Basic Indicators on the Incorporation of ICT into European Education Systems

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1 Diretorte-Generl for Edution nd Culture Bsi Inditors on the Inorportion of ICT into Europen Edution Systems Fts nd figures 2000/01 Annul Report Europen Commission

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3 EURYDICE Bsi Inditors on the Inorportion of ICT into Europen Edution Systems Fts nd figures 2000/01 Annul Report Eurydie The Informtion Network on Edution in Europe

4 This doument is pulished y the Eurydie Europen Unit with the finnil support of the Europen Commission (Diretorte-Generl for Edution nd Culture). Aville in English (Bsi Inditors on the Inorportion of ICT into Europen Edution Systems Fts nd figures 2000/01 Annul Report) nd Frenh (Inditeurs de se sur l intégrtion des TIC dns les systèmes édutifs européens Fits et hiffres Rpport nnuel 2000/2001). D/2001/4008/22 ISBN This doument is lso ville on the Internet (http://www.eurydie.org). Text ompleted in Novemer Eurydie, The ontents of this pulition my e reprodued in prt, exept for ommeril purposes, provided tht the extrt is preeded y omplete referene to Eurydie, the informtion network on edution in Europe, followed y the dte of pulition of the doument. Requests for permission to reprodue the entire doument must e mde to the Europen Unit. Cover photogrph: Photo: Getty Imges, Brussels, Belgium. EURYDICE Europen Unit Avenue Louise 240 B-1050 Brussels Tel. (32-02) Fx (32-02) E-mil: Internet: Printed in Belgium

5 CONTENTS Contents Prefe A short guide to ontent Glossry III V VII IX Ntionl poliy 1 Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Edution levels overed y offiil douments on the use of ICT. Primry, seondry nd higher edution (ISCED 1-3, 5 nd 6) (in fore during 2000/01) Ntionl or offiil odies with remit for supervision nd/or promotion of ntionl poliy for ICT in edution, 2000/01 Implementtion shedule for typil ICT projets. Primry nd seondry edution (ISCED 1, 2, 3), Ojetives in ICT. Primry edution (ISCED 1). Projets under wy in 2000/01 Ojetives in ICT. Seondry edution (ISCED 2 nd 3). Projets under wy in 2000/ Bsi inditors 7 Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Numer of pupils per omputer, nd numer of pupils per omputer with n Internet onnetion. Primry edution (ISCED 1), 2001 Numer of pupils per omputer, nd numer of pupils per omputer with n Internet onnetion. Seondry edution (ISCED 2 nd 3), 2001 Responsiility for the purhse nd mintenne of hrdwre. Primry nd seondry edution (ISCED 1, 2, 3). Projets under wy in 2000/01 Distriution of the speifi udget etween the purhse of equipment nd expenditure on humn resoures. Primry edution (ISCED 1). Projets under wy in 2000/01 Distriution of the speifi udget etween the purhse of equipment nd expenditure on humn resoures. Generl lower seondry edution (ISCED 2). Projets under wy in 2000/01 Distriution of the speifi udget etween the purhse of equipment nd expenditure on humn resoures. Generl upper seondry edution (ISCED 3). Projets under wy in 2000/01 Inlusion of ICT in the urriulum. Primry edution (ISCED 1), 2000/01 Perentge of tehers who use omputers nd/or the Internet in the lssroom. Primry edution (ISCED 1), III

6 Bsi inditors (ontinued) Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. Figure 27. Figure 28. Figure 29. Figure 30. Averge periods during whih primry shooltehers (ISCED 1) use omputers (with or without Internet onnetions) in the lssroom, in hours per week, 2001 Approhes to ICT defined in the urriulum. Primry edution (ISCED 1), 2000/01 Ojetives defined in the urriulum for the tehing or the use of ICT. Primry edution (ISCED 1), 2000/01 Inlusion of ICT in the urriulum. Generl seondry edution (ISCED 2 nd 3), 2000/01 Perentge of tehers who use omputers nd/or the Internet in the lssroom. Seondry edution (ISCED 2 nd 3), 2001 Resons given for not using the Internet with pupils. Seondry edution (ISCED 2 nd 3), 2001 Approhes to ICT defined in the urriulum. Generl lower seondry edution (ISCED 2), 2000/01 Annul numer of hours reommended for tehing ICT s sujet in its own right. Generl lower seondry edution (ISCED 2), 2000/01 Ojetives defined in the urriulum for the tehing or the use of ICT. Generl lower seondry edution (ISCED 2), 2000/01 Approhes to ICT defined in the urriulum. Generl upper seondry edution (ISCED 3), 2000/01 Ojetives defined in the urriulum for the tehing or the use of ICT. Generl upper seondry edution (ISCED 3), 2000/01 Speilist ICT tehers. Primry nd seondry edution (ISCED 1, 2 nd 3), 2000/01 Inlusion of ICT in the initil trining of ll tehers (exept speilist ICT tehers). Primry edution, 2000/01 Inlusion of ICT in the initil trining of ll tehers (exept speilist ICT tehers). Lower seondry edution (ISCED 2), 2000/01 Inlusion of ICT in the initil trining of ll tehers (exept speilist ICT tehers). Generl upper seondry edution (ISCED 3), 2000/01 Perentge shre of ompulsory tehing relted to ICT, nd the numer of hours devoted to suh tehing, in the initil trining of ll tehers (exept speilist ICT tehers). Lower seondry level (ISCED 2), 2000/01 Desirle ICT skills ording to offiil reommendtions for the initil trining of ll tehers (exept speilist ICT tehers). Lower seondry edution (ISCED 2), 2000/ Figure 31. Perentges of primry shooltehers (ISCED 1) nd seondry shooltehers (ISCED 2 nd 3) who hve reeived offiil trining in the use of omputers nd/or the Internet in their tehing, Figure 32. Perentges of primry shooltehers (ISCED 1) nd seondry shooltehers (ISCED 2 nd 3) in the EU who hve reeived offiil trining in the use of omputers nd/or the Internet in their tehing, Aknowledgements 37 IV

