Daniela Dato. Parole chiave: Orientamento, pedagogia, educazione Keywords: Guidance, Pedagogy, Education

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1 LESSICO PEDAGOGICO

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3 L'Orientamento. Orientare nella «società senza orientamento». La sfida difficile della pedagogia The Guidance. Guiding in the «Society Without Guidance». The Difficult Challenge of Pedagogy Daniela Dato Dover dare una definizione completa ed esaustiva di orientamento non è impresa semplice. Perché anche l'orientamento sta attraversando un momento di crisi. Ma per quanto difficile da definire e per quanto sottoposto a importati sfide epistemologiche e prassiche, esso si attesta, oggi più che mai, indiscutibile "bene sociale", "bene economico", dimensione ineludibile e necessaria per la costruzione di un welfare inclusivo, attivante e capacitante. Di fronte a tale scenario il problema della pedagogia contemporanea, crediamo, non sia tanto educare alla crisi, educare cioè a "camminare sulle sabbie mobili" per usare una citazione di Bauman; obiettivo che da sempre essa si è posta. Crediamo piuttosto che la vera sfida sia quella di muoversi nella crisi, di non perdere i propri punti di riferimento e di cercarne di nuovi nell'attraversare la crisi stessa: ovvero vera sfida è formare e orientare nella crisi, farsi "invischiare", "sporcare" dalla crisi e uscirne ridefinita, attualizzata. La risposta a cui pensiamo, dunque, è quella di una "pedagogia dopo le pedagogie" che faccia proprio "un progetto audace che funga da orientatore e da traguardo" (Cambi, 2006, p. 26) e che guardi alla società postmoderna e alla sue contraddizioni non solo come perdita ma come opportunità. Una pedagogia che ri-orienti prima di tutto se stessa in termini di modelli, linguaggi, strumenti in un momento storico, ricorda sempre De Masi, in cui imperversa "la mancanza di un modello interpetativo, anzi il vuoto oppressivo di un non-modello [che] ci rende inermi" (2014). Giving a complete and exhaustive definition of guidance is not an easy task. Therefore, guidance is facing the crisis, too. But in spite of its difficult definition and the epistemological and praxis challenges it is faced with, guidance represents, today more than ever, an undeniable "social good", an "economic good", ineluctable dimension necessary to build an inclusive, activating and capabilited welfare. In front of this situation, we then believe that the problem of contemporary pedagogy is not to learn to manage the crisis, which is "to walk in the quicksand" as Bauman says; a goal pedagogy has always set. We rather believe that the real challenge is to move across the crisis, without losing the point of references and trying to find new ones: the great challenge is thus to learn and guide in the crisis, "get involved" in it and "get dirty" of it but get out of it in an updated and redefined way. Therefore, the answer we think is that of "a pedagogy after the pedagogies" that adopts "a bold project which is at the same time a guide path and an arrival line" (Cambi, 2006, p. 26) and that looks at the postmodern society and its contradictions non only as a lost but also as an opportunity. A Pedagogy which first of all re-orients itself in terms of models, languages and means in an historical moment in which, De Masi recalls, "the lack of an interpretative model, indeed the interpretative emptiness of a nonmodel, [that] makes us defenceless" (2014). Parole chiave: Orientamento, pedagogia, educazione Keywords: Guidance, Pedagogy, Education Articolo ricevuto: 1 gennaio 2015 Versione finale: 1marzo

