 2008.
11 turbines, or to develop a geothermal power plant in areas where there are already mining exploration operations. At first sight it could seem impracticable, but it is not. We may even have also E&P operations at the same time, and each coexistent right with its relevant accessory rights as the right of way (use) over the area. The above is not just possible but normal and should not cause a conflict per se. Mining, oil & gas and renewable projects may need the use of large extensions of territory and normally they will coexist without problems. In some cases the specific areas of interest (i.e. mining exploitation and geothermal development) may be the same -although the geological horizons are necessarily different- and the possible conflict must be resolved. The exploration phase (superficial works) in most of renewables is usually a not invasive operation carried out in a relatively short period of time. Exploitation development on its part, is essentially fenced with rather small areas of full occupation in comparison with the huge areas usually owned by individuals or communities. In most of our legislations concerning renewable development activities there are only particular provisions for geothermal energy and hydro. In effect, solar power, wind energy, tidal energy, biomass and others are subject to general legislation. There is the need of authorizations from environmental entities and superficial land owners, but there are no rights existing independently as in the case of mining or oil & gas activities where there are rights which are proprietary in nature 15. Having said that, it remains to be analyzed how Latin American countries deal with conflicts specifically in the case of Geothermal Energy. We will briefly refer to the legislation in countries with important geothermal resources and potential: In Argentina, the Geothermal Energy (right to use the endogenous vapor from the earth) is treated in the Mining Code 16 in the same way as mining exploitation and, therefore, as mining right receives the same treatment. Therefore, there is a right, proprietary in nature, over the geothermal concession. In case of conflict with other mining or oil exploration/exploitation rights, the one constituted before should prevail in case they cannot coexist. If the exploitations are compatible, then the last right constituted will bear any additional costs associated with the exploration or exploitation. The case of Mexico is particular as it lacks a comprehensive regulation, but despite this, it ranks in the top five of world geothermal production. The National Waters Law 17 provides that the exploitation or use of vapor or water with a temperature higher than 80 degrees will require a 15 Derecho Real. 16 Código de Minería, texto ordenado por decreto 456/ Ley de Aguas Nacionales, Art 81.
12 Concession if such exploitation can affect a water source (acuífero). In fact, the development has so far been carried out by the state through the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE). Costa Rica on the other hand, has an older but very basic geothermal regulation with its first geothermal law in All the activities relating to geothermal energy are managed by the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) which actually performs the exploration and exploitation activities using foreign specialized companies mainly for the provision of associated services. In this particular case, the major issue is not the conflict with other right holders but the intervention of natural parks. There are no specific provisions dealing with the conflicts between the geothermal activities and mining (oil is not an issue in Costa Rica) but the ICE is entitled to acquire land, exercise rights and do everything needed for the fulfillment of its law mandate. A similar situation we find in El Salvador where the exploitation is only performed by LaGeo, a company controlled by the State through GESAL where ENEL 19 holds less than 40 percent of its shares but performing all the geothermal exploration and exploitation work. As in the case of Costa Rica, is finally the state the one that decides and controls the activities. In the case of Chile, the Geothermal Law 20 provides an administrative action in favor of right owners of mining, oil & gas, land owners and other right holders to -without prejudice to other judicial rights- oppose to a specific request or public tender for geothermal areas. After considering the arguments from interested parties, the Energy Minister will issue a Decree 21 either awarding the area -with or without limitations or special considerations- or rejecting the request or withdrawing the area from the public tender, as the case may be. For coexisting rights, the first constituted prefers the latter. In that case, the right holder (geothermal, mining or hydrocarbons) must bear and incur all the costs associated with the works needed to avoid or repair the damages caused to the first right holder. Finally, a potential conflict that is becoming a highly topical question is the one related with the water rights. This involves not just the landowner/community with the renewable project developer but also the mining and oil & gas project as well. Currently, this issue has been successfully resolved applying a mix of technical and legal principles bearing in mind the different depths of the targets. Normally, the geothermal reservoir is at a depth of 1000 to 2500 meters and a water wells will reach 250 to 300 at the deepest. 18 Ley de ENEL Green Power S.p.A. 20 Ley /2.000 sobre Concesiones de Energía Geotérmica. 21 Decreto Supremo.
