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1 horizon New Helicopter Contract The naming of the new helicopter in Harwich Tower Hill, London EC3N 4DH Tel: Fax: Colourwash Floodlighting The results of a recent trial project held at Lowestoft Lighthouse US Coast Guard Office Established since 1790, the US Coast Guard has safeguarded its nation s maritime interests in the heartland, in the ports, and at sea. Issue 16 Summer 2011

2 The Corporation of Trinity House editor s note INTRODUCTION BY THE EXECUTIVE CHAIRMAN Sir Jeremy de Halpert Master Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal KG KT GCVO We hope you enjoy this issue of HORIZON. Corporate Board Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert KCVO CB FRIN (Deputy Master) Captain Duncan Glass OBE (Rental Warden) Captain Nigel Pryke MCIT FNI (Nether Warden) Simon Sherrard The Rt Hon The Viscount Cobham Commodore David Squire CBE FNI FCMI RFA Captain Richard Woodman FRHistS FNI Commodore Jim Scorer RN Captain Roger Barker Captain Ian McNaught Commander Graham Hockley RN (Secretary) Lighthouse Board Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert KCVO CB FRIN (Executive Chairman) Commodore Jim Scorer RN Captain Roger Barker Jerry Wedge Captain Nigel Pryke MCIT FNI Chris Bourne Max Gladwyn Dawn Johnson Jon Price (Secretary) contents Introduction by the Executive Chairman... 1 A review of the last six months Engineering Briefing New Helicopter Contract e-navigation & Space Weather ASTO Portfolio Trwyn Du US Coast Guard Office of Navigation Systems Trinity House Charitable Activities Lighthouse Finance Around the Organisations Around the Service For updates between issues please visit our website We warmly welcome any feedback or contributions you would care to make. Please send these to me by 30 September Vikki Gilson, Editor Trinity House, Tower Hill, London, EC3N 4DH Tel: Fax: When you have finished with this magazine, please pass it on or recycle it. Printed ongreencoatvelvet, acarbon Balanced Paper where the carbon intensity has been measured through the production process and an equivalent carbon credit (offset) has been purchased, made from 80% recovered fibre, diverting waste from landfill, contains material sourced from responsibly managed forests together with recycled fibre, certified in accordance with the FSC, manufactured to ISO and EMAS (Eco-Management & Audit Scheme) international standards, minimising negative impacts on the environment. PEFC / DESIGN: Michael Sturley PRINT: Trident Printing Acknowledgments We acknowledge the assistance of the many individuals and organisations who have kindly provided images for this edition. Particular thanks are due to: 2 Northern Lighthouse Board 3 Mark Dalton 8-9 THV Galatea Seamen s Families Society US Coast Guard 23 James Reid 24 RNLI / Nigel Millard 25 Red Funnel Group 29 Getty Images. COVER IMAGE: Situated near the north west tip of Wales, the tiny islet known as South Stack Rock lies separated from Holyhead Island by 30 metres of turbulent sea, surging to and fro in continuous motion.the coastline from the breakwater and around the south western shore is made of large granite cliffs rising sheer from the sea to 60 metres. South Stack Lighthouse was first envisaged in 1665 when a petition for a patent to erect the lighthouse was presented tocharles II.The patent was not granted and it was not until 9th February 1809 that the first light appeared to mark the rock. Last year HRH The Duke of Edinburgh announced he did not wish to stand for re-election this year, after 42 years as Master. He has presided over a period of massive change in Trinity House and has clearly guided our path for the 21st century.at a special Court in January it was proposed that HRHThe Princess Royal should be nominated to stand for election as Master and she was elected in May. She is no stranger to our work and has taken a keen interest in all our activities.at Trinity House we continue to implement the Atkins Report s recommendations under the direction of the Joint Strategic Board, chaired by Chris Bourne, a non- Executive Director of Trinity House.This Board takes an independent and impartial view of the issues and reports to the Minister on its achievements. As part of a continuing review of assets and operations the Shipping Minister has given approval to a recommendation thatthv Patricia remains in commission until around 2020, thus ensuring we have the fleet size to meet our tasks. With regard to radionavigation the eloran Project will continue to Initial Operational Capability in 2013.These are two good results for Trinity House and indicate our proud record of reducing costs, embracing technology, and making savings for the shipowner, whilst ensuring the safety needs of the mariner. In the financial year to March 2011 thetrinity House Charities spent over 3 million in furtherance of their objectives. Of this in the region of 1.3 million was by way of grants to other maritime charities.at the end of April the Trinity House Maritime Charity announced that it had approved a very substantial grant of 2.1 million to the NautilusWelfare Fund to support the latest phase to develop accommodation and welfare facilities at its 15-acre Mariners Park Estate at Wallasey. This important charity support, described in the next three paragraphs, allows us to deliver a very high level of corporate social responsibility in support of our operational tasks in navigation safety. In our support of marine welfare we operate almshouses at Walmer in Kent and provide for a number of annuitants. Direct support is made through occasional one-off grants to former seafarers and their dependants and substantial major grants are made to a number of welfare charities operating in the maritime sector. In support of youth training the Corporation supports four major charities engaged in the provision of such activities: The Marine Society and Sea Cadets,Tall ShipsYouthTrust, Jubilee SailingTrust and the Scout Association. For those who seek to pursue careers in sail training, the Corporation funds career development bursaries awarded by the Association of Sea Training Organisations (ASTO) to enable candidates to obtain formal qualifications. In addition the Corporation provides regular grants in support of the Sea Cadets and the water-based activities of the Scouts Association. Education and training in navigation, seamanship and marine engineering is mainly provided through the Corporation s Merchant Navy Scholarship Scheme. Through this young people training to become officers in the Merchant Navy are supported by bursaries during their academic courses and seagoing training. Additionally, we operate the ProfessionalYachtsman Bursary Scheme to encourage the training of officers for the large yacht industry and here funding is provided for candidates undertaking courses at two recognised establishments. Towards the end of 2010 we conducted a staff survey.there had been a similar exercise four years ago which produced some excellent results. Happily, the outcome of the latest study was even better than the previous one, despite the fact we find ourselves operating in a more difficult political and economic climate than before. Of our staff 87% of respondents indicated that they are fairly satisfied or very satisfied in their roles with a similar percentage satisfied with Trinity House as an employer. Clearly, the vast majority of our staff are committed to the organisation. On that good note, towards the end of the year I will hand over a sound ship to Captain Ian McNaught who succeeds me as Chief Executive. It has been an enormous privilege to serve in that post and I look back on the challenges we have encountered and the great successes we have achieved together. The valuable support of the staff of Trinity House has enabled me to perform with confidence during my years with this great organisation. Page 2 Page 4 Page 8 Page 12 Page 16 Page 20 Page 24 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 1

3 a reviewof the last six monthsat TRINITY HOUSE Debbie & Mark who were married at Nash Point in April WEDDING PLANSAT NASH POINT Shortly before the end of 2010 we reported that Nash Point had been central to the wedding plans of 50 couples over the past six years. The venue, which has held a wedding licence since 2004, is, of course, a fully operational lighthouse. Said Chris Williams, Attendant at the station, We really have seen everything here. Aside from the restrictions of the venue size, which appeals to the many couples not wanting a large impersonal event, it really is anything goes. We have had brides and grooms in formal wedding attire and others turn up in wellies and cycling gear. NEW DEPUTY MASTER At the January Court Captain Ian McNaught was appointed Deputy Master of the Corporation of Trinity House and Executive Chairman of the Lighthouse Authority. He succeeds Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert who will stand down towards the end of this year.captain McNaught has 40 years maritime experience and is presently serving as Master with Seabourn Cruises. He has been an employee of Cunard since 1987 when he joined Queen Elizabeth 2 as a Second Officer. He rapidly rose through the ranks and was Master of the luxury cruise ship Sea Goddess 1, and more recently held Command of QE2 until she was paid off in Captain McNaught will join Trinity House in September There were great celebrations in Scotland to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the commissioning of Bell Rock lighthouse on 1st February. Situated 12 miles off Arbroath marking the treacherous Inchcape Rock it is directly on the route for vessels entering the Firths of both Forth and Tay. Designed and built by John Rennie and Robert Stevenson, construction began in The station was automated in SCOTLAND S BELL ROCK FELIXSTOWE SEAFARERS CENTRE Captain Nigel Pryke, Nether Warden, presided on 12th April when HRH The Princess Royal opened a new garden at Felixstowe Seafarers Centre. Trustees are the Sailors Society with the Mission to Seafarers and Apostleship of the Sea. Here are provided rest, recreation, entertainment and spiritual guidance for seafarers in Felixstowe and the other Haven Ports of Harwich and Ipswich. The centre provides the usual amenities found in a social club together with a small shop selling toiletries and other personal items. A bank of fixed telephones, cordless phones and an internet cafe with webcams allows seafarers to keep in contact with their families.additionally the centre operates a minibus which for safety and security reasons transports seafarers from their ships to and from the centre.three chaplains are also based here. NEW LIZARD TEMPORARY EXHIBITION At the Lizard Lighthouse Heritage Centre a Talking Portrait will regale audiences with stories of what it was like to live and work in a lighthouse.this is a living contribution to a fascinating story that has particular connotations for Cornwall with its rugged coast and myriad offshore rocks and hazards. Here there are shown vivid images of how lighthouse keepers and their families lived at remote locations. Very young visitors can even build their own lighthouse. There is something for all ages to appreciate as well as the opportunity to climb the lighthouse tower. The Lighthouse and Heritage Centre are open throughout the year. School, educational and other groups can be entertained and special rates may apply. A new temporary exhibition, The Lighthouse at the Bottom of the Road will continue throughout NEW HELICOPTERCONTRACT In a ceremony on 5th January the newtrinity House contract helicopter was officially named Satellite on the helideck of Galatea at Harwich. In the ship were members of the new helicopter operator Police Aviation Services and members of the Trinity House operations team. (See pages 8 and 9). DANGERS OF HEAVY DEPENDENCE ON GPS The General Lighthouse Authorities of the UK and Ireland (GLAs) of which Trinity House is one, announced in mid-march that they fully support the findings of the Royal Academy of Engineering s paper on the dangers of heavy dependency on GPS, discussed by Professor Martyn Thomas at the 2011 GNSS Interference, Detection and Monitoring Conference. Trials have demonstrated that on the jamming of GPS information is still provided and delivers erroneous data, some of which can be hazardously misleading. To mitigate over-reliance on GPS the GLAs have developed Enhanced Loran (eloran) as a complementary system. STAFF SURVEY Towards the end of 2010 Trinity House conducted a staff survey and it was pleasing to note that the results were even better than a previous survey in 2006, despite the fact we find ourselves operating in a more difficult political and economic climate than before. The survey was completed by 83%. Results found that 87% of respondents are fairly satisfied or very satisfied in their roles, and 88% are satisfied with Trinity House as an employer.the vast majority (76%) oftrinity House staff are committed to the organisation and wish to either stay in their current position or seek advancement opportunities within the organisation. A large proportion, 84% of staff, said they are well motivated. Essentially, the survey results indicated that Trinity House has either improved or maintained an excellent position in areas such as job satisfaction, commitment and motivation putting the company in the top set for most of these themes. HRHTHE PRINCESS ROYAL At the Annual Meeting of The Court on 11th May HRH The Princess Royal was elected Master of the Corporation. Since becoming an Elder Brother in 2004 the Princess Royal has taken a very keen interest in the activities of Trinity House, attending many events including presiding over the opening of the Lizard Lighthouse Heritage Centre. She is also Patron of the Northern Lighthouse Board and Happisburgh lighthouse. The Princess Royal succeeds her father, the Duke of Edinburgh, who was elected an Elder Brother in 1952 and is the Corporation s longest serving Master having been elected in During his 42 years as Master of the Corporation of Trinity House,The Duke of Edinburgh has witnessed many changes in the way the organisation operates. In particular it has been a time of great technological advances and improved efficiency with the automation of the lighthouses and lightships and the solarisation of rock stations. There has been the development of GPS,AIS, electronic charting and e-loran. On the charity side the Corporation has become the largest endowed maritime charity in the UK, regularly distributing over 3million per annum amongst the UK s frontline maritime charities.the Duke of Edinburgh will continue to be involved withtrinity House in his role as an Elder Brother. PAGE 2 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 3

