1 Cover Letters & Professional Correspondence E-GUIDE IN THIS SECTION Overview Content, Types, & Formatting Sending Professional Documents Uploading Documents to Online Systems ing Documents Etiquette Sample Application s Professional Follow Up Practices Thank You Correspondence General Etiquette Thank You Etiquette (Sample) Thank You LETTER Etiquette (Sample) Job Offer Correspondence Handling Verbal vs. Hard Copy Job Offers Sample Job Offer Correspondence o Acknowledging the Job Offer o Requesting an Extension to Accept/Decline Offer o Declining a Job Offer o Accepting an Offer and Withdrawing From Job Search o Withdrawing from a Search After Receiving Alternative Offer Additional Resources at the Center for Career Services
2 OVERVIEW What is a Cover Letter? A cover letter (also known as a letter of intent, letter of introduction, or letter of application ) is a document that accompanies a resume or application for a position. Cover letters set out to answer two major questions for employers: 1) are you qualified for the position I have to offer and 2) are you a good fit for this organization. To answer these questions, the cover letter must present a brief overview of a candidate s qualifications as they directly relate to the qualifications sought by the employing organization in addition to helping the employer see how the candidate s passions, values, and/or career goals align with the mission, values, and or/projects of the organization. To do this, just like with resumes, every cover letter must be tailored to each specific position for which you apply. Cover letters fill in the essential elements employers want to know that they may not get from a resume alone. The goal of an effective application submission (that is, the total package of resume, cover letter, and any other requested materials) is to obtain an invitation to interview. Why is a Cover Letter so Important? Employers receive hundreds of resumes, especially when they advertise a highly desirable position. Employers often require cover letters to accompany resumes to help them get a better picture of a candidate as a whole. Submitting a cover letter when it is not required may also help you get the attention of a recruiter who is sifting through hundreds of resumes. Cover letters give you the opportunity to target your experience and skills to the specific position you are applying for and should, therefore, be unique to each position for which you apply. Your cover letter must call attention to the skills, talents, and experience the employer is looking for while helping the employer see that you care about and are a good fit for their company. The employer needs to know that you want THIS job at THIS company, not just any job at any company. Another reason cover letters are important is that a cover letter can explain things that a resume cannot. For example, if large gaps in employment history are present or if a candidate is re-entering the job market/changing the focus of his/her career, a cover letter can explain these circumstances in a positive way. Finally, it is important to think of a cover letter as a sample of your writing and a little window into your personality. One of the most valuable skill sets to employers in any industry today is written and verbal communication; your cover letter allows an employer to see your level of proficiency in this skill first hand. PROOFREAD your cover letter and have it checked for spelling/grammatical errors by at least one other person. Do not rely on spellcheck! Cover Letter Golden Rules It is wise to send a cover letter with any application, even if the materials required for application do not require it. Cover letters are valuable marketing tools that can be the difference between getting the interview and being passed over. Here are some general rules for cover letter construction: Cover letters should never be (or even appear to be) generic or mass produced. Cover letters should generally NOT exceed one page. Keep it clear, concise and to the point. Get feedback and proofread your letter. The cover letter is a sample of your writing and a representation of your level of professionalism make sure you have at least a few other relevant people (e.g., Career Coach, professor, mentor, etc.) read through it to check for grammatical errors and give recommendations on how to make it stronger and more representative of you. Clarify acronyms and avoid colloquialisms, slang, and complicated jargon. CONTENT, TYPE, & FORMATTING Cover Letter Types There are two basic types of cover letters, each of which have a specific purpose and relevance: Application Letter: Used to apply for an open position within an organization; includes pertinent details about your qualifications and requests an interview.
3 Prospecting Letter/Letter of Inquiry: Used to contact an employer where no known opening exists to express an interest in the organization and request an opportunity to interview for an appropriate position. Cover Letter Content & Formatting Immediately below is a guide for identifying and organizing the content you should include in all cover letters. Later you will see a specific example of each of the different types of cover letters applied to a specific position. General Cover Letter Contents & Format Guide SENDING PROFESSIONAL DOCUMENTS While some employers might ask candidates to send their professional documents and/or application materials by mail to a specific office address, the vast majority of employers will typically ask applicants to submit their materials either through an online job application system or via in the form of attachments. Uploading Professional Documents via Website/Online Program If an employer requests that you upload your application materials through an online software program or through a secure website, make sure to include your full name and a clear indication of the document s contents in the title of the document before you upload it (e.g. Mary Marymount Cover Letter OR Bernie McDog Finance Resume) so that it is easy for an employer to identify.
