1 Citizenship and New Inclusion Migrant women and the road to citizenship by Monia Giovannetti The Italian Context A) Immigrant in Italy The participation of immigrants in the political-social dynamics of the contexts of settling represents one of the crucial questions for their inclusion, almost a prerequisite that determines the real possibilities for growth and development on the road towards inclusion in general. In Italy, the process of stabilisation/integration of the immigrant organisations has developed in various phases, influenced by the social policies that the society these people are settling in, has introduced to regulate the immigrant presence in the country. The 4 phases of mobilization: 1) pionieristic phase - late 1970's to the middle of the 1980's; 2) social acknowledgement and visibility phase - late 1980's, the issuing of Law 943/87 (organic law for controlling the presence of immigrants); 3) active participation and social self-promotion phase, with the issuing of Law 943/87 and Law 39/90 (the Martelli Law); 4) phase of withdrawal followed by a relevant development of the, with the Dini decree (Law n. 489/95) with limitations and the issuing of the Amalgamated law (Law 286/98) with some new openings. B) Characteristics and fields of intervention of the In the early 1990's there were roughly 500 organisations active in the field of immigration. The number of those managed by Italians and those managed directly by immigrants was quite similar. Currently, the number has increased by roughly half (1101), still more or less equally divided, respectively 470 managed by foreigners and 631 by Italians. If compared to the total number of the no profit in Italy (13,000), one can see quite a significant ratio: roughly 1 association out of every 13 operates directly in the immigration sector. On the basis of the pattern of M. Ambrosini, the range of activities and services of these falls into four forms of intervention, promoted by the various forms of organisation in civil society: Charity Associations Associations for claiming rights Business Ethnic
2 Main activity Target of the receivers Driving forces in contact Involvement of the receivers Immediate interventions to meet primary necessities (food, clothing, accommodation) Immigrants in need, often suffering from serious forms of segregation Single voluntary, other charities Usually of quite a modest entity Political pressure, making the Italian population aware of the problem Immigrants in general, victims of racism and discrimination Political parties, trade unions and immigrant Started by an educated and politically aware elite The management of reception centres or services with public funds Regular immigrants, workers and specific categories (ex. refugees, mothers with children, etc.) Local institutions, other service centres. Limited to operative tasks, with exceptions. The diffusion of information for orientation: sponsorship for access to jobs; support in the case of difficulties. People from the same country or members of close networks Italian assistance institutions; business; offices for foreigners. In the form of selfhelp, with mediators and informal leaders. Paperwork for citizenship A) The actions of the (migrants and native) women and citizenship: case study on the good practices. Theoretical prerequisites The relationship between citizenship and social exclusion is of prime importance, in terms of analysis and finding political strategies, if we consider the term citizenship from a purely juridical-regulatory point of view. In particular, this approach is essential when dealing with the dynamics and the processes of the social exclusion of migrant women in Italy, who, like most of the migrant men, don't have full rights to citizenship and, with respect to the men, also have to deal with other factors of social vulnerability associated with sex discrimination and the role in migration. Citizenship: including social, civil and also political rights. T. Marshall holds that to get a comprehensive idea of the concept of citizenship, first and foremost it is necessary to have developed and benefit from social rights to the full, in other words to identify a sphere of social rights that implement civil and political rights: education, an income, the guarantee of health care when ill and a decent home, etc. But in order to act, to be able to benefit fully from these rights, first it is necessary to have: awareness ( internalization of the rules and regulations ) the capacity of access and the conditions necessary for these to develop qualifying policies (the role of the public policies and qualifying policies that lead to combined capacities, therefore attention of the needs in concrete circumstances) and positive actions aimed, not at redefining the balance of power, but with the goal of putting each person on the same level of equal opportunity.