7 PREFACE The need to inorporte informtion nd ommunition tehnology (ICT) into edution is now inesple, lrgely s result of the growth of the Internet. The mny tion plns dopted t ntionl nd Europen levels (elerning), s well s investment in omputeristion, teher trining nd the updting of urriul er witness to this. While the pe of suh developments vries gretly, there is no dout tht ll Europen ountries re tthing very high priority to ICT in their ntionl poliies nd seeking to djust the wy their edution systems re orgnised nd funtion s result. As prt of its informtion tivities, the Eurydie Network hs een losely following the ICT issue for three yers, pulishing dt tht provide greter insight into how edution systems re tking ount of this new sitution. Aordingly, in the 1999/2000 edition of the joint Eurydie/Eurostt report Key Dt on Edution in Europe, one hpter ontined (minly qulittive) inditors on ICT in the field of edution. A Eurydie Survey on the sujet ws lso pulished in Septemer This provides for etter understnding of the nture nd sope of ntionl inititives in this re. Beuse the sujet is so topil nd the sitution in different ountries hnging so fst, it is importnt to updte pulished informtion on regulr sis nd enhne its interest with dditionl fresh dt. To meet this need, Eurydie will in future pulish seprtely from Key Dt n nnul report devoted exlusively to si inditors on ICT. It is in reltion to this ommitment tht the present report hs een prepred. It fouses minly on the primry nd seondry levels of edution nd omprises the 2000/01 updte of the inditors in Key Dt on Edution. In the light of the hnges oserved in the lst three yers, it my e onluded tht effort hs een invested in this re with the very widespred inorportion of ICT into shool urriul nd teher trining. This report lso provides more detiled informtion on the mount of tehing time devoted to ICT, the pprohes dvoted nd teher trining in this re. Furthermore, it hs een possile to dd severl inditors derived from the speil Eurorometer survey reently onduted for the Europen Commission in reltion to elerning. They offer quntittive view of omputeristion nd the use to whih it is put in shools. Given tht the inorportion of informtion nd ommunition tehnology into Europen edution systems is proess tht, in the long term, will hve mjor implitions for the orgnistion nd methods of tehing, the Eurydie Network will pursue its informtion tivity on the issue. This ontriution will ontinue to e of vlue t ntionl level in enourging n exhnge of experiene on the sujet. And it will e of no less vlue t Europen level oth in reltion to implementtion of the Europen elerning tion pln nd the follow-up to the Europen Report on the onrete future ojetives of edution nd trining systems, whih devotes speil ttention to this question. Lue Pépin, Hed of the Eurydie Europen Unit Novemer 2001 V