4 Pay attention to the guidelines in terms of which format the employer is requesting that you save your document should it be in Microsoft Word 2010 or above? As a PDF? If it is unclear which format you should upload it as, call the organization s main desk or human resource office to clarify. Do not be careless! If you are applying to many jobs at once, do not forget to TRIPLE check that your cover letter is addressed to the correct employer and that it is sufficiently tailored to the particular position for which you are applying. Recruiters can recognize when an applicant is sending out a generic to all employers! ing Professional Documents with a Cover Letter When ing your resume and/or other application materials, you can either use the body of the for your cover letter, attach a cover letter as a PDF or Word document, or both. If attaching a cover letter, include a short with your full length cover letter attached, following the formatting guidelines. If using the body of the for your cover letter, you can delete the mailing and return addresses, and the date. Also, after your closure, skip one line and type your name instead of skipping four lines for a signature. Include your resume as an attachment. You can also cut and paste your resume into the body of your , which will allow the employer to view your resume even if they cannot open your attachment. When including your resume in the body of the , left justify everything, replace bullets with dashes, and start each piece of information on a new line as document formatting is often disrupted when copied and pasted into the body of an . Follow appropriate etiquette (see below). ETIQUETTE What NOT to do: What TO do! Because your correspondence says a lot about you, you should be aware of basic etiquette: When possible, be brief without leaving out necessary details. Remember to include a professional salutation and greeting. In professional correspondence, it is proper etiquette to address the recipient formally (i.e. Dear Mr., Ms., Dr., etc.) and include a first sentence of greeting (e.g., starting an with something like, Greetings, I hope this letter finds you well ). Address person with Mr., Ms., and Dr. when in doubt. If you are replying to a message where the person has used only his/her first name, then it is okay to address the message using their name. In the example above, begin your message with Dear Mr. Hodge: Use proper grammar and spelling. NEVER use shorthand (plz, thanx ) or emoticons. Always use please and thank you! Write in a positive tone communicate in a respectful, friendly, and approachable manner. Avoid negativity! Do not use all uppercase letters as it appears as though you are SCREAMING. Pay attention to your address! What does it say about you? It should be professional. Avoid addresses like or Limit attachments.
5 Be careful with your subject line. Be aware of word choices, as some filters will consider your message to be spam and possibly will not send the message. If you include a signature line with your s, be sure that it is professional. Avoid sending quotations. Remove any automatic signatures by Yahoo, AOL, etc. Reply with history. Including the history of the exchanges is a courtesy to the employer. is the primary form of communication in most businesses today and some people receive hundreds of s a day. Do not expect the employer to remember who you are or your previous exchanges. Include the history as a helpful reminder. SAMPLE APPLICATION S Strong Sample Application (if attaching a cover letter): Sample Template (if including cover letter in body of ):
6 PROFESSIONAL FOLLOW UP PRACTICES Thank You Letters It is important to express gratitude after sending professional correspondence (even if it is a brief thank you for your time included in the body of an ) or interaction with another professional, especially after an interview with a potential employer. Whether you have a quick informational interview with a current professional over the phone, get an interesting article or job posting passed along from a colleague, receive a reference from a professor, or have a great conversation with a new contact at a networking event send a thank you! Taking the time to thank someone, even after the smallest of favors, is one of the single best things you can do to establish and maintain a positive professional reputation. Furthermore, given the fast-paced world we live in, expressing gratitude will help you stand out amongst a crowd as many professionals overlook this important piece of professional etiquette as non-essential their loss! GENERAL THANK YOU CORRESPONDENCE ETIQUETTE: While thank you letters can be hard-copy (typed and printed or handwritten) or ed, certain forms of thank you correspondence are appropriate for different circumstances. In other words, think of correspondence as a spectrum. If, for instance, you have a colleague send you a valuable article about an industry topic over send a thank you . If you have a 20 minute informational interview over the phone or in person at a local coffee shop, choose your correspondence method based on your personal style and the other individual s correspondence preference (either a thoughtful or a hand-written note would be considered appropriate in this case). If you complete a formal on-site interview with an employer, a thank you followed by a handwritten letter is the most appropriate and professional way to follow-up to ensure your thank you is received by the employer. Just remember that if you are sending two thank you correspondences, they should differ slightly so as not to appear redundant. Thank You Etiquette: The thank you should be sent within 24 to 48 hours after every interview for any kind of job, internship, or graduate school. If you interviewed with multiple people, send individual s to each person who interviewed you at their office address (make sure you have the right address by requesting a business card from each interviewer). Modify each so that no two interviewers receive the same note. This can easily be done by highlighting something specific about the interviewer s role or contribution to the interview. In the , express appreciation for the interviewer s time and consideration of you as a candidate. As a general rule, the thank you is shorter than the handwritten note. In the body of the , continue to address the employer formally (e.g., Ms. Wyatt) unless you are invited to use their first name. If an employer signs an with a first name only, it is an invitation by the employer to address them by their first name. Signing an with both first and last names indicates that you should continue to address the person formally. Err on the side of formality as it demonstrates respect and good manners. Refer to aspects of the interview that further confirmed your interest in the job and/or company or that increased your confidence that you are a good fit for the position. Reiterate your interest in the position; employers will not assume that you are excited about the opportunity. It is your responsibility to express your interest in both the position and the company. Finally, PROOFREAD!! Proofreading is just as important in as it is in other correspondence. Be sure to check spelling, grammar, typos, etc. Also, keep a copy in your outgoing mailbox or cc: yourself so you have a copy of each message you've sent.
