STATEWIDE INCIDENT REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDERS

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1 FIRE SERVICE REFERENCE BOOKLET 11 STATEWIDE INCIDENT REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDERS August 6, 2011 Developed Jointly by The NJ County OEM EMS Coordinators The NJ EMS Task Force and the NJ Division of Fire Safety STATE OF NEW JERSEY Chris Christie, Governor DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS Lori Grifa, Commissioner DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY William Kramer, Acting Director

2 State of New Jersey Statewide Incident Rehabilitation Guidelines for Emergency Responders Emergency Medical Services Task Force State of New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services Health Infrastructure Preparedness and Emergency Response PO Box 360, EMS Trenton, New Jersey NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 1

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE... 3 THE DEVELOPMENT GROUP CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING REPRESENTATIVES:... 4 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES FOR INCIDENT REHABILITATION... 5 I. PURPOSE... 5 II. SCOPE... 5 III. CONSIDERATIONS... 6 IV. RESPONSIBLITIES... 6 V. DETAILS OF ESTABLISHING AND OPERATING REHAB... 9 APPENDIX A NJAC 5: REHAB REGULATIONS APPENDIX B DEFINITIONS APPENDIX C MANAGING HEAT AND COLD STRESS HEAT STRESS CLASSIFICATIONS, SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT APPENDIX D BORG SCALE APPENDIX E REHAB AREA SETUP APPENDIX F REHAB MEDICAL OPERATIONS APPENDIX G REST AND NOURISHMENT APPENDIX H REHAB RESOURCES APPENDIX I REFERENCES APPENDIX J- SAMPLE REHAB JOB AIDS APPENDIX K- NJ DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY SAMPLE REHAB SOP APPENDIX L-SAMPLE TACTICAL WORKSHEETS UNION COUNTY SAMPLE FORMS SOMERVILLE/HILLSBOROUGH SAMPLE FORMS BURLINGTON COUNTY SAMPLE FORMS GENERIC SAMPLE FORMS PROMULGATION STATEMENT ENDORSING SIGNATURES PAGE 2 NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

4 PREFACE What issues or factors most contribute to injury or line of duty deaths for fire and emergency response personnel? A significant percentage of injuries and illnesses, and more than half of all fatalities are directly related to the stress and overexertion of those involved in emergency scene operations or training exercises. What has been done to address these issues? National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program identifies many of these issues that are injuring and killing emergency responders and it provides a standard to minimize or prevent this from happening.¹ A recent study by Indiana University at looks at how to identify and measure various mental and physiologic stressors on the body during firefighting activities and at actual incidents. 6 The study found that these stressors are present during all phases of firefighting and each have the potential to be life-threatening, putting firefighters at critical exertion limits. It also found that, in many instances these stressors keep the body stressed at unhealthy levels for up to three hours after leaving the scene of an incident. The same study also identified that if firefighters are dehydrated prior to emergency response they are at greater risk for injury and illness. What this study reinforces is the importance of not only being physically fit, but the need to ensure that firefighters receive appropriate levels of rehabilitation based upon individual levels of physical and mental conditioning. One solution is to consider these factors pre-emergency. While improvements to health, wellness and fitness have increased significantly in recent years, much remains to be done. Even with such improvements, the issue of excessive stress and overexertion does not go away. When responders are pushed beyond the limits of their conditioning, injury or deaths will occur. Assigning adequate personnel to perform required tasks safely is the first step toward reducing the chances of over exerting members working at an emergency incident or training event. Even then members will become exhausted and need relief. NFPA 1500 requires fire departments to develop policies and procedures for rehab ; to provide for food, fluid replacement, rest, and medical evaluations or treatment as needed. Although NFPA 1500 requires policies be in place, it provides little guidance for actual set-up and operation of a rehabilitation area, with little to no criteria for evaluating members once there. When reviewing the published data on this subject, there was no single source of information available. In 1992 the United States Fire Administration (USFA) released Report FA-114, Emergency Incident Rehabilitation which offered basic information and a sample Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).7 Since 1997 there have been several full length texts and other publications focusing on rehabilitation and it was this increased interest that led to NFPA 1584, Recommended Practice on the Rehabilitation of Members Operating at Incident Scene Operations and Training Exercises.5 First released in early 2003 as recommended practices, the document was changed to a formal standard in As a result of this change to NFPA 1584, a committee was formed by County Emergency Medical Service Coordinators and the Firefighter Safety & Health Advisory Committee of the NJ State Fire Commission to develop a New Jersey Statewide Incident Rehabilitation Guideline. This document is a meant to be a guideline. It has been designed to serve as a template for any agency or organization who wishes to develop and implement rehabilitation in the NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 3