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9 A SHORT GUIDE TO CONTENT This pulition ontins informtion on ntionl poliies for edution in informtion nd ommunition tehnology (ICT) nd inditors on the wy this tehnology hs een inorported into Europen shool edution systems. It hs een prepred on the sis of dt supplied y the Ntionl Units in the Eurydie Network (who re knowledged t the end of the pulition) nd the findings of the first Eurorometer Flsh surveys on this sujet. The present report demonstrtes lerly how this setor hs now eome n edutionl priority. This development is unquestionly linked to the rpid growth of the Internet nd the very mny ommunition resoures whih re set to eome prt nd prel of everyone s dily life. It is lso onsistent with the elerning tion pln implemented s prt of EU poliy. The inditors ontined in this pulition drw speil ttention to the following spets: EDUCATION POLICIES ARE INCREASINGLY GEARED TO THE USE OF ICT ICT lies t the hert of ntionl poliies. All Europen ountries tody possess offiil douments iming to promote its use (Figure 1). The integrtion of ICT into shool systems is eoming progressively more widespred. In few ses long-stnding priority, ICT poliies re inresingly eing implemented. Everywhere, odies hve een set up to promote or supervise the implementtion of offiil reommendtions. Edution systems re eing diretly trgeted y ntionl projets drwn up in ll ountries (Figure 3). These inititives relte to the whole of ompulsory edution nd upper seondry edution. Most of them re reent nd egn fter On verge, they lst for five yers, even though few ountries hve egun projets plnned to lst for round ten yers. The min ims re similr in nerly ll ountries (Figures 4 to 6), nmely to oost the omputeristion of shools ut lso the prtil use of ICT in edution (whether this reltes to teher trining, development of the skills of pupils or the use of edutionl softwre). BUDGETS ARE RARELY MANAGED EXCLUSIVELY AT CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LEVEL Ntionl sttistil dt ville regrding the purhse nd mintenne of ICT equipment, or the ICT udget re hrd to ompre. No stndrdised dtse s yet exists. This pulition does not therefore ontin ny informtion on the size of the udget lloted to ICT in the vrious ountries. The diffiulty of otining this sort of mteril is explined prtly y the shred responsiilities for the purhse nd mintenne of equipment. Indeed, s Figure 8 shows, in Europe it is very unusul to find finnil mngement resting solely with the ministry in entrl government. Equipment udgets re most often mnged either t the lol level or jointly, with the responsiility shred etween severl levels of uthority. The wy udgets re lloted etween equipment nd humn resoures hs lso proved diffiult to identify lerly in mny ountries. However, where the rekdown is known, equipment nd filities hve often tken preedene in expenditure (Figures 9 to 11). PROGRAMMING IS OFTEN NOT AMONG THE CURRICULAR AIMS OF THE THREE LEVELS OF SCHOOL EDUCATION Even t primry level, lerning out ICT hs now eome n integrl prt of the minimum ompulsory urriulum in mny ountries. At seondry level, this sitution is virtully the norm. In few ses however, the inlusion of ICT is reent development. Elsewhere, shemes to inlude it re under wy nd sometimes the fous of experimenttion in smll numer of shools (Figure 12). The ims pursued differ little with the level of edution (Figures 16, 22 nd 24). They over rod rnge of skills, extending from the use of vrious softwre pkges to ommunition vi network, not to mention CD-ROM or network-sed informtion serhes. VII

10 Although the development of profiieny in progrmming is the lest widely enountered ojetive in ompulsory edution (ISCED 1 nd 2), it is inluded in the urriulum for upper seondry edution in over hlf of ll ountries. The use of ICT s tool to e used for projets or for edutionl ontent is the pproh most ommonly reommended for primry shools (Figure 15). Pre-ession ountries typilly teh it s seprte urriulum sujet in its own right. At seondry level in lmost ll Europen Union ountries, ICT is tught s seprte sujet, ut tehers still often rely on it s tool for tehing other sujets (Figures 20 nd 23). When ICT is offered s seprte sujet t the end of ompulsory shooling (ISCED 2), the mount of time reommended for it in the urriulum nd/or offiil guidelines vries enormously from under 10 hours yer to over 60 (Figure 21). To this numer of hours should e dded the time devoted to ICT when it is used to support projets or in other res of edutionl ontent, ut this is lmost impossile to mesure. The vrious pprohes dvoted for the different levels of edution re to e set in the ontext of teher trining. ICT speilists re most likely to e found t seondry level (Figure 25). They teh ICT s sujet in its own right, wheres tehers of other sujets mke use of ICT s tool. A MAJORITY OF TEACHERS MAKE USE OF ICT IN THE COURSE OF THEIR TEACHING ON A REGULAR BASIS In the Europen Union in 2000/01, 71 % nd 60 % of tehers t primry nd generl seondry levels respetively (Figures 13 nd 18) sid they used ICT with their pupils on firly regulr sis. Lk of ess nd prolems of equipment or filities re the mjor resons given y tehers for not using ICT in the lssroom. Lk of ny offiil trining in the use of omputers or the Internet does not pper to e ftor preventing tehers from using them with their pupils. In the EU s whole, just over hlf of those tehers who hd no offiil trining use omputers during their lessons (Figure 32). Similrly, in seondry edution, there is no pprent reltion etween the use of omputers or the Internet with pupils, nd the ge of tehers. Agin tking the EU s whole, the perentges registered for eh of the four ge-groups rnge from 57 % of tehers using omputers in the highest ge-group to 65 % in the youngest, nd 40 % using the Internet in the highest ge-group to 44 % mong those ged AN INCREASING NUMBER OF COUNTRIES INCLUDE ICT IN THE COMPULSORY CURRICULUM OF INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING, BUT TRAINING INSTITUTIONS ARE OFTEN LARGELY FREE TO DETERMINE HOW IT SHOULD BE TAUGHT The importne of teher trining goes hnd in hnd with the inlusion of ICT in the edution of pupils. Indeed, only tehers who hve themselves een trined in the use of ICT will e in position to supervise their pupils effetively s they eome fully fmilir with nd grdully mster its essentil resoures. In over hlf of ll Europen ountries, ICT hs eome ompulsory prt of the urriulum for the initil trining of tehers for either primry or seondry edution (Figures 26 to 28). However, s regrds the initil trining of lower seondry shooltehers for whom dt is ville, offiil reommendtions on the sujet of ICT trining re often generl nd stipulte only the ompulsory nture of work on ICT during initil trining. In most Europen ountries, minimum requirements onerning the mount of time to e devoted to the sujet do not exist. Reommendtions on ontent during initil trining re more frequent nd s muh importne is generlly tthed to prtil ommnd of ICT for personl use, s mstery of it for tehing purposes. Orgnistion, ontent nd the mount of time set side for suh trining re, in some ountries, the prerogtive of individul teher trining institutions. Their totl freedom in this respet rises questions s to the omptiility of ICT trining for future tehers in the institutions onerned nd the uniformity of the skills they quire. Although ll ountries hve lid down poliy for in-servie teher trining whih tkes ount of these spets, it ppers no less urgent to ensure tht ll future tehers quire the neessry skills. This is n inesple requirement if the younger genertion re to mster ICT. VIII