7 SAMPLE THANK YOU Thank You LETTER Etiquette: The thank you letter should be sent within 48 hours after every interview remember that the mail will be post-marked (i.e., the employer will see the date it was sent). Remember that an employer may not receive a letter sent via post for up to a week (longer if further away or international). Here are some tips for thank you letter writing: If hand-written, invest in some neutrally-colored thank you card stationary (something with a simple thank you on the front is fine) and write with a black or blue pen. If typing, use a high-quality paper, such as resume paper to print your letter do not forget to sign in black or blue ink. Avoid using postage with politically-charged artwork or messages on it. Be sure to re-read the thank you that you sent to the interviewer so as not to repeat any phrases from the correspondence word-for-word. The whole point of sending a letter in addition to an is to make a more professional and personal impression on the employer take the time to do so by going in to more depth! As with the , express appreciation for the interviewer s time and consideration and do not forget to send individual letters to the office address of each interviewer if multiple individuals were involved. Refer to your interview notes and mention specific aspects of your discussion that further clarified your interest in the position/company and made you confident as the best fit for the position Reiterate your interest in the position by specifically highlighting what you hope to gain from the position and what you have to offer. Continue to address the employer formally, unless they have specified otherwise in other correspondence. PROOFREAD!! Proofreading is just as important in as it is in other correspondence. Be sure to check spelling, grammar, etc.
8 SAMPLE HARD COPY THANK YOU LETTER: JOB OFFER CORRESPONDENCE To make sure you correspond in the most professional, ethical, and responsible way following a job offer, it is important to consider the following scenarios and guidelines: If you get a VERBAL offer, let the organization know that you are very excited and that you are looking forward to receiving the offer in writing with specifics. This will give you time to absorb the initial excitement of receiving an offer while evaluating the offer details. o If you are in the process of interviewing at other organizations, you may want to contact them to let them know that you have received an offer and determine where they are in the recruiting process. o Once you know all your job options and your offer deadlines, you can decide whether you are ready to accept an offer or try to negotiate. If/Once you get a WRITTEN job offer, it is professionally responsible and courteous to acknowledge the correspondence, even if you are not ready to accept or decline it. After you closely read through the details of the offer as specified in the offer letter, you should respond either verbally or in writing a decision you must make based on the pattern and mode of communication you have had with the employer, and/or any specific instructions they have given.
9 Acknowledging the Job Offer In addition to keeping in mind the reminders below, we encourage you to consult with a Career Coach to get professional assistance on handling offers or making a decision. First and foremost, thank the employer for the opportunity presented. If you understand the terms of the offer, indicate that. If you do not, ask for clarification. If you are considering various opportunities, indicate that you do not yet have all the information you need to make your decision and ask for a deadline as to when you need to get back to the employer with your answer (most reputable organizations will want you to make a well-informed decision and they are aware job seekers are looking at multiple options.) If you are waiting to hear back on another opportunity that you are more interested in, but have to give an answer by the end of the week, tactfully and diplomatically ask the employer for a deadline extension. Do not wait until the last minute to ask. If you are considering multiple positions at once, remember to treat everyone with respect; maintaining good relationships with organizations and individuals (who may change organizations) will serve your long-term career success. SAMPLE LETTER: ACKNOWLEDGING A JOB OFFER, neither Accepting nor Declining:
10 SAMPLE REQUEST FOR EXTENSION OF DEADLINE to Accept or Decline Job Offer: Declining a Job Offer If you choose to decline a job offer, do so courteously, in writing, after making a phone call. Never say anything negative in writing about the employer, even if you had a negative experience. If you had a very negative experience, we encourage you to share this information with the Center for Career Services; please call to schedule an appointment so we can direct you to the appropriate staff member based on the situation. A decision to decline an offer is usually based on the fact that your personal circumstances have changed or that another offer is a better fit for your interests and goals. It is fine to state this without giving details about why the declined offer is not a fit. It is not necessary to state whose offer you accepted, but you may do so if you wish. If you decide to decline the offer and cite a better offer as the reason, be prepared for the employer to ask about the offer and try to negotiate. If you have already accepted the other offer, you should decline the negotiated offer absolutely. If you have not, be prepared to discuss negotiated terms or ask for the negotiated offer in writing. Remember that this employer may be a contact for you in the future. Maintain the relationship with professional, courteous interactions.