13 The situation will be much more challenging between the oil & gas operator and the geothermal one. With similar depth targets the principle of the first right holder will prevail in terms that if the latter affects the previously constituted will have to bear any restriction and/or compensate any damage. b) The generation viewpoint: Although it is not the main topic of this paper, it is worth highlighting the increasing need of renewable energy in mining and even in oil & gas operations. It is a fact that mining and E&P companies have started to invest in renewable energy projects and have also acquired participation in renewable energy companies. In the case of mining, with some frequency projects are located in areas were energy availability becomes an issue. The level of investment to secure the energy needed to explore and then to develop and exploit minerals sometimes render a venture uneconomic thus affecting the materialization of the project. Although legislation encouraging investment in renewable energy is still developing, high levels of investment already justify the study of alternative energy sources. That is the case of geothermal power in Chile, which, if developed, may contribute importantly to the exploitation of minerals in the north part of the country or the wind and solar projects in Argentina and Brazil. Environmental authorities in fact are now requesting studies about feasibility of using renewable energy sources in mining projects. 5. Conclusions The use of alternative energies is clearly increasing and countries are somehow committed to reaching ambitious targets on generation from renewable sources of energy. At the same time we have noticed an incipient and undeveloped level regulation of this type of energies and, therefore, there is still room for encouraging alternative energy investment in Latin America. The timid start has started to change and the level of commitment -and effectiveness of measures- is to be seen in the following years. Although there is still a long way to go, the progress is clear and investment in renewable has sharply increased in recent years. Countries have set more ambitious objectives in laws and now power generation and/or commercialization companies will have to comply and reach levels of electric generation from renewable sources in the upcoming years.
14 With respect to E&P and mining operations we have seen that the countries almost exclusively refer to geothermal energy as it is the only source granted through the awarding of proprietary rights. The rule being, in general, that the first constituted right will prevail over the following conflicting right whether such rights are mining, oil & gas or geothermal. It is clear that the alternative energies are here to stay and their correct development and promotion must be guided by each government. This should be done avoiding excessive centralization and control thus creating an attractive environment for companies to invest in the diversification of the energy matrix in Latin America.
DEWAN PERWAKILAN RAKYAT REPUBLIK INDONESIA INDONESIA S COUNTRY REPORT ENCOURAGING CLEAN ENERGY INITIATIVE As part of the international community, Indonesia shares its concern on the environment and development
Energy Megatrends 2020 Esa Vakkilainen 1 NOTE The data included in the following is mainly based on International Energy Agency's (IEA) World Energy Outlook 2007 IEA is considered the most reliable source
6th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management. XVI Congreso de Ingeniería de Organización. Vigo, July 18-20, 2012 Economic Analysis of the Renewable Energy Policies in
CRS Report Summaries R40147 Green Buildings This is a definition and analysis of the cost and benefits of green buildings. It also cites agencies and laws that encourage the building of environmentally
Country Operations Business Plan: Philippines, 2013 2015 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities 1. Challenges. Economic growth has been impeded in the Philippines
P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation
Nonrenewable Energy Resource Description Environmental Impacts Coal Black or brown solid combustible substance. oil A viscous liquid derived from petroleum, esp. for use as a fuel or lubricant. Natural
Colombia: a country with energy diversity Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores República de Colombia As reflected in President Juan Manuel Santos National Development Plan, Colombia's energy industry, in
Renewable Energy Supply Financing RE Projects in Chile Rodrigo Violic Head of Project Finance, Banco BICE Bonn, Germany, June 3, 2015 The Chilean Energy Sector Current installed capacity of c. 20,000 MW
Tsering Lama Occidental College 15 Climate Change, Renewable Energy, and the Hong Kong Connection In a literature review, 97% of climate scientists have concluded that anthropogenic climate change is happening.
