Gaetano Cascini

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1 Innovazione e qualità dell impresa: strumenti e comportamenti (ingegnerizzare la creatività) Gaetano Cascini Gaetano Cascini short resume 2/ : PhD in Machine Design First acquaintance with TRIZ : Assistant Professor at University of Florence 2008 now : Associate Professor at Politecnico di Milano Past: : Founder and first President of Apeiron, the Italian TRIZ Association : Vice-Chair of the IFIP 5.4 Working Group (Computer-Aided Innovation) : President of the European TRIZ Association : Member of the MA TRIZ Presidium Currently: Member of the ETRIA Executive Board Chair of the Computer-Aided Innovation workgroup and Communication Officer of the TC-5 Committee (Computer Applications in Technology) of IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) Author of 80+ papers presented at International Conferences and published in authoritative Journals Author of 9 patents (assignees University of Florence, Whirlpool Europe, Bracco Imaging, Logli srl, SCAM srl, Meccaniche Fiorentine, Otlav/Politecnico di Milano) 1

2 Centro di Competenza per l Innovazione Sistematica Il Centro di competenza per l innovazione sistematica riunisce docenti e ricercatori universitari per approfondire, diffondere ed offrire conoscenze su TRIZ e sull'innovazione tecnologica a imprese, enti e persone singole. Soggetti aderenti al Centro di competenza: Politecnico di Milano Università degli Studi di Bergamo Università degli Studi di Firenze PIN Scrl, Servizi didattici e scientifici per l'università di Firenze Ceris-Cnr di Torino (2008) AREA Science Park of Trieste (2010) BDM di Torino (2010) Competence Center on Systematic Innovation 6 Training and coaching in industry: o ABB SACE 3 case studies + Training + 4 pilot projects o Alenia Aermacchi Training + 2 case studies o Alluflon Moneta Training & Coaching o Bracco Imaging 1 pilot project (3 Patent Applications) o Coster Group Training o Electrolux Professional Training & Coaching o Enel Training o Esaote - Training o Intertaba Philip Morris Training o Intier Motrol - Training o John Bean Technologies - Training o Micron - Training o Procomac Training & Coaching + 1 Technology Forecasting o SACMI Training + 2 pilot projects o Samsung - Advanced Training + Keynote presentation o Tecniplast Advanced Training & Coaching o Whirlpool 1 pilot project (1 Patent) o Zoppas Industries Training 2

3 Obiettivi & Programma 7 Goal: Condividere le potenzialità di un approccio sistematico all innovazione anche nel contesto delle PMI Capire quali sono le possibilità di interazione PMI/Università Program: Contesto: Perché Innovazione Ostacoli: Cosa frena l Innovazione Metodi: Come fare Innovazione Collaborazioni: Con chi fare Innovazione Contesto: Perché Innovazione 3

4 Contesto Increase productivity Ensure quality Optimize innovation Relative concerns Productivity Quality Innovation Respond to demand Optimize production Increase production rates Be competitive Ensure quality Optimize organization Lean Six Sigma TRIZ Deal with complexity Manage knowledge Forecast product evolution Source: Denis Cavallucci Contesto: teorie e società Source: Denis Cavallucci 4

5 Number of Ideas Cosa c è dietro ogni innovazione che arriva sul mercato? From raw ideas to success products 10, Raw Ideas (Unwritten) 300 Ideas Submitted 125 Small Projects Stages of New Product Development 11 If we knew what we were doing, it wouldn t be called research, would it? Albert Einstein 9 Early Stage Development 4 Major Development 1.7 Launches 1 Success Source: G. Stevens and J. Burley, 3000 Raw Ideas = 1 Commercial Success! Research Technology Management, 40(3): 16-27, May-June, Innovation Background 12 Wasting time to solve useless problems 5

6 Contesto: teorie e società Source: Denis Cavallucci Contesto: teorie e società Industry challenges when paradigm shift occurs First signs of losses Heresy Readyness for change Failure of all exisiting approaches Significant losses Methods & Tools (theoretical constructions) Theory Q1 Q2 Readyness to test new existing proposals Innovation era maturity level Adoption Q3 Methods & Tools (first industrial attempts) Norm Methods & Tools (mass application) Job & services creation Law Quality era maturity level CEN/TC 389 Innovation Management Total control Time Q1: What research will favour the adoption of a paradigm change related to innovation in industry? Q2: What research, leading to mass application of new methods and tools in industry, is to be conducted in the age of innovation? Q3: What research, leading to legitimated measurement means, is to be conducted to provide support for industry progresses? Source: Denis Cavallucci 6

7 Ostacoli: Cosa frena l Innovazione Obstacle 1 Psychological Inertia Which is the minimum size of a CD player? 17 Which is the minimum size of a A4 printer? 7