5 emergency setting. The actual Guideline is only 7 pages, the rest of the document are tools and templates to help emergency services organization be more reliable in providing effective rehabilitation services. The Guideline offers an Incident Commander the ability to provide for the rehabilitation needs of first responders. It provides a framework of standardized systems and terminology to ensure a greater level of personnel safety. Further, it is strongly recommends that fire agencies meet with their local EMS Providers to discuss rehabilitation services and/ or enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), or develop local policies to determine how rehabilitation services will be provided, utilizing the recommended guidelines contained within this document. This Statewide Incident Rehabilitation Guideline has been developed in a collaborative effort by a group of New Jersey County EMS Coordinators and the Firefighter Health & Safety Advisory Council of the NJ State Fire Commission, with guidance from Physician Medical Advisers noted below, the New Jersey EMS Task Force under the authority of the New Jersey County EMS Coordinators Association. The development group consists of the following representatives: Atlantic County Representative Richard Hudson, Absecon EMS- Lou Raniszewski, AtlantiCare Burlington County Representative/ Committee Chairman Francis Pagurek, Mount Laurel Township EMS Firefighter Safety & Health Advisory Council Richard Blohm, Committee Chair and Hoboken Fire Chief James McFadden, Division of Fire Safety Liaison Kenneth Child, Avon FD Mark Ciarlariello, North Plainfield FD Kathe Conlon, The Burn Center at Saint Barnabas Chuck Cuccia, Saddle River FD Richard Silvia, Saddle River FD/ EMS Hunterdon County Representative Bucky Buchanan, Hunterdon County OEM Middlesex County Representative Brian Carney, Robert Wood-Johnson University Hospital EMS- NJ Career Fire Chiefs/ NJ Fire & EMS Institute Tony Correia NJ EMS Task Force Christopher Abbott, Intern Union County Representative Richard Biedrzycki, Elizabeth Police Ambulance Service Bureau Medical Advisers Dr. Mark Merlin Dr. Ken Lavelle Dr. Stephen Vetrano Thank-you to those who offered review comments: Karen Halupke Paul D Roman Peter Wine James Yates PAGE 4 NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

6 Standard Operating Procedures for Emergency Medical Services For Incident Rehabilitation I. PURPOSE A. It is the intent of this document to ensure that the physiologic and mental stressors of Emergency Responders/ Public Safety Personnel operating at the scene of an emergency incident, a training incident, or preplanned event do not deteriorate to a level that may affect the safety and/ or well-being of each responder, or jeopardizes the safety and integrity of the operation/ scene. Rehabilitation, if implemented early and operated correctly, allows the Incident Commander to safely maximize utilization of on-scene resources. B. It is the goal of this guideline to provide a mechanism for the safe return of emergency responders to available status as soon as possible without disregard for the need to hold those requiring further assessment and/ or treatment that may be unfit to return to duty. C. Rehabilitation is a key component of responder health and safety as set forth by NFPA 1584, N.J.A.C 5:75 2.9, State of New Jersey Statewide Incident Rehabilitation Guideline, and USFA Emergency Incident Rehabilitation (FEMA FA-314 July 2008) standards for emergency incidents, planned events and training evolutions rehabilitation. These Standards serve as primary reference documents for this guideline. D. Utilization of regional-based resources to prevent stripping a small geographic area. This plan also limits the logistical and financial burdens on a single jurisdiction. II. SCOPE A. This guideline applies to any and all emergency agencies operating at emergency incidents, planned events or training exercises within the State of New Jersey, where strenuous physical or mental activities or exposure to extreme heat or cold may exist. Whether Fire, EMS, Police, Hazmat or Public Health the appropriate resources will be dispatched based upon local protocols. B. It is the intent of this document to meet the requirements as set forth by N.J.A.C. 5: The NJ Department of Community Affairs, Fire Service Incident Management System Regulation, Medical Unit / Responder Rehabilitation. (Appendix A). C. A local procedure should be established to prompt the Incident Commander to ask if additional incident rehabilitation resources are required. NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 5