World Energy Outlook 2013 London, 12 November The world energy scene today Some long-held tenets of the energy sector are being rewritten Countries are switching roles: importers are becoming exporters
ESSAY cities, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) increasingly try to engage in global environmental issues, particularly with regards to the challenge of climate change. Latin America and the Caribbean
Promotion hidroenergetikasi Project investiciebis (HIPP) Opportunities for the Georgian Hydropower industry to benefit from Directive 2009/28EC of the European Parliament What Europe wants to do Comply
Renewable Energy Strategy for 2020 and Regulatory Framework Eng. Hatem Amer Egyptian Electric Regulatory and Consumer Protection Agency Objectives of the Agency Regulate, supervise, and control all matters
Background Brief on September 2014 Inside this Brief Overview of Renewable Energy Renewable Portfolio Standard Energy Facility Siting Renewable Energy Legislation Staff and Agency Contacts State Capitol
Environmental Science 101 Energy 1 Web-Based Course Lecture Outline: 5. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES MODULE 5.1 Improving Energy Efficiency A. Improving Energy Efficiency MODULE 5.2 Geothermal, Hydro and
Renewable Energy Development and Environment in Thailand: Rangsan Sarochawikasit 1. Thailand national energy policy Dr Thaksin Shinawatra s government has formulated an energy policy to emphasize and promote
TITLE: TOPIC: FIELD TRIP TO A POWER PLANT - A Reading Guide Energy and the sources of energy used in power plants GRADE LEVEL: Secondary CONTENT STANDARD: Earth and Space Science CONTENT OBJECTIVE: For
Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific CASE STUDY Finding a green engine for economic growth China s renewable energy policies Key points China s renewable energy industry has been elevated
THE TURKISH RENEWABLE ENERGY LAW: STILL HUNGRY By Mehtap Yildirim Öztürk and Çagdas Evrim Ergün ε Turkey has recently enacted its first renewable energy law, namely Law No. 5346 Concerning the Use of Renewable
Renewable Energy Finance, Market & Policy Overview April 2014 Generation (TWh) - Solid Lines Retail Cost ($/kwh) - Dashed Lines Renewable Energy Policy is Driving Massive Private Capital Investment The
Solar Power in China By Zhou Fengqing Overview Adjust Chinese power structure Feasibility of solar power in China Solar energy as national policies Legislations of solar energy Adjust Chinese Power Structure
RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LITHUANIA ACHIEVEMENTS AND DRAWBACKS Ieva Kuodė Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Lithuania SOLINVEST 2015-06-02 RES TARGETS BY 2020 23% the share of energy from renewable
Excerpt from: 2 - EXCERPT FROM ELECTRICITY INFORMATION (2015 edition) The following analysis is an excerpt from the publication Electricity Information (2015 edition). Please note that we strongly advise
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND KEY RECOMMENDATIONS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Energy policy in Greece has the potential to make a significant contribution to the country s economic recovery. Increasing competition and
GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET OUTLOOK 213 FACT PACK GUY TURNER HEAD OF ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES APRIL 26, 213 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET OUTLOOK, 26 APRIL 213 1 INTRODUCTION This year s Global Renewable
International Solar Energy Arena January 23rd, 2009, Istanbul STEAM (Strategic Technical Economic Research Center) Good morning. Sayin Bakanım. Members of Parliament. Ladies and Gentlemen. Slide 1: Opening
4 Renewable Energies- the answer to the world s energy demand? Eng. Maritza VARGAS Independent Environmental and Sustainability Consultant The adjective Renewable means that the object or subject in question
Statement of Molly Sherlock Specialist in Public Finance Congressional Research Service Before House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight & Subcommittee
Regulation for Renewable Energy Development: Lessons from Sri Lanka Experience Priyantha D C Wijayatunga Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines * Corresponding author. Tel: +6326326131, Fax: +6326362338,
ACCELERATING GREEN ENERGY TOWARDS The Danish Energy Agreement of March 2012 The most ambitious energy plan of the world In March 2012 a historic new Energy Agreement was reached in Denmark. The Agreement
Recommendations for implementing sustainable energy activities in the regions: LAC NESTOR LUNA DIRECTOR OF STUDIES AND PROJECTS ICSU: GLOBAL REGIONAL INTEGRATION WORSHOP ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY April 9th,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia May 11, 2016 Isabel Soares Head of Institutional Affairs Department 1 Directorate General for Energy and Geology of Portugal AGENDA PORTUGAL OVERVIEW : ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND RENEWABLE