3 Notes on methods and descriptions Specifically in this first phase the analysis considered: the role played by the original capital of the subjects and the networks of support/reference of which the same are part and can count on (the role of no profit in the production/management of resources used to fight the processes of social exclusion), in access to and in the use of the welfare resources, along with the importance of finding the typical models of interaction of the subject involved in these processes (the local authorities, public services and private/social ). The goal was to: a) prove the importance of the forms of association and participation of the migrant and native women, as places for developing the capacity of access to rights and places for political-cultural emancipation. b) register (partially) the good practices used by the institutions and migrant and native women's c) find the qualifying factors directly or indirectly that derive from the actions. Methodology: roughly 10 subjects, and institutions, both local and not, took part in the acknowledgement of the good practices. 42 sheets on activities promoted or carried out directly were collected, on 28 and 14 public institutions. In the development of the capacity and making access to rights easier, each association or institution in the project (Italian and foreign), sent in a summary sheet of the activities performed and the strategies of integration adopted by the in synergy or not with the local bodies of the zone. The sheet, consisting of a number of open questions, had the aim of gathering information on the actions (activities or projects), for migrants, put into effect in the context in which associative organisations and public bodies operate and in particular activities that actively or passively involved migrant women. Findings Many, various good practices were included in the study that can be classified in 5 large fields of intervention: social orientation, protection and assistance, education/training, training/finding jobs, accommodation. 1) Subjects promoting the good practices : a) Forms of aggregation/association 1. Mixed : intercultural centres or women's for natives and migrants (Almaterra, SUSI, Donne del mondo, Trama di terre) 2. Associations for foreign women : single ethnic or multi-ethnic groups (Association for women from Cape Verde, Candelaria, Donne del mondo onlus, SBS, A.D.I, EDO) 3. Associations for Italian women: advocacy association for the protection and promotion of human and social rights (Casa dei diritti sociali, Differenza donna, Associazione italiana donne per lo sviluppo) 4. Network of : second level, federation of or sub, for immigrant women (No.DI)
4 5. Cooperatives for cultural and social mediation (Sesamo) 6. Informal groups (Assemblea delle donne del Vittorio) b) Public institutions 1. Public bodies: (territorial or local) regional and municipal authorities, offices 2. Public institutes 2) Description of the good practice: a) Scope of the activity: 1. Social orientation: social integration, reception, mediation and information, orientation and social support (information desks), intercultural activity 2. Accommodation for migrant women and their children 3. Support, assistance and counselling Protection and assistance 4. Education/training 5. Job training/orientation 6. Health care (service with a low threshold for illegal immigrants, or people without documents in order) 7. Social protection (health, reception, professional training, starting work) 8. Services for children, support during maternity 9. Information and awareness campaigns 10. Projects of co-operation b) Phenomena: 1. Making integration in the country the person has migrated to and access to the services offered by the same, easier. 2. Women and children with housing problems (cases of eviction, separation, etc.), losing jobs and their home as a consequence, for women working as home help. 3. Helping migrant women find jobs, qualification, acquiring competence 4. Foreign mothers in economic difficulties, with work times, in educating their children 5. Migrant women who are the victims of violence (in particular domestic violence) 6. The social segregation and exclusion of prisoners 7. The isolation of migrant women, the lack of courses for the participation in the contexts in which they live 8. Women or children who are the victims of sexual exploitation 9. The incapacity of institutions to protect the health of illegal immigrants or migrants without documents in order 10. The mutilation of female genitalia 11. Women returning to their country of origin c) Receivers: 1. Immigrant women (single, the aged, in prison and their children, victims of slavery, etc.) 2. Migrant and Italian women 3. Immigrants in general, S-night 4. Everyone, but in particular subjects involved in schools 5. Officials, members of political parties, medical personnel 6. Adolescents and the children of foreigners d) Operative strategies: 1) The involvement of other subjects