7 III. CONSIDERATIONS The Incident Commander (IC) should establish a Rehabilitation Unit or Group when conditions indicate that rest and rehabilitation are needed for responders operating at an incident scene or training evolution. This determination should be made based on: 1. The duration of the operation; 2. The level of physical exertion (refer Appendix D), and 3. Environmental conditions, including but not limited to temperature, humidity, and wind chill factors. 4. Heat stress index above 90 degrees Fahrenheit (Appendix C) 5. Wind chill index below 10 degrees Fahrenheit (Appendix C) 6. Responders who utilize more than two (2) SCBA 30 Minute cylinders; or utilize self contained supplied air breathing apparatus or respirators for longer than forty-five (45) minutes. 7. Situations that generally produce the need for a Rehabilitation Group/ Unit including but not limited to: Incidents declared as All Companies in Service, multi-alarm fire or EMS incidents Prolonged Extrication Incidents Wild land Operations Water Rescue/ Recovery Operations Hazardous Material Incidents Technical Rescue/ Recovery Incidents Search Operations Prolonged Hostage Situations Civil Unrest Incidents Prolonged Traffic Diversions or Crowd Control Operations Training Exercises or Planned Special Events Any other situations as deemed necessary by the IC All emergency personnel assigned to an incident may not necessarily require rehabilitation and/or the same level of rehabilitation just because rehabilitation is established. It is the ICs responsibility to ensure that responders who appropriately meet the criteria based on individual work time, physical exertion, mental stressors or exposure to environmental conditions are assigned to rehabilitation. For example: Fire personnel assigned to an emergency incident not utilized for a tactical assignment may be assigned to receive hydration and nourishment without a medical evaluation. Fire, Police or EMS not exposed to harsh environmental conditions may only require rest (a break), hydration and nourishment. IV. RESPONSIBLITIES A. Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ): It is recommended that all local Fire Departments and/ or EMS Agencies build appropriate rehabilitation resources into their response grids/ alarm plan. This allows for dispatch of appropriate recommended resources for a specific type of incident. Nothing in this guideline shall preclude the Incident Commander from upgrading or downgrading as necessary. PAGE 6 NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

8 B. Incident Commander (IC): The Incident Commander is ultimately responsible for the health and well-being of all personnel operating at an emergency incident or training evolution. The IC should consider the circumstances of each incident or event to ensure adequate provision early on in an incident for rest and rehabilitation of all personnel. These provisions may include but are not limited to: medical evaluation, monitoring and treatment, food and fluid replenishment, physical and mental rest, and relief from extreme climate conditions or any other environmental parameters of an incident. It is recommended the IC ensure the following: Establishment a rehabilitation group/ unit early in the incident to reduce adverse physical/ mental effects on emergency responders and public safety personnel while operating during emergency or training conditions Designation and/ or assignment of appropriately trained personnel to manage the Rehabilitation Group/ Unit Ensure sufficient resources are assigned to the Rehabilitation Group/ Unit Ensure adequate and appropriately trained EMS personnel are available for medical monitoring and/ or treatment of emergency response personnel on scene Once Rehabilitation is established the IC will ensure that emergency personnel are assigned to and rotated through Rehabilitation (including Rehabilitation staff) as appropriate, and in a priority order based on level of exertion, amount of work performed or time exposed to environmental conditions The IC will determine who (IC, Operations Section Chief (OSC), Safety, etc.) will be responsible to have the delegated authority to coordinate assigning emergency personnel to the Rehabilitation Unit, and to ultimately determine final disposition status of incident personnel. The person(s) filling this role should be a high ranking local officer Include rehabilitation in the incident/ event size-up The IC should ensure that Rehabilitation Group/ Unit staffing expands and contracts to meet the needs of the incident. Due to exertion levels common during the overhaul phase of fire operations, maintaining rehabilitation is especially important to decrease the possibility of firefighter injury The IC will be responsible to demobilize/ release the Rehabilitation Group/ Unit after all incident responders requiring and/ or assigned to RG have completed the process. The IC will be responsible to ensure that the appropriate personnel are assigned to assist with the breakdown of the rehabilitation area and ensure that the area is free of all incident- generated trash. The IC will ensure that all incident-related Rehabilitation Tactical Work Sheets and Rehabilitation Medical Documentation is appropriated, collected and retained, in accordance with local protocols. C. Rehabilitation Group Supervisor/ Unit Leader: When any level of rehabilitation is established a properly trained, preferably a certified Emergency Medical Technician Basic (EMT-B) or paramedic (EMT-P) shall be designated as the Rehabilitation Group Supervisor/ Unit Leader. Using Incident Command System (ICS) best practices, the Rehabilitation Group Supervisor/ Unit Leader will follow the chain of command established within the incident. Rehabilitation will typically fall under the Operations Section in the NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 7