4 TRINITY HOUSE ENGINEERING BRIEFING BY Ron Blakeley MCIOB, PRINCIPAL CIVIL ENGINEER AND Dr Richard Gregory BEng CEng MICE PhD, CIVIL DESIGN ENGINEER Royal Sovereign Lighthouse, completed in 1971, is unique and instantly recognisable, situated some seven miles south of Eastbourne. Designed by William Halcrow and Partners of London and constructed by Christiani & Nielsen, the structure is of complex design with reinforced concrete elements with reliance on a post-tensioned system which has had a chequered history since its conception. Structural inspections had indicated sub-surface corrosion in 2008 and structural works were undertaken in August 2010 to maintain the integrity of the station as it enters its fifth decade. THV Galatea unloading materials onto the helideck. Galatea unloading materials onto the helideck seen from the scaffolding attached to the tower. Construction method: The lighthouse is concrete in construction reinforced with standard steel bars and highstrength steel bars known as post-tensioned tendons because they are inserted and tightened after the concrete has been completed. The structure was built in three sections on the beach at Newhaven.The base and vertical pillar section were floated into position and sunk on to a levelled area of the seabed and the upper cabin section and superstructure were then floated over the pillar section. The pillar, which was integral to the base, had an inner telescopic section which was then attached to the cabin and jacked up 13 metres and locked into position. The underside of the cabin is well above the maximum wave height and the navigation light is 28 metres above sea level.the cabin section contained accommodation for keepers who manned the lighthouse before automation in The flat upper deck of the cabin section provides a helicopter landing platform.the lighthouse tower, with the control room, fog signal room and lantern is located at one corner of the main deck with direct access to the cabin section below. Hidden problems: In 2008 during a full structural integrity inspection/report by Scott Wilson (Consulting Engineers) rust staining was noted at the top of the tower just below the bottom of the cabin, further inspection took place in March Photographs from the visit were analysed by the engineering team and it was anticipated that spalling to the concrete had caused some metallic elements to be exposed. However, it was important to trace the source of the rust staining because this was the area at which the post-tensioned tendons in the upper tower terminate. The post-tensioned tendons are critically important because they not only carry loads applied to each section of the lighthouse but they also hold the separate sections of the lighthouse together.this protects the tendons but makes inspection without breaking out works impossible. Therefore, if water penetrates to the tendons they can slowly corrode unseen within their ducts potentially causing a catastrophic failure without any outward sign of structural distress. It was therefore deemed necessary to perform a structural investigation to determine the condition of the tendons at Royal Sovereign.As this would require heavy machinery and access to the full circumference of the tower it was decided to scaffold the tower.assuming the tendons were found to be in manageable condition during the initial investigation phase it would then be possible to perform structural repairs during a second phase of the project.as structural failure would occur during high winds it was possible to investigate the problem provided there was a way to leave the station if the weather deteriorated. However, until the integrity of the tendons could be verified it was decided not to stay on the station overnight. Access and other challenges: Simply providing access to the area of concern was going to be a challenge.the initial scaffolding quote estimated that erection would take eight days. They were persuaded to reduce this to four days, and in reality it was achieved in six. Accommodation on the station is good for a rock station, largely as a result of the additional room that is provided by the cabin design. However, some mental fortitude was required to try and forget that the tower that was being broken out during the day was the only support to the cabin that was providing the accommodation.there were several exceedingly light-hearted conversations with the contractors about the sort of noise a tendon makes when it snaps and where the safest place to go when this happened might be. The picture that was responsible for initiating the project showing the rust staining at the top of the tower. The top of the tower in close-up. Investigations: Severely spalled areas were noted to approximately 80% of the circumference of the tower sufficient to expose the outer face of the plates that anchor the tendons into the tower. All concrete structures suffer spalling to some extent although here it was more severe than had been anticipated. The join between the underside of the cabin and the top of the tower (see images below left) was of greater cause for concern.the joint had originally been sealed with mortar but this had been scoured by the elements leaving an open joint and was of major concern. Repairs: Action was required to address two problems: spalling to the concrete cover around the anchor blocks and the corrosion of the tendons exposed to water ingress. Spalling had been anticipated and standard mortar patch repairs would rectify the problem. Protecting the tendons against corrosion was more difficult to achieve. Eventually galvanic anodes were positioned and mortared into place after each tendon had been cleaned back to bare steel with high-pressure water jetting and protected with a corrosion inhibiting primer. Once all the anodes were in place two outer layers of repair mortar were applied.the join between the tower and the cabin was reformed and sealed with flexible sealant. The whole area having applied a cementitious waterproof outer coating to prevent water ingress in the future.thv Galatea was used to crane scaffolding, tools and materials onto the station, a task normally undertaken by helicopter.the tender was also used to provide accommodation during the initial investigation phase and THV Alert attended as safety vessel on the departure of Galatea. It is estimated that performance of the galvanic anodes will need to be verified in five years and the life of the station beyond this time will largely depend on the condition of the tendons and the amount of zinc remaining in the anodes. Royal Sovereign inspectionandrepair Tendon C1 after it has been exposed and had the corrosion removed. Anodes placed in position adjacent to tendon D1 before being covered with repair mortar. Scale in mm Cabin soffit Cabin tendon Macalloy connector Reinforcing Tower tendon Tower tendon nut Tower tendon washer (not visible) Tower tendon anchor plate Reinforcing Tendon sheath Tower tendon PAGE 4 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 5

5 TRINITY HOUSE ENGINEERING BRIEFING BY Malcolm Nicholson AFRIN, PRINCIPAL DEVELOPMENT ENGINEER, THE GENERAL LIGHTHOUSE AUTHORITIES RESEARCH AND RADIO NAVIGATION DIRECTORATE Colourwash floodlighting of The use of modern radionavigation technology has encouraged mariners to venture into waters not previously navigated and this has consequently increased requirements for visual aids to navigation.the growth in coastal residential areas has led to an increase in street lighting and when viewed from the sea it is sometimes difficult to distinguish the aid to navigation lights against this background illumination. In other words, the light exhibited by the lighthouse is nowadays less conspicuous than when the aid to navigation was originally installed, even though the light itself has not changed.a method is required of ensuring that fixed aids to navigation lights can provide a quick visual confirmation to the mariner against concentrations of high intensity background lighting. One method of achieving this is to colourwash or floodlight the existing structure of a fixed aid to navigation at night. In order to determine the most suitable colours, the most effective geometry and the intensity required to floodlight a structure and meet a navigational requirement of a two nautical mile range, a trial was held at Lowestoft Lighthouse. The results show that the floodlighting of lighthouses can be effective as a short range aid to navigation to give the mariner a quick, recognisable fixed point of reference. A number of recommendations should be applied when considering the use of floodlighting. The most appropriate colour should be chosen to contrast with the surroundings and the geometry used to floodlight the lighthouse should evenly illuminate the area. Furthermore, the area should subtend a minimum angle of 3 minutes of arc at the eye of the observer at the maximum distance of recognition and, finally, a suitable value of illuminance at the eye of the observer should be chosen to overcome any adjacent/background lighting. Methods An initial feasibility study was carried out using floodlight housings with different coloured BLV 240V 250W (E40) TOPFLOOD Lamps. Blue, Orange, Green, Magenta and NearWhite were the colours used.the conclusion of this study was that colour contrast was the dominant factor; therefore, in order to evaluate the optimum colours for floodlighting, more saturated colours would be desirable. LED floodlights were evaluated in a further trial where it was confirmed that colour contrast was indeed the dominant factor. With that in mind, a trial at Lowestoft lighthouse was designed to meet the objectives. Three Pulsar Chromaflood 200(W) RGB LED Floodlights were positioned 1.5 metres away from the tower at an angle of 50 to down light the lighthouse. Three more floodlights were positioned three metres away from the base of the tower at an angle of 45 to up light the lighthouse as shown in the figure opposite. Observations Four experienced observers were used in these trials and all were asked not to confer until observations had been made. Exhibited lights were identified by numeric indicators when presented to the observers in order not to influence the outcome of expectation. An observation sheet, developed by Trinity House Research & Radionavigation in conjunction with international best practice was used to obtain the optimum results from observations. All observations were made from THV Alert at a distance of two nautical miles due east of the lighthouse.a total of 72 observations were made. Floodlights set at quarter power were not acceptable with orange, yellow and white the worst performers. Red, green and cyan were the best colours by contrast with the adjacent street lighting.at half intensity in a second trial green, cyan and red were observed as instilling the most confidence as an aid to navigation with cyan being the most conspicuous and orange, yellow and white unacceptable.a third trial saw the cyan shown to be the most conspicuous. Position of floodlights below the lantern gallery at Lowestoft Lighthouse. Conclusions A number of measurements and calculations were made to attempt to quantify results gained and it was found that the floodlighting of lighthouses can be affective as a short range aid to navigation to give the mariner a quick, recognisable fixed point of reference. Cyan was regarded as the most recognisable colour, appeared to be the brightest whilst green and red, although effective, may be confusing to mariners because of the lateral significance associated with these colours. Blue was found not to outline shapes giving a blurring effect and magenta did not lend itself to floodlighting because of atmospheric scattering. Orange, yellow and white were not found as suitable colours for the trial. Drawing of Lowestoft Lighthouse showing the positions and angles of the floodlighting, down light and up light. PAGE 6 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 7