11 GLOSSARY CODES AND ABBREVIATIONS COUNTRY CODES EU Europen Union EFTA/EEA Europen Free Trde Assoition / Europen Eonomi Are B Belgium IS Ielnd B fr Belgium Frenh Community LI Liehtenstein B de Belgium Germn-speking Community NO Norwy B nl Belgium Flemish Community DK Denmrk Pre-ession ountries D Germny BG Bulgri EL Greee CZ Czeh Repuli E Spin EE Estoni F Frne CY Cyprus IRL Irelnd LV Ltvi I Itly LT Lithuni L Luxemourg HU Hungry NL Netherlnds MT Mlt A Austri PL Polnd P Portugl RO Romni FIN Finlnd SI Sloveni S Sweden SK Slovki UK E/W NI SC United Kingdom Englnd nd Wles Northern Irelnd Sotlnd NATIONAL ABBREVIATIONS IN THEIR LANGUAGE OF ORIGIN CNICE Centro Nionl de Informión y Comuniión Edutiv E GCE Generl Certifite of Edution UK (E/W/NI) GCSE Generl Certifite of Seondry Edution UK (E/W/NI) HF Højere Foreredelseseksmen DK IUFM Institut Universitire de Formtion des Mîtres F STATISTICAL SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (:) Not ville (*) Estimte Not pplile ICT Informtion nd ommunition tehnology IX

12 THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATION (ISCED) In order to filitte omprison etween ountries, the different levels of ntionl edution hve een lloted the vrious ISCED levels. Beginning with dt gthered for the 1997/98 demi yer, the following lssifition is used: ISCED 0: pre-primry edution. ISCED 1: primry edution. ISCED 2: lower seondry edution. ISCED 3: upper seondry edution. ISCED 4: post-seondry non-tertiry edution. ISCED 5: university nd non-university ourses in tertiry edution leding to first qulifition; dmission to them requires s minimum the stisftory ompletion of upper seondry edution, or equivlent ourses offered in post-seondry edution. ISCED 6: ourses in tertiry edution leding to n dvned reserh qulifition. Aording to the ISCED lssifition, the first two yers of seondry edution in Belgium nd the first three yers of seondry edution in the United Kingdom (E/W/NI) oinide with ISCED level 2 (lower seondry edution). Aording to this sme lssifition, the finl three yers of ompulsory edution offered within single struture in Denmrk, Portugl, Finlnd nd Sweden, in the EU, re inluded in the sme level s lower seondry edution (ISCED 2). This lso pplies for the finl three yers of the singlestruture system in Ielnd nd Norwy (in the ountries of the EFTA/EEA) nd in Estoni. In the other pre-ession ountries, in the Czeh Repuli nd Hungry, the lst four yers of the single struture orrespond to ISCED level 2 nd in Ltvi, Sloveni nd Slovki the lst five yers. EUROBAROMETER INDICATORS ON THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION Stndrd Eurorometer surveys hve een onduted for the Puli Opinion Setor in the Press nd Communition Diretorte of the Europen Commission twie yer sine the utumn of The sme set of questions overing vrious mtters of interest is regulrly put to representtive smple of the popultion ged 15 nd over in eh EU Memer Stte. As prt of the eeurope tion pln, the Informtion Soiety Diretorte-Generl, in oopertion with the Diretorte-Generl for Edution nd Culture, orgnised two Eurorometer Flsh surveys over the telephone in 2001, overing representtive smple of shool heds (Flsh 101) nd tehers (Flsh 102) in eh EU ountry. The questions put to the shool heds were minly onerned with their shool ICT equipment nd filities. The questions put to the tehers minly overed the use of omputers nd the Internet with their pupils (time spent using them, frequeny of their use, resons for not using them, et.), rrngements for offiil provision in this field nd how ICT hs hnged the wy they tught. The Commission hs nlysed the results of the Eurorometer surveys on the use of omputers nd the Internet in shools throughout the EU. The doument setting out these results is ville t the following ddress: X