9 EMS Branch/ Group. For large scale incidents Rehabilitation may fall within the Logistics Section. The RG Supervisor/ Unit Leader shall ensure the following: Donning a (Rehabilitation) vest In consultation with the IC and/ or OSC as appropriate, identify a suitable location for rehabilitation operations that can accommodate a large amount of emergency personnel including the Rehabilitation staff Identify a suitable area near selected site that can be utilized for a Personnel Protection Equipment (PPE) drop-off area Ensure that the rehabilitation area is an area large enough for ambulance(s) assigned to the RU, with an egress route for transport of personnel if required. Ensure that the rehabilitation area is staged away from hazardous atmospheres, including apparatus exhaust fumes and/ or smoke Requisition of needed rehabilitation equipment and supply assets, and coordination of placement/ set-up in consultation with the IC Establish a Rehabilitation Operation to include medical evaluation, treatment, transportation, hydration, nourishment and rest Ensure that emergency incident personnel assigned to be rehabilitated are safely and efficiently processed and returned to operations as appropriate PAGE 8 D. Rehabilitation Group / Unit: The Rehabilitation Group/ Unit shall be comprised of a sufficient number of personnel (span of two (2) Rehabilitation Unit Group/ Unit Emergency Medical Technicians for every ten (10) public safety responders working at the incident) to perform medical monitoring, rehydration, and manage food and nourishment supplies for the maximum number of emergency personnel anticipated to potentially be in the Rehabilitation Area at any given time. The Rehabilitation Group/ Unit shall consist of certified Emergency Medical Technicians, but may also include EMS providers trained to the First Responder level and Community Emergent Response Team (CERT) personnel to assist with non-medical tasks such as documentation, maintaining supplies, and set-up and take- down of the Rehabilitation Area. When necessary, available paramedics maybe assigned to the Rehabilitation Treatment Unit to perform Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessments and treatments as appropriate in Type IV or < Rehabilitation Operations (refer section V.,B-2) Otherwise paramedics will be requested and dispatched to Rehabilitation to assess and treat emergency personnel that meet state ALS criteria. The Rehabilitation Group/ Unit shall expand and contract to meet the needs of the incident. E. Chief Officers: All Chief Officers should make every effort to maintain awareness of the condition of each company/ unit operating within their span of control to ensure that adequate steps are being taken to provide for each responder s health and safety. The command structure should be utilized to request relief and reassignment (rehabilitation) of fatigued responders. F. Supervisors / Company Officers: All supervisors and/or company officers should make every attempt to maintain an awareness of the condition of each responder operating within their span of control, and ensure that adequate steps are taken to provide for each responders health and safety. The command structure should be utilized to request relief and reassignment (rehabilitation) of fatigued responders. NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