8 Obstacle 1 Inerzia Psicologica Trial & Error 18 You ve got to kiss a lot of frogs before you find your princess... It is difficult to find a black cat in a dark room especially when the cat is not there. Solution Space Ideal Solutions (benefits/costs) TRIZ Random Methods Brainstorming Synectics Reframing Lateral thinking SCAMPER... Obstacle 2 Mancanza di un approccio strutturato: non sempre 19 Scuole elementari Problema: Come dividere 50 ciliegie fra 3 bambini? 8

9 Obstacle 2 Mancanza di un approccio strutturato: non sempre 20 Typo di Problema: aritmetico Modello del problema: 50:3 Strumento: divisione Modello di soluzione: 16,666 Analysis and Abstraction General Model of the Problem General Instruments General Model of the Solution Solution Generation Soluzione: Si distribuiscono 16 ciliegie a ciascun bambino Specific Problem Specific Solution Obstacle 2 Mancanza di un approccio strutturato: non sempre 21 Liceo/Istituto Tecnico: Cosa succede se si mescolano acido solforico e idrossido di calcio? 9

10 Requirement 2 Obstacle 2 Mancanza di un approccio strutturato: non sempre 22 Tipo di problema: chimico Analysis and Abstraction General Model of the Problem General Instruments General Model of the Solution Modello del problema: H 2 SO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 Strumento: leggi di ossido-riduzione Modello di soluzione: CaSO H 2 O Solution Generation Risposta: Solfato di Calcio e Acqua Specific Problem Specific Solution Obstacle 3 Decisioni e compromessi 23 Optimal solution or compromise Requirement 1 10

11 Metodi (concreti): Come fare Innovazione Теория Решения Изобретательских Задач Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Genrich Altshuller ( ) 25 Analysis of hundreds of thousands inventive solutions 99% of inventions use already known solution principle Less than 1% are really pioneering inventions Breakthrough solutions emerge from resolving contradictions Inventors and strong thinkers use patterns Creative problem solving patterns are universal Creative ideas can be produced in a systematic way 11

12 Dynamics Kinematics Static Теория Решения Изобретательских Задач Theory of Inventive Problem Solving The architecture of TRIZ is based on: Three Postulates: o Postulate of Objective Laws of Systems Evolution o Postulate of Contradiction o Postulate of Specific Situation Main models: o o o Models of the problem solving process Hill model (abstraction-embodiment) Tongs model (from current situation to ideality, barriers identification) Funnel model Description of systems, problems, solutions ENV model Model of function Substance-Field Model Model of contradiction System operator (multi-screen approach) Round about problems Resources search Instruments: o ARIZ (Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving), main instrument of Classical TRIZ for Non-Typical Problems, which integrate all others TRIZ instruments o System of Inventive Standard Solutions o Pointers to Physical, Chemical, Geometrical Effects 26 Postulate 1 Laws of Engineering Systems Evolution 27 Laws of Technical System Evolution 1 Law of System Completeness Corollary: Controllability Trend of elimination of human involvement from systems Trend of increasing dynamicity 2 Law of energy conductivity of a system 3 Law of harmonizing the rhythms of parts of the system 4 Law of increasing ideality 5 Law of uneven development of the parts of a system 6 Law of transition to a supersystem Trend Mono-Bi-Poly 7 Law of Transition from macro to micro level 8 Law of increasing Su-Field inyteractions TRIZ Laws Solution Space Conclusions for practice: Good solutions are developed in accordance with the objective laws of system evolution 12

13 Postulate 1 1. Law of System Completeness In order to deliver its function, a Technical System must include, internally or externally (e.g., through the contribution of a human operator), four elements: - a Tool, which is the working element delivering the function of the TS, i.e., exerting a certain effect on its object; - an Engine, i.e., the element providing the energy necessary to produce the expected effect of the function; - a Transmission, i.e., the element transmitting energy from the Engine to the Tool; - a Control, i.e., an element governing at least one of the previous elements. 28 Envinronment Control System Envinronment (Supply) Engine Transmission Tool Object Postulate Law of System Completeness (corollary) Envinronment Control System Corollary: technical systems evolve by integrating all the elements of the Minimal Technical System in order to reduce human involvement Envinronment (Supply) Engine Transmission Tool Object 13

14 Postulate Law of System Completeness (corollary) Envinronment Control System Envinronment (Supply) Engine Transmission Tool Object Postulate 1 Laws of Engineering Systems Evolution: application 31 Solution Space TRIZ Laws Creating new products and services by New Scenario anticipation: TRIZ Laws suggest the directions of development of technical systems, thus highlighting new market opportunities Long-term Scenario Envinronment Control System Current System Envinronment Short-term Scenario Envinronment Envinronment (Supply) Engine Transmission Tool Object System System Control Control Envinronment (Supply) Engine Transmission Tool Current Market New Market Object Envinronment (Supply) Envinronment (Supply) Engine Transmission Tool Envinronment Control Engine Transmission Tool Short-term Scenario System Object Object Envinronment (Supply) Envinronment Control Engine Transmission Tool Long-term Scenario System Object 14