6 NEWS DIGEST In a ceremony at Harwich on 5th January the new Trinity House contract helicopter was officially named Satellite onboard THV Galatea. Members of the helicopter operator Police Aviation Services (PAS) and senior members of the Trinity House operations team met to celebrate the start of the new helicopter contract between the two organisations.this new contract will bring economic and service efficiencies and will better reflect the modern maintenance and operational requirements of the Trinity House Lighthouse Service. NEWHELICOPTER CONTRACT Speaking after the ceremony, Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert Executive Chairman of Trinity House, commented, It was important to us to be able to mark the start of the new helicopter contract as it forms such a vital part of our day to day maintenance and operation. We took the opportunity of having the helicopter in Harwich undertaking flight training and crew familiarisation to do this. Earlier in the day Harwich-basedTrinity House staff had the opportunity to view the helicopter up close, for many the only time they will ever get to see her as she will usually be based in the South West in order to service the many offshore lighthouses in that area. Police Aviation Services secured the contract for the provision of helicopter operations for Trinity House following a competitive tender. Police Aviation Services Ltd is part of the Gloucestershire-based Specialist Aviation Services Group. The company has been providing aircraft, pilots, maintenance services as well as special training for public service and other specialist flying operations for over 25 years. The Group currently supports a fleet of over thirty police helicopters and air ambulances both in the UK and elsewhere around the world. At the time of writing Satellite, (there have been three Trinity House vessels bearing the name) was involved in flight trials around the coast enabling our staff to appreciate the new machine s capabilities and for PAS aircrew to accommodate our requirements for example afloat with Galatea and offshore at rock stations. Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert with Henk Schaeken, Managing Director of Police Aviation Services on the Galatea helideck at Harwich. Above: The new helicopter operating at Les Casquets lighthouse. PAGE 8 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 9

7 BY DR NICK WARD, GLA Research Director Vice-Chairman of the IALA e-navigation Committee BY GEORGE SHAW MA MRAeS CEng GENERAL LIGHTHOUSE AUTHORITIES RESEARCH & RADIO NAVIGATION DIRECTORATE What is e-navigation? e-navigation is the future concept for maritime navigation and has been defined by IMO as: The harmonised collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services, for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment. e-navigation an update Progress in IMO Initial user requirements were established during 2010 and a gap analysis is now underway to determine what is needed to meet those requirements, what is already in place and what needs to be developed.this process is being carried out through a Correspondence Group (CG) and Working Groups in the IMO Sub Committees (NAV 1, COMSAR 2 and STW 3 ), all ably co-ordinated by the Norwegian Coastal Administration. Other organisations Several other international organisations are contributing to the development of e-navigation. In particular, IHO 4 has the task of ensuring that adequate coverage of ENCs 5 is available to enable ECDIS 6 to be effective. IHO has introduced its S-100 registry for hydrographic and other geospatial data and offered to facilitate establishment of data domains by other organisations. IALA supports the IMO e-navigation initiative through its e-navigation Committee, providing input to the IMO CG, COMSAR & NAV on user requirements and the gap analysis - in particular on communications,vts 7 and positioning-systems. GAP ANALYSIS Communications Resilient communications and position-fixing are fundamental requirements for the success of e- Navigation. Questions to be resolved regarding communications include the need for global broadband, how to increase the efficiency of the VHF maritime mobile band and the future development of AIS. Position-fixing The need for resilient position-fixing has been expressed by the IMO Maritime Safety Committee: e-navigation systems should be resilient and take into account issues of data validity, plausibility and integrity for the systems to be robust, reliable and dependable. Minimum Satellite Availability Number of Satellites Above, simulation of the effects of reduced GPS constellation. Committed probability of maintaining 24-satellite constellation Actual probability of maintaining 24-satellite constellation Probability of maintaining a Constellation of at least 24 GPS satellites based on a reliability schedule as of March Requirements for redundancy, particularly in relation to position fixing systems should be considered. GNSS will be the primary method of positionfixing, but GNSS is vulnerable to interference, both accidental and deliberate. GLA R&RNAV (the Research and Radionavigation department) have carried out a case study on the cost benefit of alternative approaches to resilient PNT 8. Four different scenarios were considered: do minimum (no backup); enhanced physical and radar aids to navigation; Hardened GNSS; and eloran. It is generally agreed in IMO that relying on a single source of position data is not an acceptable way forward. The case study has shown that eloran can give a large positive return over the lifetime of the system, whereas other options (physical and radar aids to navigation and GNSS hardening) would give negative returns. Only eloran has been demonstrated to provide security against the vulnerability of GNSS, thus allowing the full benefits of e-navigation to be realised. Benefits of e-navigation The benefits that might be expected from e- Navigation are: fewer accidents; more efficient use of resources; reduced damage to the environment and better auditing of environmental impact. Efficiency of shipping should be improved by better access to information and automated reporting, resulting in reduced waiting times for boarding pilots, picking up tugs and entering port, better passage planning and track-keeping. Conclusions The development of e-navigation is at the stage of analysing the gaps between what is required and what is available, notably in the areas of communications and position-fixing. Attention will then shift to the difficult areas of risk analysis and cost benefit analysis. The schedule for completion of an implementation plan is Safety of Navigation 2 Communications Search and Rescue 3 Standards of Training and Watch-keeping 4 International Hydrographic Organisation 5 Electronic Navigation Charts 6 Electronic Chart Display and Information System 7 Vessel Traffic Service 8 Positioning, Navigation & Timing Editor's Note: In early March the Royal Academy of Engineering published a report on GNSS Interference, Detection and Monitoring in which it warned of the dangers of heavy dependency on GPS. The General Lighthouse Authorities fully supported these findings and indicated that they haveconducted GPS jamming trials to investigate and demonstrate the effects of GPS failure on the maritime industry, which has placed enormous reliance on GPS for PNT information. Furthermore, the GLAs have emphasised the need for resilient PNT information and have been working on Enhanced Loran (eloran) as a solution. SPACE WEATHER The unpredictable effects of space weather events on GNSS availability pose a distinct threat to maritime navigation. Sun spots and solar flares are randomly triggered and can bombard the earth with intense periods of electromagnetic radiation (e.g. x-rays). Huge coronal mass ejections can fire high-speed protons at the earth. Such effects cause ionospheric scintillation and propagation delays that can significantly degrade the GNSS signals as they are transmitted from satellites to the earth s surface. Hence, space weather has the potential to affect GNSS availability, either by preventing signal reception or by affecting the performance of the satellites themselves. Solar activity is cyclical, peaking at a maximum approximately every eleven years, with the next solar maximum predicted to occur during The effects on GNSS performance are most severe at equatorial, auroral and polar latitudes, but even at the mid-latitude of the UK range-equivalent GNSS signal delays of typically around two minutes to 15 minutes can occur without warning.the intensities of solar maxima vary considerably; over many cycles, solar superstorms can occur such as the Carrington Event of 1859 (which induced huge currents in telegraph systems causing fires) that would have very severe consequences for GNSS performance. Solar events capable of disrupting power transmissions have been recorded in 1972, 1989 (nine hour power outage in Canada) and GNSS operation is very recent on a solar timescale so experience is limited. Ionospheric scintillation and delay, courtesy University of Bath. Risk of disruption Maritime navigation systems and services that rely on GNSS are at greatest risk of disruption from the ionosphere during the period from 2011 to The effects vary with latitude, season and time of day (the hours soon after sunset being most affected). At worst, the GNSS receiver may not be able to track the signals from one or more satellites and its navigation data may be intermittently unavailable over a period of several days. Such interrupts are rare in the seas around the UK, but there is the possibility of hazardously misleading information being produced by the ship s navigation system. The GLAs provide beacon differential GPS (DGPS) as an aids to navigation (AtoN) service, to provide GPS augmentation for littoral navigation and harbour approach. During quiescent periods of solar activity, DGPS corrections compensate for the effects of the ionosphere such that the residual errors do not pose a problem to maritime navigation performance. However, at the peak of the solar cycle, with high levels of sunspot activity, the differential corrections may be less effective and the increase in position errors may introduce an integrity risk to maritime navigation. Even during a relatively quiet solar maximum, the occurrence of sun spots could give rise to significant effects for discrete events. Need for mitigation The threat of space weather for maritime navigation highlights the need for mitigation of these effects, internally within the GNSS receiver (e.g. by enhancement of ionospheric models or novel algorithms empirically based on field measurements) and externally using space weather monitoring, GNSS performance predictions and timely notices to mariners. Achieving reliable predictions of ionospheric effects over sufficiently long periods remains a tough challenge even for today s state-of-the-art technology of monitoring and forecasting. The reliance on GNSS throughout ship and shore systems will grow with the advent of e-navigation, integrating GNSS information across applications. Global maritime activity is increasing, not least in regions (such as polar) where ionospheric scintillation effects are greatest. Global warming is predicted to leave the Arctic ice-free in the summer months by 2030, opening a commercially attractive sea route where GNSS has increased vulnerability. Maintaining high global GNSS availability and safeguarding accuracy and integrity performance for global maritime operations will be challenging during the solar maxima of the 21st century. Polar scintillation, courtesy University of Bath. PAGE 10 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 11