10 G. Emergency Responders: It is ultimately the responsibility of every emergency responder to maintain awareness of his or her condition, and of those operating with them at an emergency incident, planned event and/ or training evolution, to ensure adequate steps are being taken to provide for each responder s health and safety. The command structure should be utilized to request relief and reassignment (rehabilitation) of fatigued responders. V. Details of Establishing and Operating Rehab A. Establishment: The procedure for Emergency Incident Rehabilitation Operations (EIRO) at an emergency scene, training exercises, large scale operations or preplanned events are as follows: 1. There are five (5) types (levels) of rehabilitation operations that may be utilized. National Incident Management System (NIMS) Incident Types have been applied to the following Rehabilitation Type Incidents, with a Level V having the least amount of resources and ICS structure and a Level I. as having the most. 2. The County Fire and/ or EMS Coordinators, in conjunction with the IC, may assist the Rehab Group Supervisor/ Unit Leader in rotating companies/ units to the RA for rest and rehabilitation and/ or medical evaluation. 3. The Rehabilitation Group Supervisor/ Unit Leader shall be responsible for managing rehabilitation operations. B. Rehabilitation Operations: 1. Type V: The incident can be handled with single resources from local and mutual aid jurisdictions. The incident is contained within the first operational period and often within an hour to a few hours after resources arrive on the scene. Rehabilitation operations should be established to meet the incident rehabilitation needs of an event / incident. Resources for Type V response are usually handled at the local level. Minimum recommended resources for this type are as follows: One (1) Type IV ambulances (add more as needed) Local rehabilitation supplies as needed (i.e.: Rehab Tags & Logs, water, towels, chairs, misters, etc.) Advanced Life Support (as needed) Example: Room & Content Fire or Vehicle Extrication with 4-8 Firefighters exerted x >20 Minutes (Single Alarm) 2. Type IV: Command and General Staff functions are activated only if needed. The incident is usually limited to one operational period. Rehabilitation operations should be established to meet the incident rehabilitation needs of the event /incident. Incident resources for Type IV response are usually handled by local and mutual aid resources. The minimum recommended resources for this level are as follows: Three (3) Type IV ambulances One (1) Rehabilitation Unit (additional as needed) Advanced Life Support Unit (as needed) County EMS Coordinator (as needed) NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 9

11 Example: Residential structure fire with an interior attack with heavy overhaul operations utilizing >8 Firefighters packed up utilizing at least one air bottle with >20 minutes of exertion each. (Two Alarm or greater) 3. Type III: When capabilities exceed initial emergency response. Some or all of the Command and General Staff positions are activated, as well as Division/ Group Supervisor and/or Unit Leader level positions. These incidents may require more than one operational period. Rehabilitation operations should be established to meet the incident rehabilitation needs of the event / incident. Incident Resources for Type III response are usually handled with local, mutual aid and regional resources. Minimum recommended resources for this level are as follows: Five (5) Type IV ambulances Two (2) Rehabilitation Units (additional as needed) Advanced Life Support Unit (as needed) County EMS Coordinator(s) Example: High-rise or large commercial building with >24 Firefighters with an interior attack with heavy overhaul operations, each utilizing at least one air bottle with >20 minutes of exertion each. (Three Alarm or greater) 4. Type II: This level of incident extends beyond the capabilities for local control and is expected to go multiple operational periods. A Type II incident may require the response of resources out of area, including regional and/ or national resources, to effectively manage the operations, Command and General staffing, and Rehabilitation operations should be established to meet incident rehabilitation needs of the event / incident. Minimum recommended resources for this level are as follows: Type IV ambulances (as appropriate to operations) Rehabilitation Units (as appropriate to operations) Advanced Life Support Unit (as needed) County EMS Coordinators ( consider NJ EMS Task Force Advance Team) State resources (as needed) Example: Wild land or Forest fire with >50 Firefighters working over a large geographic area on a hot day 5. Type I: This incident is the most complex, requiring national resources to safely and effectively manage and operate. All Command and General Staff positions are activated. Operations personnel often exceed 500 per operational period. Branches are established. Rehabilitation operations should be established to meet the incident rehabilitation needs of the event /incident. Minimum recommended resources for this level are as follows: PAGE 10 Type IV ambulances (as appropriate to operations) Rehabilitation Units (as appropriate to operations) Advanced Life Support Unit (as needed) County EMS Coordinators NJ EMS Task Force; Advance Team NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

12 State or Federal resources (as needed) Example: Wild land or Forest fire with >500 Firefighters working over a large geographic during a single operational period. 6. Rehabilitation Area: The Rehabilitation Area should be set up as a two (2) zone unit. It shall have a controlled entrance and exit, with an accountability site at the entrance for checking responders in and out of the RU. There shall be a vital signs (VS) evaluation area prior to the entry into the rest and hydration area. There shall be a medical evaluation/ treatment area, with an exit to the transport area. (refer Appendix E) 7. Location: It shall be the responsibility of the EMS Branch Director/ Group Supervisor to choose a suitable location for the Rehabilitation Area. The Incident Commander shall approve this location. The location should have the following characteristics: Location(s) should be far enough away from the incident scene for responders to safely remove their SCBA and turn-out gear. (NOTE equipment & turn-out gear should not be brought into the RA; the Rehabilitation Unit Leader must designate an area as an equipment & turnout gear drop zone.) Location(s) should provide suitable protection from the prevailing environmental conditions (i.e.: in hot weather; it should be a cool shaded area, during cold weather it should be a warm, dry area.) Location(s) must be easily accessible for EMS transport units. Location(s) must be free from exhaust fumes from apparatus or equipment (including those involved in the rehabilitation unit s operations) Location(s) must be large enough to accommodate multiple responders, crews, companies based upon the size of the incident. Upon release from the Rehabilitation Unit location(s) should allow for prompt re-entry in to the emergency operations scene NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 11