The Prospects for Small Hydropower in Mexico Jorge M Huacuz Non-Conventional Energy Unit Electrical Research Institute Cuernavaca, Mexico Who can produce electricity in Mexico? Export 2.2 CFE, the National
Renewable vs. non-renewable energy sources, forms and technologies prepared by. A.Gritsevskyi, IAEA Objective of this paper is to provide International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES) with
Why Policy Matters Renewable Energy Market Momentum at Risk June 2015 Executive Summary Effective policies such as the Production Tax Credit (PTC) and Investment Tax Credit (ITC) have been key motivators
Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel Israel s GHG abatement cost curve Translated executive summary, November 2009 1 Executive Summary Background At the December 2009 UNFCCC Conference in Copenhagen,
INTRODUCTION In rich countries like Australia, our standard of living is dependent on easily available energy. Every time you catch a bus, turn on a light or watch television energy is being used up. Over
KINGDOM OF MOROCCO Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment Conference Concentrated Solar Power Speech by Mrs. Amina Benkhadra, Minister of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment London, February
A Green Sector Overview Micro Hydro Electric Power Ontario's Waterpower Resources: Past and Present The first hydroelectric generator in Canada was installed near Ottawa, which was the first city in North
Section 1. Gathering Information Energy in the U.S. Web-quest Summary Students visit various Web sites and complete the Web-quest Exploration Guide to learn about renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY Financing Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy through the India Renewable Energy Development Agency A RANGE OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT
The European Renewable Energy Directive and international Trade Laurent Javaudin Delegation of the European Commission to the U.S. The European Union 27 Member States 490 million people 2 Outline The Present:
8 Key Finfings Energy Transition The German Energiewende By Craig Morris, Martin Pehnt An initiative of the Heinrich Böll Foundation Released on 28 November 2012 Revised July 2015 www. 8 Key Findings German
RENEWABLE ENERGY in MENA Region: Assets and Challenges Mustapha Taoumi, Project Officer, MENA Region Contents 1. Worldwide situation 2. Potential in MENA countries 3. Actual situation 4. Assets 5. Challenges
Energy Options in a Carbon Constrained World. Martin Sevior, School of Physics, University of Melbourne Energy underpins our Civilization Imagine one week without Electricity Imagine one week without Motorized
Latin America s s Foreign Debt Causes and Effects Internal Causes of the Debt Overvalued currency associated with ISI Returns on projects in future, but payments now: Debt trap Populist economic policies:
Introduction The way of life that we Americans take for granted every day depends upon a stable and abundant supply of affordable energy. Energy shortages can quickly affect our everyday lives and harm
Clean Energy Jobs Plan Introduction When I was governor, California was the world leader in renewable energy and it led the nation in efficiency standards. Our programs saved California consumers billions
Analysis of the EU Renewable Directive by a TIMES-Norway NorRen Summer School Arne Lind Institute for Energy Technology 07.08.2012 Outline The EU Renewable Directive (RES) Definition Targets Implications
Japan Type: Large Market; Small Market Share Overall Rank: 17 The introduction of a feed-in-tariff (FIT) has attracted significant investment in the Japanese renewable energy market, particularly in the
Renewable Energies: Opportunities for Mexico Maria Elena Sierra Deputy Director Marzo 2007 2 What is CONAE? Federal Entity under the umbrella of the Ministry of Energy with managerial, financial and technical
Energy Resources Stations Activity Page # 1 Station #1 Interpreting Infographs 1. Identify and explain each of the energy sources (5) illustrated in the infograph. 2. What do the white and black circles
US and state-level renewable energy adoption rates: 2008-2013 Elena M. Krieger, PhD Physicians, Scientists & Engineers for Healthy Energy January 2014 1 Introduction While the United States power sector
Editor s comments: Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of duplicate or extremely similar comments made. The headings are editor s best attempt to draft vision statements reflecting the participants
Energy: renewable sources of energy Energy Sources 1 It is technically and economically feasible to phase out net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions almost entirely by 2050. A report by energy consulting firm
ENERGY PRIORITIES OF THE POLISH PRESIDENCY OF THE EU COUNCIL: THE CZECH PERSPECTIVE Petr Binhack Energy Security as a Part of the EU Agenda Energy is an important precondition for European economic development.