8 CHARITIES: T H E A S S O C I AT I O N O F S A I L T R A I N I N G O R G A N I S AT I O N S ( A STO ) Young Sail Trainees keeping the boat trimmed. Lee, aged 15, rejected by his parents and eventually by his teachers was spiralling into crime. On one of his rare days at school a behaviour support teacher arranged for him to spend a week on a sail training yacht. He was pretty reluctant to go, but turned up, was allocated oilskins and lifejacket and was put into a watch system. It was an inspired decision for Lee. For the first time in his life he became a valued member of a team and was awarded the prize for the best crew member of the week. He now attends school regularly and has applied to stay on to the sixth form. Sail, training regularly suffers from publicity along the lines of Delinquents sent on Yachting Holiday.There is nothing soft about these voyages, and considering the alternatives they are good value for money. Experienced skippers know that the real benefit starts beyond mobile phone range when the crew realise they all have a vital part to play in ensuring the safe passage of the yacht. They also know that for some young people the experience will have a profound effect on their lives. The primary intention is to improve social confidence rather than learn to sail but many trainees want to learn more and some progress to James Stevens, Younger Brother of Trinity House and Chairman of the Association of Sail Training Organisations explains the thinking behind sail training and how it is supported by Trinity House. ALIFECHANGING VOYAGE Navigation experience. RYA qualifications and become skippers. In the UK the organisations running sail training are mostly charities that are faced, as any millionaire will tell you, with huge costs for maintaining their large yachts and sailing ships.the money comes from donations and voyage fees and all have a well organised fund raising system. Additionally they belong to the Association of Sail Training Organisations, ASTO, which both represents them and distributes its own charitable funds. The 35 member charities of ASTO range from the Tall Ships Youth Trust and Sea Cadets who own tall ships, to a Local Authority Sailing Centre on the Isle of Wight which runs a 32 foot yacht with a skipper and four trainees. Most members, such as the Ocean Youth Trusts operate yachts around 70 ft long with skipper mate and bosun and 12 young people. The Jubilee Sailing Trust operates two tall ships, Tenacious and Lord Nelson and specialises in taking people with disabilities to sea.the ships are specially adapted for wheelchair users and provide a unique experience for able bodied and disabled alike. Building these ships and managing to comply with the merchant shipping regulations was a significant achievement. Trainees come from all walks of life. Along with young people from difficult backgrounds supported by charity or local authority funding, are trainees who can pay for their voyage are keen to become part of a varied team and share the adventure. Two of the UKs sail training fleet are run by Public Schools, Gordonstoun and Dauntsey s. EachYear SailTraining International organises atall Ships Race which brings together sail trainers, their ships and yachts from all over the world to meet, compete and party with each other.the arrival of the Tall Ships Race is a big festival for the host port attracting up to half a million visitors. This year the Tall Ships race fromwaterford in Ireland to Greenock arriving there on Saturday 9th July.On 12th July they set off for a cruise in company to Lerwick in the Shetland Isles. This huge international event involves hundreds of young people of many nationalities, and for organising it STI was nominated for a Nobel Peace prize. In the UK Sail Training is subject to a whole raft of legislation. Following the loss of the British sailing ship Marques in 1984, the Sail Trainers were first to come under the MCA Code of Practice for sailing vessels. ASTO, representing its membership worked hard with the MCA to ensure these regulations were appropriate and workable. Fortunately the MCA, some of whose staff sail on Tall Ships realise the importance of Sail Training and ensure that, on the whole common sense prevails. Part of the ASTO fleet off Cowes preparing for the annual Small Ships Race. Even so, the European Directives on crew accommodation and Working at Heights can threaten the existence of these fine vessels. Also important is to ignore safety experts who think playing conkers is dangerous and would consequently put a stop to children going aloft. Until recently the value of sail training was anecdotal, but in 2007 Edinburgh University published a study which proved beyond doubt that taking young people to sea can have enormous benefits. The researchers interviewed 300 trainees on a variety of vessels from 13 countries. The interviews were conducted before and up to six months after the voyages. The results showed a measurable improvement in social ability, self confidence and ability to make friends and overcome fear. The full report can be seen on Trinity House Bursaries A vital part of running a sail training vessel is ensuring the sailing staff is well trained and qualified. The skippers and mates have to be exceptional people, capable not only of taking charge of a large sailing vessel in all weathers but also ensuring the crew have a challenging experience without subjecting them to excessive risk. The young people, like Lee, are not easy to manage, so controlling the crew can be as hard as controlling the boat. Skippers and mates are required by law to hold RYA Yachtmaster qualifications, or on the large square rigged ships, MCA masters and mates certificates.wages are pretty modest in sail training so the cost of becoming qualified can be a heavy burden for sail trainers. The Corporation of Trinity House, recognising this, provides bursaries to pay for the courses and exam fees. The scheme is administered by ASTO who selects suitable candidates from its membership. A joint Trinity House/ASTO panel interviews each one, usually at STS Tenacious. Trinity House in London, and if successful subsequent course fees are reimbursed. ASTO also run a Skippership Scheme to provide structured training for promising young sail trainers to start their seagoing career. The scheme is part funded by ASTO and partly by the Trinity House Bursary. Each year around 35,000 is distributed this way and the effect on sail training has been profound. Many of the senior skippers and former skippers who are now administering the ASTO charities have been beneficiaries of Trinity House funding. One is Lucy Gross manager of ASTO, who received a grant as a young skipper with the Sea Cadets. Working in Sail Training is hard graft but hugely rewarding. Progressing from small yacht skipper to working on larger vessels takes a lot of study and commitment. It involves practical and shorebased courses the cost of of which was well beyond my income. I successfully applied for a Trinity House bursary and completed my training, following which I was appointed manager of ASTO. The rise of superyachting and its large salaries for skippers has provided an attractive and lucrative alternative for large yacht skippers involved in sail training but against the financial odds there is still a regular stream of high quality people prepared to undertake the highly demanding and financially unrewarding job of taking young people to sea. For more information about ASTO and its member organisations, and about Sail Training and the opportunities available for young people, contact ASTO at or look at our website PAGE 12 horizon SUMMER 2011 Working together to hoist the sails. SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 13

9 PORTFOLIO Kevin Lewis (http://www.photosbykev.com) sent us this fine photograph of Trwyn Du lighthouse made from 2016 separate ten second exposures taken over six hours on the night of the 31st August 2010 and then post-processed to create the single composited image. The red/green lines on the right of the frame were made by a fishing vessel that sailed past at about We are always happy to receive photographs from readers with a view to creating a regular feature to take up the centrespread in each edition. We are prepared to feature material from several photographers. If you wish to submit work it will be helpful that photographs are submitted in JPEG format, scanned at 300 dpi or greater and sent to the editor attached to an and not embedded in any text.you will see details of how to contact the editor and the closing date on the inside front cover.your caption should be as comprehensive as possible and not exceed 250 words. PAGE 014 horizon summer SUMMER summer SUMMER horizon PAGE 015

10 BY W I L L I A M C A I R N S F R I N WITH CONTRIBUTIONS FROM: J. Michael Sollosi; Commander Gregory Tlapa; Burt Lahn; George Detweiler and Lieutenant-Commander Anthony Maffia. Portions of this article have been excerpted from the Spring 2011 edition of The Coast Guard Journal of Safety & Security at Sea: Proceedings of the Marine Safety & Security Council with the permission of the authors. US Coast Guard Office of NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Since 1790, the United States Coast Guard has safeguarded its nation s maritime interests in the heartland, in the ports, at sea, and around the globe. The USCG protects the maritime economy and the environment, defends maritime borders, and rescues those in peril. Today s US Coast Guard, with nearly 42,000 active duty military personnel and 8,000 Federal civilian employees, is a unique force that carries out an array of civil and military responsibilities touching almost every facet of the US maritime environment. The Coast Guard s motto is Semper Paratus Always Ready. By law, the USCG has eleven missions, including ports, waterways, and coastal security; drug interdiction; search and rescue; living marine resources; marine safety; defense readiness; migrant interdiction; marine environmental protection; ice operations; other law enforcement; and the focus of this article, aids to navigation. At the core of the Marine Transportation Systems Management Directorate, the Office of Navigation Systems at US Coast Guard Headquarters is the custodian of the buoys and lights, maintains the Navigation Rules, and has responsibility for policy regarding ships routing measures, limited access areas, federal anchorages, and navigation risk assessments. They also own AIS and Electronic Chart carriage requirements and are the primary US Government participants in the international effort to produce an e-navigation implementation strategy. Below: CGC Elm working on a floating aid. In addition to the broader programs of visual aids to navigation, e-navigation, and navigation standards, the Office assists USCG and Department of Justice attorneys in litigation involving aids to navigation and marine information. Navigation Systems also reviews and comments on National Transportation Safety Board and marine casualty investigations involving aids to navigation and leads US Coast Guard representation to the IALA Aids to Navigation Management and e-navigation Committees. Visual aids to navigation The USGC establishes, maintains, and operates visual maritime aids to navigation (AtoN) in the navigable waterways of the United States. This includes approximately 32,100 buoys and beacons, plus approximately 16,000 additional aids in the Western Rivers. Operating and maintaining this system requires the efforts of 2,564 military personnel assigned to 58 cutters, 57 Aids to Navigation Teams (ANTs), and 7 small boat stations assigned primary AtoN servicing duties.these units are overseen and directly supported by staff and maintenance personnel at several organizational levels within the USCG. The establishment of US maritime aids to navigation predates American independence. The earliest aid to navigation in American waters was Boston Light, established in According to an historian of USCG AtoN, a system of lighthouses erected along a proven British model, along with a few beacons and several cask buoys, represented the bulk of American navigational aids at the inception of the lighthouse service in The AtoN program (see illustration below), through a series of strategic initiatives and efficiency improvements carried out over the last decade, has dramatically improved the reliability of AtoN hardware and has reduced the demand on cutter resource hours needed to maintain the AtoN system. Consequently, seagoing buoy tenders (designated WLBs) have methodically transitioned from being needed as a dedicated AtoN platform for the great majority of their operational hours to the point where in fiscal year 2009 they spent only 39% of their operating hours performing AtoN. The remaining 61% of their operational hours were dispersed across the other 10 statutory mission areas. The coastal buoy tenders (WLMs) have experienced similar effects in mission employment, but to a lesser degree. In addition to this, the expansion and effectiveness of the shore-based Aids to Navigation Teams (ANTs) to maintain and respond to discrepant AtoN has improved as well. The buoys and beacons along the US coast may look much the same as they did 30 years ago. However, there has been a systematic transformation of AtoN equipment and hardware. The most notable improvements have been the use of Differential GPS for positioning, the solarization of lighted AtoN, the transition from incandescent lighting systems to light emitting diodes (LEDs), the use of self contained/maintenance free systems, and Main Picture: Thomas Point Light screwpile lighthouse is sited in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland on the east coast of the United States. improvements to buoy coating (paint) systems. Many of these initiatives may have gone unnoticed to the shipping industry and boating public, but their impact on Coast Guard operations cannot be overstated. The national AtoN infrastructure uses a multi-tiered management philosophy in that each aid and each waterway is serviceable by more than one single unit, ensuring maximum system reliability while allowing multimission flexibility for the servicing units. In the multi-tiered maintenance system, a channel may be marked with large ocean and coastal buoys which are maintained by a coastal or seagoing buoy tender. This same channel will commonly have smaller buoys, ranges, and fixed aids that are maintained by an ANT. If the buoy tender is unavailable and can t respond to the maintenance or discrepancy needs of the waterway, the ANT can respond in a temporary manner until a buoy tender is made available. The ANTs play a critical role in maintaining the entire waterway when a buoy tender is deployed elsewhere. The Visual Aids to Navigation program also oversees the Integrated AtoN Information System (I-ATONIS) and Automated Aids Positioning System (AAPS). I-ATONIS is the primary database for the federal short range AtoN maintained by the USCG. AAPS is a subset of the I-ATONIS database that utilizes differentially corrected Global Position System (DGPS) data inputs to provide the user with real time positioning information, tracks the positioning information of federal aids maintained by the Coast Guard, provides a legal document confirming the AtoN s position at its last servicing, and inputs the latest AtoN positioning data directly into I-ATONIS for use in the publication of time critical Continued on page 18. PAGE 16 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 17