13 APPENDIX A NJAC 5: Rehab Regulations 5: NJ Department of Community Affairs Fire Service Incident Management System Regulation - Medical unit/responder rehabilitation (rehab) (a) Incident commanders shall ensure that the physical or mental condition of first responders operating at the scene of an emergency does not deteriorate to a point where it affects the safety of each member, or jeopardizes the safety and integrity of the operation. (b) Responder rehabilitation (rehab) shall be used to evaluate and assist personnel who may be suffering from the effects or sustained physical exertion during emergency operations. (c) Command officers should consider the need for rehab during the initial planning stages of an emergency response. Climatic or environmental conditions (for example, high or low temperatures) shall not be the sole justification for establishing rehab. Any activity or incident that is large in size, long in duration, and/or labor intensive will rapidly deplete the energy and strength of personnel and therefore merits the establishment of rehab. (d) All supervisors shall maintain an awareness of the condition of each member operating within their immediate span of control and ensure that adequate steps are taken to provide for each member's safety and health. The command structure shall be used to request relief and the reassignment of fatigued crews. (e) When the circumstances dictate it, responder rehabilitation shall be the responsibility of a medical unit under the logistics section. (f) A medical unit shall provide a specific area where personnel will assemble to receive: 1. Medical assessment 2. Nourishment and re-hydration 3. Treatment of injuries 4. Monitoring of physical condition 5. Transportation for those requiring treatment at medical facilities 6. Initial critical incident stress debriefing (g) Critical components of a rehab operation shall include: 1. Nourishment and re-hydration 2. Rest 3. Recovery 4. Medical evaluation and treatment 5. Accountability (h) Fire departments shall develop and utilize written standard operating procedures/guidelines for rehab. Each of the elements in (g) above shall be included when developing standard operating guidelines or procedures for carrying out rehab operations. (i) Rehab shall be responsible to identify resources that have been cleared from rehab and ready for reassignment through staging or released from the incident. PAGE 12 NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

14 APPENDIX B Definitions 1. Active Cooling: The process of using external methods or devices (i.e. hand and forearm immersion, misting fans, ice vests) to reduce elevated core body temperature. 2. Advance Life Support (ALS): Emergency Medical Treatment beyond Basic Life Support level as defined by the medical authority having jurisdiction. 3. Basic Life Support (BLS): Emergency medical treatment at a level as defined by the medical authority having jurisdiction. 4. Company: A group of first responders/ members: 1. under the direct supervision of an officer; 2. trained and equipped to perform assigned tasks; 3. usually organized and identified as engine companies, ladder companies, rescue companies, or multi- functional companies; 4. operating with one piece of fire apparatus (engine, aerial fire apparatus, elevating platform, quint, rescue, squad, ambulance) except where multiple apparatus are assigned that are dispatched and arrive together, continuously operate together, and are managed by a single company officer; and 5. arrival at the incident scene on the fire apparatus. 5. Core Body Temperature: temperature of the central blood. 6. Crew: A team of two or more responders. 7. Emergency Incident: Any situation to which the emergency services organization responds to deliver emergency services, including rescue, fire suppression, emergency medical care, special operations, law enforcement, and other forms of hazard control and mitigation. 8. Emergency Medical Care: The provision of treatment to patients including first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic life support (first responder or EMT level), advanced life support (paramedic level), and other medical procedures that occur prior to arrival at a hospital or other health care facility. 9. Emergency Medical Services (EMS): Provision of treatment, such as first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic life support, and other pre-hospital procedures including ambulance transportation of patients. 10. Emergency Operations: Activities of the Fire and/or EMS departments or agencies relating to rescue, fire suppression, emergency medical care, and special operations, including response to the scene of the incident and all functions performed at scene. 11. Hydration: A fluid balance between water lost by normal functioning and oral intake of fluids in the form of liquid and foods that contain water. 12. Incident Commander (IC): The person(s) who are responsible for all decisions relating to the management of the incident and is in charge of the incident site. NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 13

