# 4.1 Modules, Homomorphisms, and Exact Sequences

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1 Chapter 4 Modules We always assume that R is a ring with unity 1 R. 4.1 Modules, Homomorphisms, and Exact Sequences A fundamental example of groups is the symmetric group S Ω on a set Ω. By Cayley s Theorem, every group G is isomorphic to a subgroup of the transformation group S G. Similarly, a fundamental example of rings is End (A), the ring of endomorphisms of an abelian group A. Every ring R with unity is isomorphic to a subring of End (R), determined by f : R End (R), r g r, where g r (x) := rx for x R. In general, an R-module is an abelian group A together with a ring homomorphism f : R End (A) such that 1 R id A. Def. Let R be a ring. A (left) R-module is an abelian group A together with a function R A A, (r, a) ra, such that for all r, s R and a, b A: 1. r(a + b) = ra + rb, 2. (r + s)a = ra + sa, 3. r(sa) = (rs)a, 4. 1 R a = a for all a A. Right R-modules are similarly defined. Ex. Every abelian group A is a Z-module by (n, a) na for n Z and a A. Ex. A vector space V over a division ring F is an F-module. Ex. Let I be a left ideal of R. 75

2 76 CHAPTER 4. MODULES I is a (left) R-module by (r, x) rx for r R and x I; the quotient ring R/I is a (left) R-module by (r, s+i) rs+i for r R and s+i R/I. Ex. If S is a subring of R, then R is a S-module by (s, x) sx for s S and x R. Ex. Let ϕ : R S be a ring homomorphism. Then every S-module A can be made into an R-module by (r, x) ϕ(r)x. The R-module structure of A is given by pullback along ϕ. We use A, B,, to denote R-modules for a ring R with unity. Def. A subgroup B of A is called a submodule of A (notation: B A) provided that rb B for all r R and b B. Ex. A subspace of a vector space is a submodule. Ex. A subgroup H of an abelian group G is a Z-submodule of G. Thm If B i (i I) are submodules of A, then i I B i is a submodule of A. 2. If B 1,, B n are submodules of A, then B B n is a submodule of A. Def. Let X be a subset of an R-module A. Then is called the submodule generated by X. Thm 4.2. Let A be an R-module. B is a submodule of A that contains X 1. The cyclic submodule generated by a A is Ra = {ra r R}. 2. The submodule generated by X A is { s } r i a i s N {0}; a i X; r i R = Rx. x X i=1 Def. Let A and B be R-modules. A function f : A B is an R-module homomorphism if f(a + c) = f(a) + f(c) and f(ra) = rf(a) for a, c A and r R. B

3 4.1. MODULES, HOMOMORPHISMS, AND EXACT SEQUENCES 77 The kernel of f is: The image of f is ker f = {a A f(a) = 0} A. Im f = {f(a) a A} B. The R-module monomorphism, epimorphism, isomorphism are similarly defined. Ex. An R-module homomorphism over a division ring R is called a linear transformation of vector spaces. Ex. An abelian group homomorphism f : A B is a Z-module homomorphism. Ex. Let f : A B be an R-module homomorphism. If C A, then f(c) is a submodule of B. If D B, then f 1 (D) = {a A f(a) D} is a submodule of A. Ex. Let A be an R-module. Given a A, the function φ a : R Ra, r ra, is an epimorphism. The kernel is a left ideal of R. ker φ a = {r R ra = 0 A } := Ann(a) Thm 4.3. Let B A as R-modules. Then A/B is an R-module such that r(a + B) = ra + B for r R, a A. The map π : A A/B given by a a + B is an R-module epimorphism with kernel B (called canonical epimorphism or projection). The three isomorphism theorems and the (external/internal) products and coproducts of abelian groups can be extended to their counterparts in modules. Def. A pair of module homomorphisms A f B g C is said to be exact at B if Im f = ker g. A sequence of module homomorphisms fi 1 f i f i+1 f i+2 A i 1 Ai A i+1 is exact provided that Im f i = ker f i+1 for all indices i. For any module A, there are unique module homomorphisms 0 A and A 0.

4 78 CHAPTER 4. MODULES 1. 0 A f B is exact if and only if f is a monomorphism. 2. B g C 0 is exact if and only if g is a epimorphism. 3. If A f B g C is exact, then g f = An exact sequence 0 A f B g C 0 is called a short exact sequence, in which A Im f = ker g, B/ ker g Im g = C. Whenever A B, there is a short exact sequence 0 A ι B π B/A 0 Ex. Let f : A B be an R-module homomorphism. A/ ker f is the coimage of f (denoted Coim f), and B/Im f is the cokernel of f (denoted Coker f). The following sequences are exact: 0 ker f A Coim f 0 0 Im f B Coker f 0 0 ker f A f B Coker f 0 Thm 4.4. (The Short Five Lemma) Let R be a ring and 0 A f B g C α 0 A f B g C 0 a commutative diagram of R-module homomorphisms such that each row is a short exact sequence. Then 1. α and γ are monomorphisms = β is a monomorphism; 2. α and γ are epimorphisms = β is a epimorphism; β 3. α and γ are isomorphisms = β is a isomorphism. In such case, the row short exact sequences are said to be isomorphic. γ 0

5 4.1. MODULES, HOMOMORPHISMS, AND EXACT SEQUENCES 79 Proof. 1. Suppose α and γ are monomorphisms. Let b B such that β(b) = 0. Then γ g(b) = g β(b) = g (0) = 0. So g(b) = 0 since γ is injective. Then b Ker g = Im f. There is a A such that b = f(a). Then f α(a) = β f(a) = β(b) = 0. So a = 0 since both f and α are injective. Therefore b = f(a) = 0. This shows that f is a monomorphism. 2. Suppose α and β are epimorphisms. Let b B. Then g (b ) = γ(c) = γ g(b) = g β(b) for some c C and b B, since γ and g are surjective. Therefore g (b β(b)) = 0. Thus b β(b) Ker g = Im f ( ) = Im f α = Im β f, where ( ) is implied by the surjectivity of α. There is a A such that b β(b) = β f(a). Then b = β(b + f(a)) Im β. Therefore β is an epimorphism. 3. Obviously by 1. and 2. f g Thm 4.5. Let R be a ring and 0 A 1 B A2 0 a short exact sequence of R-module homoms. Then the following conditions are equivalent: 1. There is an R-module homomorphism h : A 2 B with gh = 1 A2 ; 2. There is an R-module homomorphism k : B A 1 with kf = 1 A1 ; 3. The given sequence is isomorphic to the direct sum short exact sequence Proof. ι 0 A 1 π 1 A1 A 2 2 A2 0; in particular B A 1 A 2 ; such a sequence is called a split exact sequence.

6 80 CHAPTER 4. MODULES 1. (i) (iii): Define ϕ : A 1 A 2 B by (a 1, a 2 ) f(a 1 ) + h(a 2 ). The following diagram is commutative: ι 0 1 π A 1 2 A 1 A A1 0 A 1 f The Short Five Lemma implies that ϕ is an isomorphism. B ϕ g A 2 1 A2 A (ii) (iii): Define ψ : B A 1 A 2 by b (k(b), g(b)). The following diagram is commutative: f g 0 A 1 B 0 1 A1 ψ A 2 1 A2 0 A 1 ι 1 A 1 A 2 π 2 A 2 0 The Short Five Lemma implies that ψ is an isomorphism. 3. Obvious.

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