13 NATIONAL POLICY NATIONAL POLICY AND OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS ON THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY A ntionl or offiil poliy enourging the use of informtion nd ommunition tehnology in edution is in opertion in ll Europen ountries. This ntionl poliy hs generlly een enpsulted in one or more offiil douments (lw, deree, irulr, reommendtion, tion pln). In the mjority of ountries, the offiil douments on the use of ICT dte from the 1990s. In the Czeh Repuli, Mlt nd Slovki, they hve een dopted very reently. In ll ountries, these offiil douments over t lest ompulsory (primry nd seondry) edution. In mny ountries, s illustrted in the Figure 1, they lso over tertiry edution. Douments re lso devoted to pre-primry edution in the Flemish Community of Belgium, Spin, Frne, Itly, Luxemourg, Portugl, Finlnd, Sweden, Ielnd, Mlt nd Sloveni. FIGURE 1: EDUCATION LEVELS COVERED BY OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS ON THE USE OF ICT. PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY EDUCATION (ISCED 1-3, 5 AND 6) (IN FORCE DURING 2000/01). Primry nd seondry edution (ISCED 1, 2 nd 3) Primry, seondry nd tertiry edution (ISCED 1, 2, 3, 5 nd 6) Soure: Eurydie. Additionl notes Netherlnds: In tertiry edution, only teher-trining institutes re involved in the ntionl progrmme lunhed in United Kingdom: The Ntionl Grid for Lerning ims to support lerners in ll setors of edution. However, the initil fous hs een on primry shools nd teher edution. Czeh Repuli: In April 2000, the government pproved doument sed round two priorities: promoting n infrstruture for ICT in edution nd filitting their inorportion into urriul t ll levels of edution. This doument is ompleted y n implementtion-pln for the period Ltvi: There is no offiil doument relting to tertiry edution, ut urriul inlude vrious ourses in ICT. Mlt: The ntionl minimum urriulum pulished in Deemer 1999 enourges the use of ICT in primry nd seondry edution. Slovki: The Infovek projet dopted in 1998 offiilly reognises the use of ICT in primry nd seondry edution. Explntory note For detils on the overge of ISCED 2, see the glossry t the eginning of the ooklet. 1

14 NATIONAL OR OFFICIAL BODIES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPERVISING AND/OR PROMOTING NATIONAL POLICY In ll Europen ountries, one or more ntionl or puli odies re responsile for ensuring ompline with the requirements of offiil douments, promoting prtil mesures nd entrlising inititives. The numer of suh odies vries from ountry to ountry, ut their duties nd responsiilities normlly inlude some or ll of the following: they define the ojetives to e pursued; they selet nd/or supply the hrdwre nd the softwre; they orgnise teher trining nd the development of new softwre; they monitor nd oordinte the vrious inititives implemented in this re; they re responsile for the pplition of the deisions tken nd the greements onluded; nd they ollet informtion to ssess the impt of the projets nd progrmmes set in ple, et. FIGURE 2: NATIONAL OR OFFICIAL BODIES WITH A REMIT FOR SUPERVISION AND/OR PROMOTION OF NATIONAL POLICY FOR ICT IN EDUCATION, 2000/01 B fr Ministry of the Frenh Community, nd the Regions of Wlloni nd Brussels-Cpitl Region B de Ministry: Orgnistion of the Unterrihtswesens Deprtement Onderwijs (Deprtment of Edution) B nl Afdeling Beleidsoördintie (Poliy Co-ordintion Division) Undervisningsministeriet DK UNI*C Lerning L Denmrk Kultusministerien / Wissenshftsministerien (Länder) D Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forshung (Bund) Armodies Ypiresies YPEPTH Pedgogiko Instituto Erevnitiko Akdemiko Instituto Tehnologis Ypologiston (EAITY) EL Tmimt Anotton Ekpideftikon Idrymton Instituto Epexergsis Logou Diefthinseis Protovthmis ki Defterovthmis Ekpidefsis Nomon Periferik Epimorfotik Kentr Centro Nionl de Informión y Comuniión Edutiv (Ministerio de Eduión, Cultur y Deporte) Progrm de Nuevs Tenologís de l Eduión de Cnris E Xrx Telemáti Edutiv de Ctluny Centro Multimedi de Glii Red telemti Edutiv de Andlui, et. Ministère de l édution ntionle F Retorts Ministère de l reherhe (Diretion de l tehnologie) Deprtment of Edution nd Siene Ntionl Centre for Tehnology in Edution IRL Ntionl Counil for Curriulum Assessment (NCCA) Ministero dell Puli Istruzione I Ministero dell Università e dell Rier Sientifi e Tenologi Centre de tehnologie de l édution CTE (Ministère de l édution ntionle, de l formtion professionnelle et des sports) L Servie de Coordintion de l Reherhe et de l Innovtion pédgogiques et tehnologiques SCRIPT (Ministère de l édution ntionle, de l formtion professionnelle et des sports) Ministerie vn Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenshppen (ICT deprtment for poliy development, o-ordintion nd funding) Kennisnet (orgnistion of the edutionl portl site nd network) Surfnet (orgnistion of the edutionl network for higher edution) ICT Foundtion for shools (mintenne, oopertion etween shools nd lol uthorities, ommeril development of NL the edutionl use of ICT nd innovtion in its use) Expertise Centre (support for the development of edutionl multimedi projets) Pedgogil Centre (support for shools) Duth edution inspetorte (mngement nd development of ICT poliy) Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenhft und kulturelle Angelegenheiten Lndesshulräte A Bezirksshulräte Shulleiter Progrmme Nonio Seulo XXI, ICT Progrmme for Shools (Ministry of Edution) Coordintion Group for progrmmes to introdue nd extend ICT nd provide trining in this field t the Ministry of Edution P Internet n Esol, Progrmme for Shool Computer Networks (Ministry of Siene nd Tehnology) Opertionl Progrmme for the Informtion Soiety (Ministry of Siene nd Tehnology) Opetusministeriö Undervisningsminsteriet (Ministry of Edution) FIN Opetushllitus Utildningsstyrelsen (Ntionl Bord of Edution) Sttens skolverk (Ntionl Ageny for Edution) S ITiS (the ICT shool delegtion) Soure: Eurydie. Additionl notes Spin: The nmes of the offiil odies listed my vry from one Autonomous Community to the next. 2