15 13. Incident Management System (IMS): A system that defines the roles and responsibilities to be assumed by responders and the standard operating procedures to be used in the management and direction of emergency incidents and other functions. 14. Medical Monitoring: The on-going system evaluation of members who are at risk of suffering adverse effects from stress or from exposure to heat, cold, or hazardous environments. 15. Member: A person involved in performing the duties and responsibilities of a fire department, under auspices of the organization. 16. Passive Cooling: A process of using natural evaporation cooling (i.e. sweating, doffing personal protective equipment) to reduce elevated core body temperature. 17. Patient: An emergency responder who undergoes medical monitoring and treatment during the rehabilitation process. 18. Personal Accountability System (PAS): A system that readily identifies both the location and function of all members operating at an incident scene. 19. Procedure: An organization directive issued by the authority having jurisdiction or by the department that establishes a specific policy that must be followed. 20. Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE): A subjective impression of overall physical effort, strain, and fatigue during acute physical exertion. (Appendix B) 21. Recovery: The process of returning a member s physiological and psychological states to normal or neutral where this person is able to perform additional emergency tasks, be re-assigned, or released without any adverse effects. 22. Rehabilitation: An intervention designed to mitigate the physical, physiological, and emotional stress of fire fighting in order to sustain a member s energy, improve performance, and decrease the likelihood of on- scene injury or death. 23. Rehabilitation Group Supervisor/ Unit Leader: The person(s) or officer(s) assigned to manage the Rehabilitation Group/ Unit. 24. Sports Drink: Fluid replacement beverage that is between 4 percent and 8 percent carbohydrate and contains between 0.5 G and 0.7g of sodium per liter of solution. 25. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): A written organization directive that establishes or prescribes specific operational or administrative methods to be followed routinely for the performance of designated operations or actions. PAGE 14 NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

16 APPENDIX C Managing Heat and Cold Stress Heat Stress: Table.1 from the Toronto Fire Services provides information on heat stress that can be distributed as recommended training for members. Table 1 outlines recommended precautions developed by the Toronto Fire Services for four humidex ranges. Due to the variance of individual susceptibility, certain individuals may experience effects of heat stress earlier than expected. Supervisors should therefore begin to remind workers of heat stress prevention strategies as the humidex level approaches the 95-degree F. to 102 degrees F (35-degree C to 39-degree C) An emergency service organization cannot choose to not respond to the public when it is too hot. However, it can modify its own activities to ensure it does not place its personnel at extra risk. The key to adapting to the heat is to consistently use rehabilitation process and active cooling prevention strategy. The information in Tables 1 & 2 can be used to assist a fire department to determine whether or not non-emergency activities should be re-scheduled or cancelled. Table 1 Activity Table (Estimation of Physical Work Loads) Work Load Light Kcal / hour Up to 200 Examples of Activities Sitting or standing to control machines (driving pump operations) performing light hand or arm work (rope evolutions) intermittent walking. Medium Walking with moderate lifting, carrying, pushing or pulling (hose evolutions), SCBA (donning and doffing), fire extinguisher evolutions, mopping floors, mowing lawn on level ground. Heavy Intermittent heavy lifting with pushing or pulling using an axe (live fire burns), SCBA (search and rescue evolutions), auto extrication, ground ladder raises, roof evolutions, special operations evolutions, forcible entry operations. NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 15

17 HEAT STRESS INDEX HEAT STRESS INDEX HUMITURE DANGER CATEGORY INJURY / THREAT Below 60 None Little or no danger under normal circumstances 80 to 90 Degrees Caution Fatigue possible if exposure is prolonged & there is physical activity 90 to 105 degrees Extreme Caution Heat cramps & heat exhaustion possible if exposure is prolonged & there is physical activity 105 to 130 Degrees Danger Heat cramps & heat exhaustion likely, heat stroke is possible if exposure is prolonged & there is physical activity. Above 130 Degrees Extreme Danger Heat Stroke Imminent Heat Stress Safety Purpose: This advisory provides guidance for job specific, safe work procedures for the prevention of heat related disorders. Responsibility: The supervisor in charge of the facility or workplace is responsible for implementing these heat stress prevention guidelines on a day-to-day basis. It is the responsibility of the individual fire fighters to follow guidelines outlined in the program. All fire fighters and officers should remain aware of the signs and symptoms of heat stress in order to prevent potential injuries or illness. Heat Stress: Emergency Response can be hot, strenuous work. We work in environments with extremely high temperatures with little opportunity to cool our bodies through normal sweating. Our bunker gear makes it difficult to dissipate this heat buildup and can result in heat stress. Heat stress PAGE 16 NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