11 SAMPLE LETTER: DECLINING AN OFFER: Accepting an Offer and Withdrawing From Job Search When accepting a job offer, it is your ethical responsibility to: Keep your word. Terminate all other job search efforts, as failing to notify employers that you are withdrawing from the job search is discourteous and potentially dishonest. If you have accepted an internship position, inform your academic internship mentor. Promptly notify other employers who have communicated to you that you are under consideration that you must withdraw your name from their consideration. SAMPLE LETTER: ACCEPTING A JOB OFFER:
12 SAMPLE LETTER: WITHDRAWING FROM A JOB SEARCH After Accepting Another Job Offer: ADDITIONAL COVER LETTER & CORRESPONDENCE RESOURCES AT THE CENTER FOR CAREER SERVICES In addition to the information and examples this e-guide offers, the Center for Career Services also provides the following services and materials to support the writing process of your cover letters and other professional correspondences. Our staff strongly encourages ALL students and alumni to take advantage of these FREE resources! Individual Career Appointments o Bring in a job or internship position description that interests you and a Career Coach will sit down with you to discuss how to best tailor your cover letter to capture the employer s attention. o Students and alumni can schedule an appointment with a Career Coach by calling If you are not able to come in, we are happy to arrange a phone appointment as an alternative just let us know you are interested in this option when you call! o When scheduling an appointment, the more specific information you can provide in terms of what type of positions you are looking for and what background you currently have, the better our Career Coaches can tailor their support during the appointment. Career Services Workshops & Events o Our office hosts a variety of workshops throughout the academic year, several of which focus on cover letter and resume writing, networking, the job and internship search, and professional behavior. In addition, we host industry-specific panel events, which serve as great opportunities to network with current professionals and fellow peers and can even potentially lead to interview opportunities! For an up-to-date list of upcoming workshops and events, visit our website. o If you are a student and would like to request a workshop or presentation on cover letter writing and professional correspondences for an organization or club that you are a part of on campus, please with your name, club/organization, and potential dates and times for your workshop and we will follow up with you! Print Resources on Interviewing o The Center for Career Services has a library of career resource books in the lobby of our main office in Rowley, Suite 1005 that students can check out for a period of two weeks. o For a full list of our print resources, including those specific to cover letter writing and professional correspondence check out this document.
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Writing to a Prospective Collaborator Celia M. Elliott Department of Physics University of Illinois firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright 2007 The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois TM This presentation
Professional Communication Skills: How to successfully interview on the phone 1. 2. 3. 4. The basics: why do employers use phone interviews? What are the pros and cons of phone interviews? How do you prepare
A Guide to Cover Letter Writing Contents What is a Cover Letter?... 2 Before you get started - Do your Research... 3 Formatting the letter... 4 Cover letter content... 5 Section 1 - Opening... 5 Section
Office of Transfer, Career, and Internship Services 802-387-6823 email@example.com Transfer Guide: The College Admissions Essay Writing a Winning College Application Essay The college essay
WRITING WINNING RESUMES GETTING STARTED Your resume is one of the most important documents in your job or internship search. Knowing how to create an effective resume is a skill you will utilize throughout
101 Ways to Win The Grant Writing Game by Steve Price, Ed.D. and Stephen Price, M.A. Introduction In this brief ebook, Dr. Steve Price and Stephen Price share 101 strategies for successful grant writing
Searching and Applying for Jobs The best career for you Before you can begin searching for a job you need to have some idea of what sort of area you would like to work in and what you would be good at.
Business Etiquette Fall 2007 Our Services Career counselling and planning Résumé and cover letter review Company presentations/info sessions/on-campus recruitment Interview preparation (incl. case & finance)