5 The collaborate with: 1. Private social organisations (other or NGO, the church) 2. Organisations representing categories (trade unions or ) 3. Public subjects or other institutional bodies (municipal, regional authorities, immigration councils, guidance centres, penitentiary authorities) 4. Mixed: private social and public bodies The institutions collaborate with: 1 A network of subjects: other public bodies, private social organisations and various 2 Other public bodies and training centres 3 Other public bodies and migrant women's 4 Immigrant 2) Instruments or support The have access to: 1. public funds (regional, municipal, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of the Interior, etc. as well as the women's office of the municipal authorities) 2. public and private funds (foundations) 3. public funds, contributions of the association (or of the same users ) 4. contributions of the association: voluntary work, fund raising, self-funding The institutions have access to: 1. public funds (national, regional and municipal funds, the Ministry of Health or the participation in public contributions) 3) The development of strategies of empowerment for foreign women At this level of the study we can conclude that these actions translate into qualifying factors for foreign women from the internal assessment and the quantitative and qualitative elements of the action: the field of intervention, the organisation and planning of the activity, the target of the receivers, the political repercussions as well as those regarding the association, the impact on the road to emancipation and independence for the foreign women. The effect of the experiences analysed in terms of the development of strategies of empowerment can be traced back to: 1. an increase in the knowledge of the Italian language 2. an increase in the knowledge of the rules regarding how the services and resources of the territory/ work and how to gain access to the services 3. comparing experiences and socialising with other women in the same condition to share their problems and starting courses for independence encouraged by meeting natives implementing forms of self-help, development and the acknowledgement of one's own capacities, an increase in knowledge and self-esteem. 4. an increase in awareness in migrant women of their professional possibilities 5. an increase in the will/capacity of participation of the women, that means growth at a personal and economic/social level 6. consolidation of the organisations for migrant women Activity sheet: institutions
6 THE SPAZIO DONNA (WOMEN'S PLACE) IN CESENA 1) Writing lab 2) Spazio donna intercultural centre PROVINCE OF FORLI AND CESENA 1) Eliminating the inequality that Italian and foreign women have to deal with in training, finding work and furthering their careers. Spaces for immigrant women and their children CITY OF FORLI - Service centre for foreigners 1) Information desk, for orientation and advice for extra-eec citizens EMILIA-ROMAGNA REGION 1) Beyond the road program 2) Women at the centre 3) Hirundo program 4) Communication and participation 5) Inter-institutional project of the educational services for children 6) Training courses for educational co-ordinators in including foreign children in the educational services for children 7) Family centres - The specific field of work with immigrant women and families 8) Spaces for immigrant women and their children SPANGA-TENSTA CITY DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION SPANGA, SWEDEN 1) Support for immigrant women MUNICIPAL ORGANISATION FOR SOCIAL INTERVENTION AND HEALTH-GREECE 1) Cultural mediation for the Rom community ROME MUNICIPAL CULTURE OFFICE 1) Intercultural observatory DERMOSYPHILOPATHIC INSTITURE SANTA MARIA E SAN GALLICANO, ROME 1) Public service of preventive medicine for immigrants Activity sheet: Casa dei diritti sociali (Home of social rights), Rome Centre of social orientation and support Differenza donna, Rome Just in time, information desks Assemblea delle donne del Vittorio (Victorio women's assembly), Ostia Weekly assembly NO.DI i nostri diritti (our rights), Rome 1) Multilingual information, guidance desks 2) Immigrant women and children solidarity desks AIDOS, ass. italiana donne per lo sviluppo (The Association of Italian women for development), Rome Stop the mutilation of female genitalia Assoc. Donne Capoverdiane (Association of women from Cape Verde), Rome
7 Summer holidays for the children of women from Cape Verde Candelaria, Donne del mondo (Women of the world), Rome 1) Information, reception desk, etc. 2) Informative/cultural interventions in prison Associazione Almaterra, Turin 1) Con gli occhi delle donne (With a woman's eyes) coop. prog. with Bolivia 2) Group research, new job opportunities 3) Almateatro (theatre) 4) Kid's space 5) Documentation centre 6) Almaplanta Knowledge, practice, the promotion of traditional ethnic medicine 7) Legal aid centre 8) Research, training and accompanying people at work in home help jobs S.U.S.I. - Intercultural Women s Centre - Berlin, Germany 1) Assistance and counselling for immigrant women in prison 2) German course for women of the same age 3) Intercultural centre Southall Black Sisters, London (UK) Support for women who are victims of violence Trama di terre, Imola 1) Accommodation for migrant women and their children 2) Literacy in the area Sesamo social cooperative, Forlì Italian course for foreign women Associazione donne del mondo (Women's association of the world), Forlì Social integration and self-help aimed at migrant and native women with little children Associazione donne internazionali (International women's association), Forlì Summer Camp for foreign children Associazione Stato di Edo, Cesena The inclusion of Nigerian men and women in the Cesena area