11 US Coast Guard Office of Navigation Systems continued from page17. Above: Trailerable Aids to Navigation Boat (TANB) working a floating aid. navigation products. The Visual Aids program also develops, reviews and evaluates all national and service-wide plans, policies, procedures, standards, and resource and training requirements necessary for program execution and performance. The US system of aids to navigation is managed in accordance with Federal statute (14 U.S.C. 81 through 14 U.S.C. 86) and through Federal regulations (33 CFR parts 62 through 76). The program initiates, reviews, and approves plans for establishing and changing aids to navigation and disseminates information to the mariner concerning aids to navigation. This includes the publishing of the Light List and other aids to navigation publications. e-navigation The e-navigation Program includes radionavigation, charting, tracking, and dissemination and presentation of marine information. Once known as the Radionavigation program, the e-navigation Program oversees those legacy activities but also participates in the international development of e-navigation. This program coordinates the Coast Guard input to the Federal Radionavigation Plan and the Department of Defense Master Navigation Plan. True to its name, the e-navigation Program is continuing to help define and shape e-navigation through its efforts at the IMO and at the IALA e- Navigation Committee. Domestically, the program is the lead for the development of a US e-navigation Strategy for the Committee on the Marine Transportation System (CMTS). Other external efforts include representation at the US Department of Transportation Navigation Working Group; other Federal committees which are concerned with the development of national plans and policies for radionavigation services; and the US Department of Homeland Security Position Navigation and Timing (PNT) workgroup. This program serves as the USCG representative to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 80 (TC80) Working Group 8A on AIS and Working Group 14 on non-shipboard AIS. The Committee on the Marine Transportation System (CMTS) is a Federal inter-departmental committee which is chaired by the Secretary of Transportation and its purpose is to create a partnership of Federal Departments and agencies with responsibility for the Marine Transportation System (MTS). The CMTS is directed to ensure the development and implementation of national MTS policies are consistent with national needs and report to the President its views and recommendations for improving the MTS. In April 2010, the CMTS approved an interagency e-navigation Task Team to be led by the US Coast Guard, specifically the Office of Navigation Systems and its e-navigation Division. The purpose of the Task Team is to develop a national e-navigation strategy to inventory the suite of Federal e-navigation services in order to harmonize activities and determine priorities. The strategy will describe how the US will implement e-navigation concepts in a cross-agency manner coordinated with industry and other stakeholders for the benefit of the safety, efficiency and protection of the US MTS. It will identify agency roles and responsibilities, and define specific implementation efforts. It will be guided by and linked to IMO, IHO, IALA and other international e-navigation strategies and efforts to ensure consistency with those efforts. This strategy is expected to be finalized in the coming months. Navigation standards The Navigation Standards Division supervises the implementation and enforcement of the marine traffic management provisions of the law known Top: TANB working a fixed aid. Lower: Intercoastal waterway foam buoy. as the Ports and Waterways Safety Act. The Standards Division develops regulations, standards, and enforcement policies for the prevention of collisions, allisions, and groundings, including the Inland Navigation Rules and International Navigation Rules; Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone Act; vessel routing measures, shipping safety fairways, and areas to be avoided; charting; marine information; carriage requirements; and artificial reefs. They provide oversight and policy guidance for regulatory matters that are delegated to local USCG District Commanders, such as anchorages, navigation regulations, including speed control, Safety and Security Zones, and Regulated Navigation Areas. This Division conducts assessments of the navigation safety in ports and waterways to determine the need for and the effectiveness of vessel traffic management measures. Three related risk management programs are used by the Coast Guard for this purpose: Ports and Waterways Safety Assessments (PAWSA), Waterways and Mission Analysis Studies (WAMS), and Port Access Route Studies (PARS). Each of these programs supports the goal of reducing marine casualties on the nation s waterways, improving safety and efficiency, and utilizing maritime industry expertise to provide critical information to the Coast Guard as it plans for and ensures the vitality of the US Marine Transportation System. The Division s risk assessment team is also including IALA s Waterway Risk Assessment Program into its repertoire of tools. The Coast Guard established the Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment (PAWSA) process to address waterway user needs and place a greater emphasis on partnerships with industry to reduce Above: CGC Muskingum 75ft riverbuoy tender. risk in the marine environment. The development of the PAWSA process grew out of the tremendous changes that took place during the 1990s in the Coast Guard s Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) program. The PAWSA process is a disciplined approach to identify major waterway safety hazards, estimate risk levels, evaluate potential mitigation measures, and set the stage for implementation of selected measures to reduce risk. The process involves convening a select group of waterway users and stakeholders and conducting a structured workshop to meet these objectives. The risk assessment process is a joint effort involving waterway users, stakeholders, and the agencies and entities responsible for implementing selected risk mitigation measures. The primary objectives of a PAWSA are to: 1. Provide input when planning for future Vessel Traffic Management (VTM) projects and investments related to aids to navigation, regulations, or Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), 2. Further the Marine Transportation System (MTS) goals of improved coordination and cooperation between government and the private sector, and involving stakeholders in decisions affecting them, 3. Foster development and strengthen the role of Harbor Safety Committees (HSC) within each port, and 4. Support and reinforce the roles and responsibilities of the Coast Guard in vessel traffic management and environmental stewardship. The Navigation Rules Division serves as the agency lead for the development of policies and regulations surrounding Offshore Renewable Energy Installations (OREI). The lead permitting agency for an OREI has jurisdiction over the installation site and develops the environmental impact statement. Wind farms that are located on the outer continental shelf fall under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement in the Department of Interior. Although the USCG is not a lead permitting agency for OREIs, after an OREI developer performs a systematic assessment of the risks to navigation for a given installation, the USCG will review this assessment to develop a safety of navigation opinion and any required mitigation measures. This information is provided to the lead permitting agency. The Navigation Standards Division also serves as USCG liaison with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and its division National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to ensure vessel traffic management measures do not impact endangered or migratory species such as right whales. Conclusion The Office of Navigation Systems, at the heart of the Marine Transportation System Management Directorate, is at the forefront of the e-navigation revolution, oversees roughly 50,000 visual aids, and develops regulations, standards, and enforcement policies for the prevention of collisions, allisions, and groundings. In short, they are providers, users and regulators of navigation services, systems and products. Above: CGC Mackinaw (WLBB Seagoing buoy tender icebreaker). Left: TANB towing a floating aid. Main Picture: Southwest Pass Light. Editor s Note: We are extremely grateful to receive this definitive article from the United States Coast Guard, a sister organisation to Trinity House, and aim to continue a series of contributions from other aids to navigation authorities beyond these shores. PAGE 180 horizon SUMMER summer SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 19