Indonesia Energy efficiency report Objectives: Growth in energy consumption slower than GDP growth by 25 Industrial energy intensity reduction target of about 1% per year until 25 Overview 9-9 (% / year)
Renewable Energy in the UK Dr John Roberts CBE FREng Renewable Energy in the UK Legislation and Targets: Technology: International Frameworks EU Context National Context Overview and outlook for key renewable
The impact Equation where scientists and engineers fit in the picture In a series of papers in 1970-74, Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren proposed the following equation to estimate the overall impact of our
Cutting Australia s Carbon Abatement Costs with Nuclear Power Martin Nicholson, October 2011 Abstract The Australian Government Treasury modelling of a carbon price shows that Australia must purchase the
energy facts Jeda Villa Bali lets.book Solar power panels in Indonesia. Geothermal power station in Tuscany, Italy. Delivering On Renewable Energy Around The World: How Do Key Countries Stack Up? by Jake
5-Minute Refresher: RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable Energy Key Ideas Renewable energy is a source of energy that can be used and replenished naturally in a relatively short period of time. Non renewable energy
IN MALAYSIA www.seda.gov.my 1 Introduction to Feed-in Tariff Mechanism Feed-in Tariff mechanism oblige energy utilities to buy renewable energy from producers, at a mandated price. By guaranteeing access
OVERVIEW More than $1.6 trillion was invested in 2013 in energy supply, a figure that has more than doubled in real terms since 2000, and a further $130 billion to improve energy efficiency. Renewables
The Future of Energy Prof. Wesley Henderson Dept. Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering NC State University Seminar 2 Outline of Lectures Seminar 1: Energy & Electricity Use in the U.S. Peak Oil? Clean Coal
REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS RENEWABLE ENERGY CERTIFICATES SOURCED FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES CERTIFIED BY THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION February 18, 2015 1.0 Introduction of Pittsburg Power Company dba Island
Attenzione: l'allievo ha risposto usando il colore rosso. Allievo: Francesco B. 1. Read 1. Energy basics Energy is in everything. We use energy for everything we do, from making a jump shot to baking cookies
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BLUEPRINT A PLAUSIBLE STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING A NO-NUCLEAR, LOW- CARBON, HIGHLY-EFFICIENT AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE The following statement outlines an ambitious but doable strategy
310 Exam Questions 1) Discuss the energy efficiency, and why increasing efficiency does not lower the amount of total energy consumed. 2) What are the three main aspects that make an energy source sustainable?
World Energy Outlook 29 Presentation to the Press London, 1 November 29 The context The worst economic slump since the 2 nd World War & signs of recovery but how fast? An oil price collapse & then a rebound
Country Partnership Strategy: Kazakhstan 2012 2016 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY 1 Sector Road Map 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities 1. Overview. Oil accounts for about a quarter
WWW.IBISWORLD.COM October 2013 1 Follow on head on Master page A October 2013 What s Hot in Oil, Gas and Energy Equipment Leasing By David Yang Effective portfolio risk management is vital to the long-term
Ministry of Power & Energy Institutional Frame work Power sector overview Renewable energy policy Major issues and barriers Institutional Framework Sustainable Energy Authority The Sri Lanka Sustainable
Case Study From 1 Chile is a leader of the privatization movement in South America. In 1986, to meet the growing demand for energy, Chile began restructuring of the state-owned power sector. Before selling
National Forum on Renewable Energy Regulation Success factors for PPAs in Mexico Shirley Wagner Legal Directora Jurídica Acciona Energía México March 7, 2012 1 Content 1. Acciona Energía 2. Energy System
Security of electricity supply Definitions, roles & responsibilities and experiences within the EU Thomas Barth Chairman of Energy Policy & Generation Committee EURELECTRIC Outline Security of Supply a
Testimony of Barbara D. Lockwood, P.E. Manager, Renewable Energy Arizona Public Service Company Before the U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming Blowing
1st Policy dialogue on energy efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean: towards sustainable institutionalities How to reposition the energy sector s role in economic development, through innovation
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.