18 occurs when our body s internal core temperature rises above its normal level. It is a result of our metabolic heat buildup (from working in bunker gear) and external stress from environmental factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) Managing Heat Stress: The management of heat stress requires an understanding of the contributing factors and how heat stress can affect a worker. Factors that affect heat stress are environmental (climate), workload, and clothing worn. Combined, these factors will dictate the rate of heat gain and ultimately, the amount of heat loss required to protect the worker. Aspects of the thermal environment that impact heat stress include air temperature, humidity, radiant heat (from the sun or other heat source), and air movement. A workers metabolic rate is associated with the physical demands of the work performed; higher work demands increase the metabolic process and result in the internal generation of heat. Clothing material, construction, and usage affect the potential heat exchange between the body and the environment and therefore potentially contribute to the risk of heat stress. Other contributing factors that affect the way we manage heat stress are the fire fighters physical fitness and body composition. Thus it is essential that the fire fighter stay in good physical condition. Controls: The key to managing heat stress is to be familiar with the controls used to prevent it and to minimize its effects. Controls for heat stress include the following: (1) Fluid intake (hydration) (2) Work rotation (3) Active cooling (4) Rest NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 17

19 Heat Stress Classifications, Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment Type Cause Signs & Symptoms Treatment Prevention Heat rash Hot, humid environment: plugged sweat glands Red, bumpy rash with severe itching Change into dry clothes and avoid hot environments. Rinse skin with cool water Wash regularly to keep skin clean and dry Sunburn Heat Cramps Too much exposure to the sun Heavy sweating drains a person s body of salt, which cannot be replaced just by drinking water Red, painful, or blistering and peeling skin Painful cramps in arms, legs, or stomach that occurs suddenly at work or later at home. Heat cramps are serious because they can be a warning of other more dangerous heat induced illnesses If the skin blisters, seek medical aid. Use skin lotions (avoid topical anesthetics) and work in the shade Move to a cool area: Loosen clothing and drink cool salted water (1 tsp. salt per gallon of water) or commercial fluid replacement beverages. If the cramps are severe, or don t go away, seek medical aid. Work in the shade, cover skin with clothing, apply skin lotions with a sun protection factor of at least 15. Fair people are at greater risk Reduce activity levels and / or heat exposure. Drink fluids regularly. Workers should check on each other to help spot the symptoms that often precede heat stroke. PAGE 18 NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY

20 Type Cause Signs & Symptoms Treatment Prevention Heat Exhaustion Fluid loss and inadequate salt and water intake causes a persons body cooling system to breakdown Heavy sweating, cool moist skin, elevated body temperature over degrees F (38 degrees C), weak pulse, normal or low blood pressure; person is tired and weak, person faints, has nausea and vomiting, is very thirsty, is panting or breathing rapidly; vision can be blurred. GET MEDICAL AID This condition can lead to heat stroke, which can kill. Move the person to a cool, shaded area; loosen clothing; provide cool (salted) water to drink. Use active cooling (forearm immersion and misting fans) to lower core body temperature Reduce activity levels and / or heat exposure. Drinking fluids regularly. Workers should check on each other to help spot the symptoms that often precede heat stroke. Heat Stroke If a person s body has used up all its water and salt reserves, it will stop sweating. This can cause body temperature to rise. Heat stroke can develop suddenly or can follow from heat exhaustion Body temperature over F (41 C) and any one of the following: the person is weak, confused, upset, or acting strangely; has hot, dry, red skin; a fast pulse; headache or dizziness. In later stages, a person can pass out and have convulsions. ARRANGE TRANSPORTATION TO A MEDICAL FACILITY This condition can kill a person quickly. Remove excess clothing: provide immediate active cooling using forearm immersion and misting fans; spray the person with cool water; offer sips of cool water if the person is conscious. Reduce activity levels and / or heat exposure. Drink fluids regularly. Workers should check on each other to help spot symptoms that often precede heat stroke. NEW JERSEY DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY PAGE 19

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