12 CHARITIES TRINITY HOUSE Charitable Activities In the financial year to March 2011 the Trinity House Maritime Charity spent approximately 2.6 million in furtherance of its objectives. Of this in the region of 1.3 million was by way of grants to other maritime charities. Notes below demonstrate the broad range of charities in receipt of grants from the Corporation in the past year. The Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen (The Fishermen s Mission) The Fishermen s Mission aims to alleviate deprivation in the UK s fishing communities by providing emergency and welfare support to fishermen and their families. Fishing remains the UK s most dangerous peacetime occupation. Every year on average 22 fishing vessels are lost, 66 fishermen are killed or seriously injured. The Mission provides emergency assistance to injured and shipwrecked fishermen; offers financial, practical and emotional support, including bereavement counselling to families of fishermen lost at sea; provides welfare services to active, elderly and infirm fishermen and their families; combats loneliness amongst the elderly; encourages safetyconsciousness amongst active fishermen, facilitating safety training and providing personal safety equipment. These services are provided by a network of over 70 port staff and volunteers. The need to cater to an increasingly dispersed fishing fleet has meant the Mission moving away from its traditional Centres providing homefrom-home facilities to a more flexible structure of Welfare Offices and mobile staff. Shipwrecked Mariners Society In the last 12 months the Society helped seafarers in 2,750 cases of need, distributed grants totalling over 1.6 million and helped beneficiaries access 31,000 in Government benefits. The organisation received 744 new applications for assistance last year the highest since 2005 showing that help for this vulnerable community is much in demand, particularly in the current harsh economic environment. Chief Executive of the Shipwrecked Mariners Society, Commodore Malcolm Williams commented, Our work involves supporting retired and incapacitated seafarers who have devoted their lives to the sea. Unfortunately they often retire on meagre incomes and rely on financial help from us to make their later years just a little more comfortable In addition to making regular grant payments, often to those with no savings, the charity makes one-off grants to cover the cost of items ranging from household appliances, beds and bedding to rotten window frames, priority debts and mobility aids. Women s Royal Naval Service Benevolent Trust The Trust s membership is open to anyone who was serving in the Women s Royal Naval Service and transferred to the Royal Navy before 1st November 1993, or anyone who served in the WRNS since 3rd September Today there are approximately 60,000 former Wrens and occasionally in times of hardship they turn to their Trust for assistance. The Trust dispenses 300,000 to 400,000 per annum to over 400 former Wrens who find themselves in some form of distress. Currently the main areas of expenditure are regular annuity payments to those on a low income, care costs, medical aids such as special chairs and powered vehicles, house adaptations such as level access showers and ramps, funeral expenses and help towards some primary debts. Administration of the grants is centralised in Portsmouth. There are no caseworkers and the Trust works mainly with the SSAFA Forces Help and The Royal British Legion who complete a confidential report for the Grants Committee for consideration. The Trust works with its sister organisation the Association of Wrens to ensure that all former members of the WRNS realise that their Trust is still dispensing benevolence and assistance to its members. The Association continues to generate publicity and fund raise on behalf of the WRNSBT. Sailors Families Society Formed in 1821 the Society provides support to 400 disadvantaged children of seafarers throughout the United Kingdom. The charity s aim is to give each disadvantaged child the opportunity to achieve his/her full potential by providing financial, practical and emotional support. Families helped are predominantly single parent and usually arrive following a traumatic event such as bereavement, diagnosis of a terminal illness or the break-up of an abusive relationship. Families are supported on average for five years before returning to being selfsufficient. The Society provides support in many ways including: Child Welfare Grants - to allow children to participate in childhood activities such as brownies, cubs, music and sports lessons; Clothing Grants to provide a new school uniform and a winter coat and shoes and Caravan Holidays each family is offered the opportunity of a holiday for a week away from the stresses and strains of daily life. Staff (pictured above) also provide a sympathetic ear and have relationships with organisations where specialist help is needed. The Scout Association Each week, thousands of children find out what it means to take a risk, lead a team, make a friend and discover that life is as much about possibilities as it is challenges. Scouting also helps broaden minds and builds bridges between communities. In a time of when many young people are portrayed as inactive and antisocial, Scouting chooses to believe in them. The Scout Association not only takes young people outdoors but out of themselves. Scouting and its young people are able to take part in water activities across the country and funding enables the association to purchase much needed equipment to teach young people about water safety, to train leaders who in turn can introduce more young people to differing water activities and enable them to take part in activities they have never had the opportunity to before. Since January 2008 the Scout Association has enabled 7,137 young people to take part in sailing activities. The NAUTILUS Welfare Fund Mariners Park In April the Trinity House Maritime Charity approved an extensive grant to the Nautilus Welfare Fund to support development of accommodation and welfare facilities at the 15-acre Mariners Park Estate at Wallasey, which has been run by the union and its predecessor organisations for more than 150 years. This project has been drawn up by Nautilus as part of a long-term development plan in response to research into the care and welfare needs of the nation s retired seafarers and their families. To be formally opened in 2014, our quincentennial year, the project will involve the construction of a new community facility for the 160 residents of the Estate and also for the wider Merseyside maritime community (architects model seen left), and will include space for meetings and events, a café, shop, laundry and hairdressing salon, as well as internet access. It will also provide improved specialist accommodation and in-house support services for retired seafarers and their dependants. The first phase of the project will provide 12 two-bedroom flats and six one-bedroom apartments, designated as Extra Care Sheltered Accommodation for former seafarers and dependants requiring assistance with daily living. PAGE 200 horizon SUMMER summer SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 21

13 BY Jerry Wedge, CPFA MBA BA (Econ) Hons DIRECTOR OF FINANCE AND SUPPORT SERVICES, TRINITY HOUSE Lighthouse Service Finance When asked to write an article on Lighthouse Service Finance the challenge is to find interesting material that will prevent the reader from immediately skipping to the next page. Whilst I cannot promise anything as exciting as England beating Australia at cricket I can say that recent history shows that Lighthouse Service Finance is a success story The Trinity House Lighthouse Service finances can be divided up as follows: broadly two thirds of the Service s money is spent on front-line operations with one third spent on support, pensions and other expenditure See Chart 1, (right). When I arrived at Trinity House in 2003 I was fortunate to inherit a team of highly skilled Finance professionals. They have been vital in maintaining financial discipline and tight control of the organisation s costs. It also helps to work in an organisation with one of the highest levels of staff engagement in the country, according to Harris Interactive who carry out staff surveys for us. What we have achieved in financial terms in the last ten years is a credit to all the staff who work at Trinity House Lighthouse Service. Chart 2 (Lower left) compares the Lighthouse Service s running costs with what they would have been if we had followed a typical government department s spending trend over the last ten years. If we had followed the spending pattern of a typical government department during the last ten years our running costs would be CHART 1: 2010/11 Budget split by Categories Marine Services Engineering Services twice the level that they are today. Of course, during this period nearly all central government expenditure went up by large amounts as it was a time when most parts of the public sector were spending more. But during this ten year period we actually reduced our running costs by 12.2%. In the last six years we have Support Services & HQ Lighthouses, Lightvessels, Buoys & Beacons Other R&D Leases Capital Pensions reduced running costs by an average of 3.3% each year. So how did Trinity House Lighthouse Service avoid following the typical central government spending trend in the last ten years and keep costs so carefully under control? There are a number of reasons, Firstly, Trinity House Lighthouse Service is funded from light dues not central taxation. The Fraternity Review article in 2009 about the Light Dues System outlined how this system worked. The essence of this system is that the user of the navigational service that we provide pays for it, directly. Indeed, Trinity House collects the money from the user on behalf of the three General Lighthouse Authorities. The money goes into a fund called the General Lighthouse Fund, which is managed on our behalf by professional fund managers. The pressure on us to control our costs from the shipowners, who pay light dues, is a definite incentive for Trinity House Lighthouse Service to be as efficient as possible. The user pays system of light dues charges is demonstrably successful in helping to control the costs of the service we provide. One often wonders why such a simple principle cannot be applied to many other areas of public sector service provision. Secondly, Trinity House has excellent people who are keen for the organisation to work efficiently, economically and effectively. During the last ten years Trinity House has initiated a Depot Review, Ship Review and Business Process Review, along with many other smaller efficiency reviews. These reviews have meant that this drive for continuous improvement has resulted in reduced levels of manpower and significant productivity gains. The manpower reductions over the last ten years are shown in Chart 3, (right). Staff numbers have fallen from 487 in 2000 to 303 in 2010, a reduction of 38% in ten years. Better ways of working, such as multi-skilled technicians; more efficient, newer vessels; fewer, streamlined Directorates and the consolidation of operational sites have meant that we continue to deliver the same high standard of service to the mariner but with fewer people at all levels, from Director level down. We are also careful to ensure that the ratio of pay to non pay costs remain in balance. So as our manpower costs have reduced our other running costs have fallen in parallel. Thirdly, we have been successful in controlling costs because of the value for money culture we have developed in the organisation. We encourage staff to be efficient, to think of new ways of doing things better. We reward top performing staff with bonus payments; often these are people who have come up with good ideas for saving money. Staff are encouraged to develop higher, job related competencies and better skills, which help efficiency. We have an organisational value for money target each year. All teams contribute practical ideas to the value for money list of operational CHART 3: Staff numbers have fallen from 487 in 2000 to 303 in 2010, a reduction of 38% in ten years. improvements. We have a programme of continuously reviewing each department to identify, more efficient ways of working. Despite the excellent performance of the last decade we are not complacent and we have already identified future productivity gains. Consequently, we expect manpower levels to fall by a further 13% in the next five years. Fourthly, central government expects us to demonstrate that we are spending the shipowners money wisely. Central government has recently reviewed us, using a consultant W.S. Atkins to carry out this review. One of the outcomes of this review is that Trinity House Lighthouse Service is now subject to an RPI X% formula. This means that we must keep our running costs below the Retail Price Index (RPI) by an agreed amount. At the time of writing X% has been set at 3% on average for each of the next five years. This is a challenging target. It will require all the expertise and skill of the Trinity House Lighthouse Service staff to meet this financial target and continue to provide a service of excellence to the mariner. But the record of the last ten years shows that we can do it. James Reid. CHART 2: Trinity House Lighthouse Service running costs vs a typical Government Department. PAGE 220 horizon SUMMER summer SUMMER summer horizon PAGE 023