15 Evaluation Par. 2 Postulate 2 Contradictions 32 System evolution implies the resolution of contradictions, i.e. conflicts between a system and its environment or between the components of the system itself System Requirements CP:1 CP = CONTROL PARAMETER EP: 1 EP: 2 EP1 = EVALUATION PARAMETER 1 EP2 = EVALUATION PARAMETER 2 Evaluation Par. 1 Conclusions for practice: To solve a problem we should first discover underlying contradictions To achieve maximum benefits, contradictions should be resolved, not compromised Overcoming contradictions is a driving force behind technology evolution. Resolving contradictions instead of compromising or optimizing, results in breakthrough solutions Postulate 2 Contradictions 33 Contradictions Technical Contd: TC1: EP1(+) EP2(-) TC2: EP2(+) EP1(-) Physical Contd: CP = V EP1(+) EP2(-) CP = anti-v EP1(+) EP2(-) CP:1 CP = CONTROL PARAMETER EP: 1 EP: 2 EP1 = EVALUATION PARAMETER 1 EP(+) = improves EP(-) = worsens EP2 = EVALUATION PARAMETER 2 15

16 Structure Postulate 2 Contradictions Contradictions Technical Contd: TC1: EP1(+) EP2(-) TC2: EP2(+) EP1(-) Physical Contd: CP = V EP1(+) EP2(-) CP = anti-v EP1(+) EP2(-) Problems from different domains, sharing the same contradiction, can be solved by means of the same solving principles 34 CP:1 CP = CONTROL PARAMETER EP: 1 EP: 2 EP1 = EVALUATION PARAMETER 1 EP(+) = improves EP(-) = worsens EP2 = EVALUATION PARAMETER 2 5 Animations TRIZ History school/university/work Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Handbook 1. Introduction(s) 2. Laws of Engineering Systems Evolution 3. Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving 4. Su-Field Analysis and System of Inventive Standards 5. Tools and Principles for solving contradictions Appendix (Step-by-step solved problems) 38 Definition: short definition of the selected topic (T); Theory: theoretical aspects related to T; Model: conceptual model and graphical representation of T; Method/Tool: operative instructions about how to use/implement T; Example: exemplary application of T; Self-Assessment: exercises to assess the reader s level of understanding about T; References: further readings about T. 16

17 Collaborazioni: Con chi fare Innovazione TRIZ Applications 40 Inventive Problem Solving Technical Problems Non-Technical Problems Problem Solving Troubleshooting Failure Prevention Management Conflicts New Business Concepts Maturity Assessment Technology Forecasting 17

18 41 Esempi di Casi di Studio in grandi aziende Bracco Imaging: Method and device for localized thermal ablation of biological tissue, particularly tumoral tissues or the like (3 EP applications) Whirlpool: Low frost chest freezer (1 EP patent) e nelle PMI 42 Scam: Biella per motori ad alte prestazioni (1 IT patent) CIVE Vetrerie Toscane: Produzione piastrelle in vetro (process innovation) 18