15 UK E/W/NI UK SC IS LI NO INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FACTS AND FIGURES FIGURE 2 (CONTINUED): NATIONAL OR OFFICIAL BODIES WITH A REMIT FOR SUPERVISION AND/OR PROMOTION OF NATIONAL POLICY ICT IN EDUCATION, 2000/01 British Edutionl Communitions nd Tehnology Ageny Bet Lol Edution Authorities (E/W) Edution Tehnology Strtegi Mngement Group (NI) Edution nd Lirry Bords (NI) New Opportunities Fund Teher Trining Ageny TTA (E) Deprtment for Edution nd Skills (Englnd) Ntionl Assemly for Wles Edution Deprtment (Wles) Deprtment of Edution (Northern Irelnd) Joint Informtion Systems Committee Lerning nd Tehing Sotlnd Joint Informtion Systems Committee Sottish Exeutive Edution Deprtment New Opportunities Fund Menntmálráðuneytið (Ministry of Edution, Siene nd Culture) Shulmt Areitsgruppen P, Sek I und Sek II Kirke-, utdnnings- og forskningsdeprtementet Læringssenteret Forsknings- og kompetnsenettverk for IT I utdnningen Sttens utdnningskontor BG Министерство на образованието и науката (Ministry of edution nd Siene) Ministerstvo školství, mládeže tělovýhovy (Ministry of Edution, Youth nd Sports) Rd pro relizi státní informční politiky ve vzdĕláváni (Counil for the Implementtion of the Informtion Poliy for CZ Edution) Koordinni entrum (Coordintion Centre of the Ministry of Edution) Hridusministeerium (Ministry of Edution) Tiigrihüppe Sihtsutus (Tiger Lep Foundtion) EE PHARE Infosüsteemid hriduses Progrmme (Informtion Systems in PHARE Edution ISE Progrmme) EENet (Estonin Network for Edution nd Reserh) CY Ypourgeio Pideis ki Politismou Izglītīs un zinātnes ministrij LV Ltvijs Universitāte LIIS Uzrudzīs pdome (Ltvin Edution Computeristion System Surveillne Bord) Švietimo ir Mokslo Ministerij LT Švietimo informiniu tehnologiju entrs Okttási Minisztérium (Ministry of Edution) HU Sulinet Irod (Hungrin Progrmme for Shool Computer Networks) Megyei Pedgógii Intézetek (Regionl Pedgogil Institute) The Ntionl Curriulum Counil (NCC) MT ICT Brnh of the Deprtment of Curriulum Mngement (Ministry of Edution) Su-Committee of the e-government Committee PL Ministerstwo Edukji Nrodowej (Ministry of Ntionl Edution) Consiliul pentru Informtizre Eduţiei Nţionle (ICT Counil of the Ministry of Edution) RO Comisi Nţionlă pentru Informtiă (Ntionl Commission for ICT) Consiliul pentru Coordonre RoEduNet (Counil for Coordintion of the Romnin Edution Network) Progrmski svet z rčunlniško opismenjevnje (SI/RO Progrmme Counil) Ministrstvo z šolstvo, znnost in šport (Ministry of Edution nd Sport) SI Zvod Repulike Slovenije z šolstvo (Ntionl Edution Institute) Center Repulike Slovenije z poklino izorževnje (Centre for Votionl Edution nd Trining) SK Ministerstvo školstv SR, Metodiké entrá Soure: Eurydie. NATIONAL PROJECTS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF TECHNOLOGY ARE ON THE INCREASE One or more projets imed t introduing ICT into seondry edution hve een initited in ll Europen ountries. With the exeption of very few edution systems (the Germn-speking Community of Belgium nd Ltvi), projets lso exist t primry level. These projets re ntionl or regionl (in the se of ountries in whih responsiilities for poliy hs een deentrlised). In Spin, plns re eing developed through the Centro Nionl de Informión y Comuniión Edutiv (CNICE), diretly run y the ministry, nd the different Autonomous Communities, overing three levels of edution (primry, lower seondry, upper seondry). These ntionl or regionl plns go hnd in hnd with lol inititives. They re prtiulrly numerous in Finlnd nd Sweden. 3