14 AroundtheOrganisations THE WAY IT WAS Reminiscences from one of those who was there Nick Cutmore writes: It is hard to believe that with daily trains from St Pancras to Paris the norm, that the Channel tunnel has not been with us forever. One of my earliest recollections working as Press Officer was dealing with an enquiry from the BBC for the Trinity House view on a proposal to build a bridge across the Channel. Actually there were several proposals, one of which was a combined bridge and tunnel arrangement. THV Lodesman Pictures: RNLI / Nigel Millard RNLI At 1436 on 24th March HM Coastguard requested the assistance of the RNLI New Brighton hovercraft to a report of a jetskier in difficulty near the Runcorn Bridge. The hovercraft had been called out because it was past high water and the mud and sand banks in the area around Widnes / Runcorn rapidly become exposed and are hazardous to anyone unfortunate enough to become trapped. Fortunately it was warm and sunny with reasonable but hazy visibility and light airs. Mike Harding the volunteer hovercraft commander said When we arrived at the scene the jetski had broken down and RNLI Hurley Spirit at New Brighton. was at anchor and the man was stranded on the marsh bank an area with dangerous sinking sand and mud. We took the jetskier on board the hovercraft, he was shaken up and scared by the experience. We advised him that this whole area was very dangerous and best to be avoided. We then took the jetski in tow and landed them both at a slipway near to Runcorn. It is the second time in a week that the hovercraft volunteers have been called out to a jetskier in difficulties in this area. The hovercraft returned to station at 1700 where the volunteer crew refuelled and cleaned it down ready for the next emergency call. PORT OF SOUTHAMPTON Associated British Ports (ABP) reported at the end of February that it had received consent from the Marine Management Organisation for the construction of a new quay wall at Berths 201 and 202. On completion, the redeveloped quay will be 500metres in length with a 16metre draft and capable of handling the largest container vessels afloat today. Port Director Doug Morrison welcomed the news, saying, This consent allows us to press forward with important works at Berths 201/2. With the size of container vessels continuing to increase, the container terminal can no longer accommodate four of the largest container ships simultaneously this development will rectify that situation by creating the lost fourth berth. It is understood the main works, which will involve an investment of approximately 80 million, will commence on site in September 2012 with completion anticipated by the end of Consent was received at the same time as Network Rail completed extensive works to upgrade the rail capacity for containers moving between the port and the West Coast Mainline. MARITIME & COASTGUARD AGENCY Solent Coastguard reported at 1300 on 20th March that Paula C, a 90 metre loa cargo vessel, had grounded on the Shingle Bank, north of the Needles. The local Coastguard Rescue Team kept watch over the vessel from the Needles lookout and the Yarmouth RNLI lifeboat stood by. After discharging ballast water the vessel was floated off at the following high water. The Red Jet 4 nine onboard were reported as safe and well and remained in the vessel. Earlier in the month MCA reported that Southampton-based Isle of Wight ferry travel and leisure business, Red Funnel (see inset image), had been awarded its prestigious environmental accreditation ISO 14001:2004. This is highly sought after and an achievement Red Funnel staff have been working towards since achieving the quality standards accreditation ISO 9001:2008, three years ago. ISO 14001:2004 accreditation sets out environmental management standards that are focused on ensuring organisations are committed to minimising their operations impact on the environment, comply with all applicable laws, regulations, environmental standards, and continual improvements to environmental sustainability. Sir Alan Massey, Chief Executive Officer, MCA (and Younger Brother of Trinity House) commented, I am delighted to be able to present this Award of ISO to the Red Funnel Group, only the second company to be certified for ISO by our Quality Assurance department. We are the only flag state which offers this service to the clients. MCA announced on 13th March that seven foreign flagged ships were under detention in UK ports during February 2011 after failing Port State Control (PSC) inspection. Figures showed that there were four new detentions of foreign-flagged ships in our ports during February and three vessels under detention from previous months. Picture: 2011 Red Funnel Group At that time with the Trinity House Pilotage Service working cheek by jowl with the Lighthouse Service I got a well-known channel pilot Lew Thornton to agree to an interview at Folkestone. We met at Folkestone Pilot Station which was then a state-of-the art piece of civil engineering and the young interviewer from the Beeb expressed enthusiasm for going out in a boat. Lodesman was chosen as being the steadiest for filming and packed into her tiny wheelhouse was Captain Thornton, the interviewer, the cameraman and the poor helmsman. No sooner had Lodesman passed through the breakwaters than the interviewer was violently seasick. Almost as soon as he regained his composure he was ill again and again. We returned in short order to the harbour where the interviewer recovered. Undaunted, the young man asked if we could do the interview with the Lodesman stationary between the breakwaters so that the view out the wheelhouse windows was of the broken water behind. This was suitably impressive when viewed that evening during the 6 o'clock news. Sadly, neither Lew Thornton nor the Trinity House Pilotage Service as it was, are with us any more. Lodesman, built in Holland as a heavy weather loading boat, got a second lease of life when she was obtained by the Lighthouse Service. I remember going in her some years later on viewing trials of the sectors of the Nab Tower under the command of a young Second Officer called Nick Dodson. I left Trinity House in 1998 and now represent the world s pilots at the International Maritime Organisation, the UN Agency responsible for maritime affairs based in London. I still keep bumping into people from those great days in the past. PAGE 24 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 25

15 AroundtheService OBITUARIES AroundtheService HONOURS We are pleased to report that The Right Honourable Admiral The Lord Boyce, GCB, OBE, DL, Elder Brother (pictured above), has been created a Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. It is also with great pleasure that we report the award of the Merchant Navy Medal to Captain Duncan Glass, OBE, Elder Brother and Rental Warden of the Corporation (pictured below). TRINITYTIDE On 11th May 2011, at the Annual Meeting of the Court, HRH The Princess Royal was elected Master for the ensuing year. Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert was re-elected Deputy Master and Captain Duncan Glass and Captain Nigel Pryke were re-elected Rental and Nether Wardens respectively. Following the Annual Meeting the Elder and Younger Brethren walked to St Olave s Church, Hart Street, for the Annual Service where the preacher was the Rt Revd and Rt Hon Dr Richard Chartres, Bishop of London. ASK US Why has the word service been dropped from Trinity House s name? Is the organisation ashamed of its subservient role? (Question submitted anonymously in response to the reader questionnaire). Steve Dunning, Planning and Performance Manager, Harwich responds What an interesting question. In reality the word service has never formally been in the title of Trinity House. The word service was appended to that part of the business responsible directly for the provision and maintenance of aids to navigation. In days gone by lighthouses were the main aid so the label Trinity House Lighthouse Service came into being to distinguish it from our Deep Sea Pilotage and other charitable tasks. However, a few years ago it became apparent that, rather than simplifying, it confused and some people thought that there was more than one Trinity House carrying out these various functions. The decision was taken to rebrand in totality as simply Trinity House. We are extremely proud of the roles Trinity House plays in the maritime industry and, as we approach our quincentenary, we are aiming to tell the world about what we have been doing happily for 500 years and what we hope to do for at least 500 more. If you have a question relating to Trinity House please send it to the editor (contact details on the inside front cover) and we will do our best to answer it as fully as possible in these pages. WELCOME to the following new members of staff who have joined us since 1st November 2011 Support Vessel Service Raymond Smith, Trainee Deck Rating (FTC*), joined on 22nd December Michael McGurk, Engineering Officer, joined on 29th December Robert Watsham, Trainee Catering Rating (FTC*), joined on 12th January Rachel Bull, Trainee Deck Rating (FTC*), joined on 12th January Jane Thornton, Trainee Catering Rating (FTC*), joined on 2nd February John Morrison, Second Officer (FTC*), joined on 16th March John Lawrence, Second Engineer (FTC*), joined on 6th April Callum McLaughlin, Catering Rating (FTC*), joined on 6th April Joel Small, Third Engineer (FTC*), joined on 27th April Adam Tyler, Electro-Technical Officer, joined on 27th April Anthony Nicholas, Second Officer (FTC*), joined on 27th April Harwich Trevor Robinson, Lighthouse Technician, joined on 17th January Kim Webb, HR Administrator (PT*), joined on 18th April Tower Hill Anna Gibb, Legal Advisor (FTC*), joined on 10th January Stephanie Banner, Local Aids to Navigation Officer, joined on 21st March Karen Tomalin, Secretary & PA (PT*), joined on 4th April AND WE THANK the following for all their efforts whilst at Trinity House and wish them well in their new lives Support Vessel Service Philip Spence, Second Officer (FTC*), left on 8th December 2010 when his contract expired. Chris Ablott, Cook, left on 22nd December 2010 after five years service. Michael Campbell, Chief Steward, left on 2nd February 2011, after 30 years service. Michael Edwards, Trainee Catering Rating (FTC*), left on 20th February 2011, after two years service. Jonathan Warren, Electro-Technical Officer, left on 27th April 2011, after three years service. Harwich Ben Quade, HR Administrator, left on 7th November 2010, after six years service. Robert James Alexander Beattie, former District Maintenance Engineer in Harwich, on 2nd July 2010 aged 71. He served 14 years. Terence Anderson, former Lightsman LVS, on 7th September 2010 aged 59. He served five years. Alfred Walter Hollingsworth-Palfrey, former Industrial Technician in Harwich, on 9th October 2010 aged 79. He served 11 years. David Elliot Peacock, former Principal Keeper, on 1st November 2011 aged 81. He served 27 years. Raymond Stonehouse Trowell, former Lamplighter LVS, on 30th November 2010 aged 86. He served ten years. John Henry Walker, former Bosun SVS, on 3rd December 2010 aged 84. He served 33 years. Harold John Dawe, former Bosun LVS, on 1st February 2011 aged 90. He served 35 years. George Parker, former Assistant Keeper, on 4th March 2011 aged 84. He served ten years. Dennis Parker, former Lightsman LVS, on 4th March 2011 aged 82. He served 15 years. Alfred Wallace Allum, former Master LVS, on 10th March 2011 aged 87. He served 22 years. William James Williams, former Assistant Keeper, on 5th April 2011 aged 85. He served 15 years. Michael John Noons, former Lightsman LVS, on 11th April 2011 aged 68. He served nine years. Keith Lock, Engineering Officer (FTC*), left on 17th November 2010, after one year s service. Jemma Goodman, Commercial Administrator (FTC*), left on 13th February 2011l, after one year s service. Angela Hydes, HR Administrator (FTC*), left on 31st March 2011, when her contract expired. Ian Tutt, Principal Development Engineer, left on 3rd April 2011, after 24 years service. Jamie Long, Apprentice (FTC*), left on 5th April 2011, after three years service. Dick Kemp-Luck, IT Support Officer, left on 30th April 2011, after 16 years service. Tower Hill Dr Sally Basker, R&RNav Strategy Director, left on 30th November 2010, after five years service. Christine Savage, Secretary & PA, left on 17th February 2011, after five years service. John Cannon, Navigation Services Officer, left on 31st March 2011, after 38 years service. Home-based Paul Fuller, Advisor (FTC*), left on 30th November 2010, when his contract expired. Latest date for submissions: 31 March Note: * FTC refers to Fixed Term Contract employees, and * PT to Part Time employees. Sir Brian Shaw Admitted as an Elder Brother in 1989, died 5th February 2011, aged 77. Educated at Wrekin College and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (MA), he did his National Service in the Cheshire Regiment and in 1957 was called to the Bar at Gray s Inn and made a Bencher in In 1957 he joined the Pacific Steam Navigation Company in Liverpool and became company secretary in The following year he was company secretary of Royal Mail Lines and appointed a director from 1968 to He was a manager with Furness Withy and Company in 1969, a director in 1973, managing director from 1977 to 1987 and chairman from 1979 to He was also chairman of the Shaw Savill & Albion Company from 1973 to Other board positions included with ANZ Grindlay s Bank, Overseas Containers Limited, the National Bank of New Zealand, the New Zealand Line, Orient Overseas (Holdings), Enterprise Oil, Walter Runciman, Andrew Weir, Henderson plc and of Centrica plc. In the City he was a member of the General Committee of Lloyd s Register of Shipping from 1974 to 2000 and Chairman of the International Chamber of Shipping from 1987 to Also he was on the Council of the European and Japanese National Shipowners Association (CENSA) and in 1985 and 1986 was President of the General Council of British Shipping. From 1987 he was a board member, and from 1993 Chairman of the Port of London Authority, retiring in He was appointed Knight Bachelor in Sir Brian was president of the Seamen s Hospital Society from 2003, a Prime Warden of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights in 1993 and 1994 and Freeman of the Company of Watermen and Lightermen of the River Thames in 1994.In the late 1980s Trinity House was undergoing great change in both its operational task of providing navigation safety, and its charitable arm, as the country s largest endowed maritime charity. Trinity House completed the automation of its lighthouses, a widespread introduction of solar power of its aids to navigation, and an overhaul of its charitable giving. In his 12 years on the Board Trinity House benefited greatly from his sharp mind and expertise that had been developed in his earlier careers in law, ship owning and banking. Guiding Trinity House carefully through the major modernisation programme his wisdom helped enhance the stature of Trinity House both as a navigation safety authority and as a major maritime charity. He continued to be a very strong supporter of Trinity House after stepping down from the Corporate Board in 2001, attending Court on most occasions, and with his wife Pennie, the social gatherings. Kenneth Morton Wiles The death was reported on 2nd April at the age of 66 of Ken Wiles, former officer in the Trinity House Pilot Vessel Service. He was based on Dover and Folkestone Pilot Stations, initially as Second Mate, from 1967 shipping and landing pilots in the London District, then the biggest Trinity House Pilotage District. This task involved operating in all weathers and also delivering vessels to pilotage districts elsewhere in our waters. THPV Valonia of a class familiar to Ken Wiles. Pilotage remains an important part of how the ports carry out their business maintaining a service day in, day out, year round, ashore and afloat. On the transfer of district pilotage to the ports following the Pilotage Act of 1987 Ken Wiles joined Estuary Services Limited at Ramsgate. In the words of John Yeomans, a contemporary in the Service and now a resident of Trinity Homes, Walmer, He was a very competent officer and Coxswain. Ken was known for his undiminished good humour, enthusiasm and expertise. He retired in Before joining Trinity House Ken Wiles went to sea in the vessels Bearwood, Chelwood, Deerwood and Granwood of the Constantine Steamship Line of Middlesbrough. PAGE 26 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 27