19 POAA system FILLING Harmonization (object segmentation) POAA system SPRAYING 70 Harmonization (object segmentation) POAA system CONDENSING H2O2 system CHP Harmonization (object segmentation) Transition to micro-level H2O2 system VCP NON THERMAL PLASMA system Transition to micro-level Transition to micro-level ION BEAM system JP Transition to micro-level JP Transition to micro-level ELECTRON BEAM system Transition to micro-level UV LIGHT system Harmonization Harmonization RADIATION BASED STERILIZATION system (microwave, gamma-rays, and X-rays) Transition to micro-level PULSE UV LIGHT EP B US most sources of such radiation ( are insufficiently intense to permit high speed sterilization of large areas at the dose levels of 1.5 to 4.5 megarads typically demanded for the application LASER UV system EP NUCLEAR INTERACTION??? The law Harmonization (surface segmentation) The law of transition to super system (Mono-bi-poly) The law harmonization (asymmetry) The law Harmonization (geometrical evolution) The law of dynamics growth, controllability and displacing man (dynamization) Nozzle with one opening Bi-system monof. Om 2 ugelli sterilizzanti The law of increasiing the degree of su-fi interactions Ugello con posizione simmetrica rispetto alla bottiglia Geometry of opening: point Nozzle with several openings Bi-system monof.shift 1 per superfici difficili e 1 per facili Poly-system monof. Om Più ugelli sterilizzanti The law harmonization (asymmetry) Ugello con posizione parzialmente asimmetrica rispetto alla bottiglia Geometry of opening: straight line Andare avanti nell evoluzione non comporta ulteriori benefici The law harmonization (coordinating rhythms) The law harmonization (coordinating rhythms) Nozzle with pores WO field UV Bi-system multif.het 2 transmission che usano field diversi (es: UVlamp) Poly-system monof. shift Più ugelli per le diverse parti della bottiglia Geometry of opening: curved line Ugello con posizione totalmente asimmetrica rispetto alla bottiglia Geometry of opening: complex line Bi-system multif.inv 1 scalda e 1 raffredda o 1 eroga e 1 sciacqua Poly-system multif. Heter. Più transmission che usano fields diversi (UV-lamp) Geometry of opening: flat surface Partially trimming - convolution Poly-system multif. inverse. Più ugelli che svolgono funzioni inverse Geometry of opening: complex surface Partially trimming - convolution trimming - convolution Esempi di Casi di Studio: technology forecasting Procomac: Sterilization technologies for aseptic filling 43 Isotonics Tea Fruit juices Vegetable juices Milk based drinks UHT milk US Already in the market Micro-wet: WO US JP EP EP RU Field me (pressure) Field th me me Continuos continuos action in saturation th th Continuos Continuos action in saturation me pulsating th pulsating me Pulsating action in risonance th pulsating action in risonance Patented, not in the market Free space for investments POAA H2O2 WO Control H2O2 H2O2 system Micro-wet MICRO-WET Tool: Transmission sterilant Supply H2O2 Tool H2O2 Transmission: H2O2 Micro-wet nozzlemicro-wet Micro-wet Supply: pump Immobile nozzle single joint nozzle Multiple joint nozzle Flexible nozzle Liquid nozzle Gas nozzle Field nozzle t Esempi di Casi di Studio: technology forecasting per PMI Meccaniche Fiorentine: Deambulatori 44 19

20 TRIZ Applications Fields Product development Industrial research Scientific research Industrial strategy Non technical applications Target: Products Processes Services Where: Big companies Small and Medium Enterprises University 45 World Wide status of TRIZ perceptions and uses (www.etria.net) 46 TRIZ Survey by ETRIA (European TRIZ Association) 319 Replies 39 countries 8 languages 20

21 47 TRIZ Survey by ETRIA (European TRIZ Association) TRIZ in Industry 21

22 Some companies using TRIZ (at least a preliminary experience with) 49 Avon BMW Boeing Borden Case Caterpillar Clorox Cummin Daimler-Chrysler Datacard Delphi Dial DuPont Electrolux Edi Lilly Ford Fujitsu General Motors Heidelberg Hitachi Honeywell HP IBM Intel ITT Johnson & Johnson Kimberly-Clark Kodak LG Lockheed Martin McDonnel Douglas Motorola NASA NEC Electronics Pfizer Pilkington Procter & Gamble PSA Peugeot Glacio Raytheon Rockwell Rolls Royce Samsung Sanyo Sara lee Shell Siemens Gillette Toyota USPO Xerox Source: David Silverstein, Neil DeCarlo, Michael Slocum TRIZ in Industry 50 22

23 TRIZ in Industry 51 TRIZ in Industry 55 23

24 TRIZ in Industry 56 TRIZ in Industry 57 24

25 TRIZ in Industry TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples 25

26 60 TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples 61 TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples 26

27 62 TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples 63 TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples 27

28 64 TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples 65 TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples 28

29 66 TRIZ Experiences in Industry: examples Warnings and Suggestions 67 Simplified TRIZ is probably better than nothing, but very far from ideal!! Using the Inventive Principles as Stimuli for brainstorming sessions has nothing to deal with TRIZ Problem formulation requires repeatable models and procedures Even if TRIZ learning is a long process, avoid using wrong procedures and tools just because it s faster!! Is it really worth to use the Contradiction Matrix? Skipping a proper identification of the underlying contradictions can be faster, but it s certainly useless and dangerous!! Currently available TRIZ software tools don t substitute education Can you avoid studying Romanian/Russian/Korean just having Word on your PC?? Why do we study Maths, since we have calculators? 29

30 Web Resources 68 Web Sites: (Centro di Competenza Italiano) (TETRIS Project: TEaching TRIZ at School) (European TRIZ Association) (IFIP WG5.4 Computer-Aided Innovation) (International TRIZ Association) (Altshuller Institute for TRIZ) (TRIZ journal) (anti Triz-Journal) TRIZ Training 30

31 La formazione 70 Worshop introduttivo La formazione 71 Percorso formativo 31

32 La formazione 72 Percorso formativo Competence Center on Systematic Innovation Gaetano Cascini Francesco Saverio Frillici Daniele Regazzoni Davide Russo Filippo Silipigni 32

33 74 Gaetano Cascini 33

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