16 SCHEDULES FOR PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ARE OFTEN SHORT OR MEDIUM-TERM Most projets t primry nd seondry levels of edution generlly strted fter The most long-stnding inititives were lunhed in the 1980s, nd only rrely involved the three levels of edution (exept in Spin nd Frne). FIGURE 3: IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE FOR TYPICAL ICT PROJECTS. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION (ISCED 1, 2, 3), B fr B de B nl DK D EL E F IRL I L NL A P FIN S E/ W/ UK NI SC IS LI NO BG CZ EE CY LV LT HU MT PL RO SI SK Soure: Eurydie. Additionl notes Primry Beginning nd/or end of the implementtion period Lower seondry Implementtion period Upper seondry Beginning nd/or end of the implementtion period not defined United Kingdom (E/W/NI): Progrmmes, strtegies, nd funding mehnisms differ etween Englnd, Wles nd Northern Irelnd. Funding progrmmes for Englnd nd Wles hve now een extended to Bulgri: A new ntionl poliy for the use of ICT in edution ws developed nd dopted in An implementtion progrmme hs een drwn up with speil ttention eing given to funding. On verge, the mjority of projets lst five yers. Severl inititives hve een lunhed etween 1999 nd In 1999, projet got under wy for the three levels of edution in Ielnd, Romni nd Slovki. In 2000, Greee, the Czeh Repuli nd Polnd, in upper seondry edution, took up new or initil projet. Projets got under wy in 2001 in Itly, Ielnd nd, t primry nd upper seondry levels, in Mlt. Most of these inititives re either short term (up to three yers), or for n indefinite period nd re grnted new udget every yer (Spin nd Frne). However, some ountries hve undertken long-term projets lsting up to nine yers (Portugl nd Estoni). Plns for most projets extend up to 2003/04. Only the inititives in Greee nd Portugl re progrmmed up to

17 EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES, TRAINING AND USE OF THE INTERNET: THREE MAIN AIMS OF NATIONAL PROJECTS Ojetives hve een set in ll existing projets. Six tegories hve een defined here. The ojetives relte to equipment; the quisition nd onstrution of softwre; the skills of tehers nd pupils nd the use of the Internet. In most ountries, nd throughout the three levels of edution, the stted ojetives over the six tegories. However ertin ountries hve not set ojetives for the quisition, distriution nd development of softwre. Virtully ll ountries im to enhne the equipment nd filities of their shools (in terms of provision per pupil, renewl nd ese of ess). In ddition, they tth priority to the prtil use of ICT in edution (s refleted in teher trining, development of the skills of pupils nd the use of edutionl softwre). However, in ompulsory nd generl upper seondry edution in Denmrk, the projets hve onentrted on developing tehers skills nd on fostering the use of the Internet in generl, through the retion of ommon Internet servie provider, the Sektornet, for ll shools to promote further the development of pupils skills. In the Netherlnds, ntionl edution network, the Kennisnet, in whih shools, lirries nd museums re linked together, ws reted in In Austri (the Huptshulen) nd Bulgri, the pln worked out for lower seondry edution entres on developing the skills of tehers nd pupils. Severl ountries projets lso inlude ojetives other thn those ited in the ove tegories. They over spets suh s the dministrtion of the edution system, monitoring the edution system nd/or innovtions to it, nd trining ll itizens in the use of the new tehnologies, et. FIGURE 4: OBJECTIVES IN ICT. PRIMARY EDUCATION (ISCED 1). PROJECTS UNDER WAY IN 2000/01 Equipment (vilility, renewl, essiility, et.) Aquisition nd/or distriution of softwre Development of tehers' skills Development of pupils' skills Help in the development of softwre/edutionl softwre Use of the Internet Equipment (vilility, renewl, essiility, et.) Aquisition nd/or distriution of softwre Development of tehers' skills Development of pupils' skills Help in the development of softwre/edutionl softwre Use of the Internet Soure: Eurydie. : There is no ntionl projet on the use of ICT t this level of edution. B fr IS LI B de B nl NO DK D EL E F CZ EE CY LV BG IRL I L LT HU NL A P Additionl notes Netherlnds: The poliy of the Duth government is gered to omplete development of the use of ICT for tehing purposes in every edutionl setor. The wy shools hieve tht gol is their own responsiility, while the government provides the funding nd supports them. Norwy: A ntionl inititive hs een lunhed, in order to offer ll tehers in-servie trining nd further edution so tht they n use ICT s pedgogil tool. MT PL RO FIN S SI SK UK 5