16 AroundtheService L E T T E R S T O T H E E D I T O R NEW BOOKS Dynasty of Engineers: THE STEVENSONS AND THE BELL ROCK. By Roland Paxton, published by Northern Lighthouse Heritage Trust / Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, KW6 6EG 128 pages, hardback ISBN price This volume celebrates the achievements of the Stevenson family of engineers, details the construction of the 200 year old Bell Rock lighthouse and provides a chronology of over 200 more. There is an insight into Robert Louis Stevenson s experience as a reluctant engineer. In addition to providing biographies of the eight members of the Stevenson family who from 1786 to 1952, contributed significantly to the nation s infrastructure and international lighthouse engineering. The book also sheds light on the design and erection of the lighthouse and the work of its engineers. From contemporary sources Paxton has provided an authoritative account clarifying the key roles of the eminent John Rennie and the relatively inexperienced Robert Stevenson. His painstaking investigation reveals that this sustainable marvel of lighthouse engineering was a masterpiece of joint achievement by Rennie and Stevenson as chief engineer/resident engineer, finally laying to rest the well known and often bitter 19th century dispute between their respective families. The final part of the book is a reminder that the Stevenson inheritance lives on, with an up to date list of lighthouses the family were responsible for in Scotland and the Isle of Man. Nearly all of these are still operating, 18th, 19th, and 20th century structures, now all unmanned where 21st century technologies ensure that the lights still shine. Unplanned Passage. By Captain Peter J D Russell, published by Pen Press an imprint of INDEPENPRESS Publishing Ltd, 25 Eastern Place Brighton, East Sussex, BN2 1GJ 332 pages, paperback ISBN price This is the biography of a Master Mariner with 50 years of seatime and covers his apprenticeship, his years in the RFA and 32 years as a Trinity House Cinque Ports and PLA London District Pilot. Starting in the Second World War the story is one of challenge, achievement and responsibility. It is of ships large and small, of the characters who served in them. It is about pilotage in all weathers, its inherent risk and re-organisation. In retirement Russell maintains his maritime connections as a Younger Brother of Trinity House, as a liveryman of The Honourable Company of Master Mariners and as a Life Governor of The Marine Society and Sea Cadets. He was President of the Nautical Institute from 1998 to Of this career Julian Parker, also a Younger Brother, wrote in the foreword, I would like a wide audience to share the experience of Unplanned Passage There are so many lessons to pass on. It is too personal to be a novel. The characters in a novel are imagined and do not have to be believed. Here however we have a real person, a family man, a mariner who reached the top of his profession, a charitable Rotarian who believed in enriching the local community and is a creative artist. This is also the story of how rewarding a life at sea can be. In all, an excellent record of the career of a master mariner. A useful introduction to the work of the maritime pilot LIGHTHOUSE PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPETITION The 2012 Lighthouse Photographic Competition, now in its eighth year, goes from strength to strength. This year this popular event is being judged by Rory McGrath. The winner will be announced in the Winter issue of Horizon. 12 images are chosen to form the 'Lighthouses' calendar, produced in association with J Salmon Ltd. The lucky winner will also win a short stay in a Trinity House lighthouse holiday cottage, operated in conjunction with Rural Retreats. 2 images from this year s shortlist are pictured below: Above: Start Point, near Dartmouth by Tricia Kennedy. Above: Hartland Point, North Devon by Ian Wright. All photographers are invited to submit an image of any Trinity House lighthouse. The closing date for the next competition is 29th February Further details and how to download an entry form can be found at: To place an order online for the 2012 calendar (available September 2011), please visit or telephone +44 (0) with your credit/debit card details. Please note that unfortunately we are unable to accept American Express cards. CONTACTING TRINITY HOUSE If you wish to make any contributions to HORIZON then please forward your information, and a photograph if possible, to Vikki Gilson. Contact details are on the inside front cover of this edition. To make the most of your images in print, they should be submitted as 300dpi jpegs the larger the image file the better please do not embed the image within a Microsoft Word file. Latest date for submissions: 30 September SSAFA GOLF DAY Trinity House entered two teams in this year s Soldiers, Sailors, Airmens and Families Association (SSAFA-Forces Help) Golf day on 18th May held at the South Essex Golf and Country Club, Herongate, Brentwood. Our Trinity Wet Team was made up of Malcolm Nicholson (Captain), Gary Murphy, Wayne Belsey and Ian Scowcroft (pictured below, left to right). Bouncy fairways and inconsistent greens made scoring difficult, but each team member contributed and whilst not firing on all four cylinders managed a respectable score. The Trinity Dry Team consisted of Simon Millyard (Captain), Alwyn Williams, Vince Laing and Stuart Mason. They too struggled with the conditions, but the Swansea boys played consistently and the team was able to post a decent score. A small wager was made between the two Trinity Teams and was donated to the thousands raised on the day. For over 125 years SSAFA have been supporting those who serve in our military as well as those who used to serve and the families of both. An enjoyable day was had by all and it is hoped that we continue to support this worthwhile event. THV SATELLITE (c.1950) This photograph was taken on Penzance quayside in the early 1950s and features the starboard watch of the THV Satellite. This name has now been assigned to the new helicopter at the recent official naming in Harwich. Photo by Getty Images. KITE FISHING Iam a former Lighthouse Keeper of 19 years service. With regard to the practice of kite fishing on Lighthouses, I never used this form of fishing although I went about with a rod as often as possible and with lobster pots at many stations we enjoyed a great diet of much of the sea s bounty. On some stations and when the weather and tides were suitable we would use another form of angling which consisted of a floating receptacle such as a Marvel dried milk tin secured with a stout line with the lid fixed on and an optimum amount of holes pierced in it. From the underside of the tin a length of fishing line with hook and bait were attached. The tin was cast into the sea and allowed to sink slowly (the size and quantity of holes was adjusted in the light of experience) at what was considered the best distance from the tower when the tin would fill with water and sink taking fishing gear and bait to the bottom. A reasonable amount of success was achieved depending upon where the tin sank. Mervyn Williams, Haven Street, Isle of Wight. A SWEET SHIP IN EVERY RESPECT Ithought you might like to see the accompanying picture of a cake decorated with an image of THV Mermaid. My partner Hazel had this made as a surprise for my 80th birthday celebrated with family and friends on 1st May. Although Mermaid was sold out of service a few years ago, and I was never a member of her crew, she was the only Trinity House vessel of which Hazel had a picture and this enabled her to maintain the surprise. Mermaid, built 1986, is now operated by the Gardline Group as Ocean Observer and is a frequent visitor to Great Yarmouth. Stanley Mayes, Gorleston-on-Sea. Arecent discourse of mine on kite fishing at lighthouses may now be part of the National Maritime Museum Cornwall exhibition on lighthouses in Falmouth. I have also written on the subject for the Association of Lighthouse Keepers. In 1961 I was transferred to Eddystone Lighthouse as an Assistant Keeper and had heard stories of kite fishing by the then Principal Keeper who claimed to have made good catches although I never saw him fish nor anyone else there. There were three kites in the lantern of different sizes made from rocket sticks and old lantern curtains. The paying out line was made from old halyards up to about 150 feet in length. Ken Clark, a temporary keeper came to the station and he was a river angler equipped with rods and gear and I showed him where to fish from the set off and he was very successful but not at high water or in bad weather. Later I showed Ken the principle of kite fishing although I admit I only caught one by this method. Ken was more persistent and caught several, the best being a 9lb bass. He was later to be transferred to Hanois and then left the service. On one occasion I demonstrated to an Alderney restaurant owner the method as he wished to be able to fish at the breakwater into the race which on the one hand was too far out for rod fishing as well as being difficult with contrary winds. I never knew if he was successful as I left shortly afterwards. I have one further question regarding HORIZON, can you please tell me where Guile Point is? One of my grandparents was a Guile and we believe the name has Huguenot origins although this has not been proven. There have been two communities of Guile, one in the north west and the other in the south east. One wonders if the name comes from a family or an emotion. Harold Taylor, Bognor Regis. Editor s Note: Guile Point Lighthouse along with Heugh Hill Lighthouse gives a lead for vessels entering Holy Island harbour. on the Northumbrian coast. Trinity House assumed responsibility for marking the approach to the harbour on 1st November The Seamark is a stone obelisk with the light fixed about a third of the way up the structure. PAGE 28 horizon SUMMER 2011 SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 29

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