18 FIGURE 5: OBJECTIVES IN ICT. SECONDARY EDUCATION (ISCED 2 AND 3). PROJECTS UNDER WAY IN 2000/01 Equipment (vilility, renewl, essiility, et.) Aquisition nd/or distriution of softwre Development of tehers' skills Development of pupils' skills Help in the development of softwre/edutionl softwre Use of the Internet B fr B de B nl DK D EL E F IRL I L NL P A () A () FIN S UK IS LI NO BG EE CZ CY LV LT HU MT PL RO SI SK Equipment (vilility, renewl, essiility, et.) Aquisition nd/or distriution of softwre Development of tehers' skills Development of pupils' skills Help in the development of softwre/edutionl softwre Soure: Eurydie. Use of the Internet Additionl notes Netherlnds: The poliy of the Duth government is gered to omplete development of the use of ICT for tehing purposes in every edutionl setor. The wy shools hieve tht gol is their own responsiility, while the government provides the funding nd supports them. Austri: () Huptshulen (ISCED 2), () Allgemeinildende höhere Shulen (ISCED 2 nd 3). Norwy: A ntionl inititive hs een lunhed, in order to offer ll tehers in-servie trining nd further edution so tht they n use ICT s pedgogil tool. Czeh Repuli: Support for the development of edutionl or other softwre is ville t upper seondry level only. 6

19 BASIC INDICATORS THE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COMPUTER IS HIGHER WHEN COMPUTERS ARE CONNECTED TO THE INTERNET The gret mjority of primry nd seondry shools in EU ountries now hve omputer filities. Some omputers re used for dministrtive nd/or mngement purposes, others for edutionl purposes. Only the ltter re onsidered in Figures 6 nd 7. However, when shool heds indite the numer of omputers in their shool whih re used for edutionl purposes, they do not stte whether this mens tht tehers use them to prepre their lessons or tully with their pupils in the lssroom. One point is ler: irrespetive of the level of edution onerned, fewer pupils per omputer re reported in responses tht inlude no indition s to the existene or otherwise of Internet onnetions. Conversely, when only omputers onneted to the Internet re tken into ount, the numer of pupils per omputer rises signifintly in mny ountries, nd doules on verge. At primry level, this Internet-link-relted inrese in the numer of pupils per omputer is most mrked in the Netherlnds nd Austri. By ontrst, in Denmrk, Finlnd nd Sweden, the orresponding inrese is modest. Countries in whih primry shools re espeilly well equipped with omputer filities, whether in terms of omputers themselves or Internet onnetions, re Denmrk, Luxemourg nd Finlnd. However, in Germny, Greee nd Itly, the numer of pupils per omputer, with or without n Internet onnetion, is well ove the Europen verge: it vries from etween pupils per omputer s whole nd pupils per omputer when there is n Internet onnetion. FIGURE 6: NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COMPUTER, AND NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COMPUTER WITH AN INTERNET CONNECTION. PRIMARY EDUCATION (ISCED 1), 2001 Pupils 100 Pupils EU B DK D EL E F IRL I L NL A P FIN S UK 0 Pupils per omputer Pupils per omputer onneted to the Internet EU B DK D EL E F IRL I L NL A P FIN S UK Soure: Eurorometer Flsh 101. Explntory note In lulting the numer of pupils per omputer, only shools where omputers re used for edutionl purposes re tken into ount. 7

20 THE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COMPUTER IS LOWER IN SECONDARY EDUCATION Seondry shools re etter equipped with omputer filities overll. The numer of pupils per omputer (with or without n Internet onnetion) is nerly lwys lower thn in primry edution. Pupil/omputer rtios re espeilly low in Denmrk nd Sweden; y ontrst, they re well ove the Europen verge in Greee, Spin nd Portugl. Differenes etween the rtios tht re dependent on the existene (or otherwise) of Internet onnetions re less mrked thn in primry edution. When omputers re used for edutionl purposes, they re often onneted to the Internet. This pplies espeilly to Luxemourg, Finlnd nd Sweden, nd to lesser extent in Denmrk, Austri nd the United Kingdom. FIGURE 7: NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COMPUTER, AND NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COMPUTER WITH AN INTERNET CONNECTION, IN SECONDARY EDUCATION (ISCED 2 AND 3), 2001 Pupils Pupils EU B DK D EL E F IRL I L NL A P FIN S UK 0 Pupils per omputer Pupils per omputer onneted to the Internet EU B DK D EL E F IRL I L NL A P FIN S UK Soure: Eurorometer Flsh 101. Explntory note In lulting the numer of pupils per omputer, only shools where omputers re used for edutionl purposes re tken into ount. 8

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