4 A SOCIETY WITHOUT GUIDANCE? Giving a complete and exhaustive definition of guidance is not an easy task. It would be much easier to describe the characteristics and features of the crisis rather than to give a clear idea of guidance and of a choice, empowerment, capability based education in what De Masi has defined as the «society without guidance» (2014). Even the tenacity and competence of an educator, a pedagogue, a trainer or a high quality teacher risk today to waver in front of what, in different ways and with a variety of metaphors and languages, has been defined as the age of liquidity (Bauman), of risk (Beck), of disenchantment (Cambi), of the worrying guest (Galimberti), of instability (Dahrendorf), of uncertainty (Jaques). Wavering is the conviction that talking about guidance still has a sense, and mostly, that the direction of «towards-where-to-guide» and «how-to-guide» are still clear. In an age of displacement, lacks, fading-out (Annacontini, 2014), of the hypothesis of the End of the Story (Fukuyama, 2003), the risk of wavering interests even the most militant and determined Pedagogy that ought to be a tool of transformation and change from the praxis of crisis to the praxis and strategies of planning. It is almost as if that exercise of engagement, planning and dissent couldn't get any air or any breath and planning till the implosion and self-referentiality, a «pedagogical presumption» which lacks of concreteness and operativity. Especially nowadays that the idea of lifelong learning goes side by side with the idea of a lifelong and lifewide crisis and every place and age of life are crossed by doubt, uncertainty, displacement. Childhood, robbed of its spaces and times of play and imagination, bombarded with new codes and languages; adolescence, confronted with a «future that just isn't what it used to be» and that has to search et re-invent means to build it and plan it; adulthood that, as Cataluccio (2004) claims, does not exist anymore and is forced to confront itself with a social, professional, family, cultural and economic complexity, which may be translated into a crisis of identity, risk of fragility and loss of reference points; old age that is a lost, forgotten, removed, nebulous and abstract age (Augé, 2014), etc. Realities that, evidently, put into question the idea of the future that «is synonym of growth [ ], to see it fogging and then disappearing [ ] hits the heart of the motivational system and creates a painful grief: together with the future die the hope, the authenticity and the pleasure of living to grow and become oneself» (Pietropolli Charmet, 2012). In this sense, the labyrinth is properly considered as a metaphor of the powerful suggestions and constructive representations which characterise the crisis and its dynamics. The labyrinth is in fact an efficient image that is able to communicate, on one hand, the idea of the daily experience of the individual marked 420

5 by the insecuritas and continuous research of a possible understanding of the world, on the other, it is an image that is able to represent the natural need to manage the abnormal reality, enclosed in a maze. The labyrinth's idea corresponds to the risk for the individual to get lost and not to find the path where «there is no trace of the ancient and strong scenarios on which to write the plot of one's own existential path» (De Luigi, 2007, p.19) 457, but it is also the metaphor of the travel, of the «itinerary», as explained by Demetrio referring to the experience of self-guidance (Demetrio, 1991). Today, more than ever before, the labyrinth becomes the symbol of a new subjectivity that has to face a society in which the rapidity of transformations leaks a sense of impermanence that «leads to think the variable and inconstancy as the rule» (Calaprice, 2004, p. 16), but that at the same time makes difficult for the individual to stand in the variability, «to remain in movement while being a malleable clay and a skilful sculptor» (Bauman, 2000, p.109). In a society characterised by tensions and imbalance the individual shows the undeniable features of a hurt and restless identity, full of shadows (Cambi, 2006), who needs to learn how «to manage more and more coherently a know-how and a thought that have become disseminative and plural, flexible and entropic» (Cambi, 2006, p. 71). In this sense, it is necessary to accept the challenge, learn to recognise the different possibilities and decide among unsolvable questions, which often depend on unknown rules; it is also necessary to accept the challenge of researching and planning and let individual become ethically responsible of his or her actions in a world of innumerable alternatives with which to exchange meanings, emotions, experiences that are continuously evolving. A demanding project that reminds us that our life is a work of art and, in order to live it like that, We must set ourselves challenges which are (at the moment of their setting, at any rate) difficult to confront point-blank; we must choose targets that are (at the moment of their choosing, at any rate) well beyond our reach, and standards of excellence that vexingly seem to stay stubbornly far above our ability (as already achieved, at any rate) to match whatever we do or may be doing. We need to attempt the impossible. And we can only hope, with no support from a trustworthy favourable prognosis (let alone from certainty), that with a long and grinding effort we may sometime manage to match those standards and reach those targets and so rise to the challenge. Uncertainty is the natural habitat of human life though the hope of escaping uncertainty is the engine of human life pursuits. Escaping uncertainty is a paramount ingredient, even if only tacitly presumed, of all and any composites images of happiness. This is why «genuine, proper and com- 457 All translations in this article are the author's except where otherwise noted. 421

6 plete» happiness always seems to reside some distance ahead: like a horizon, known to retreat whenever you try to come nearer (Bauman, 2008, p. 20). A COMPLEX DEFINITION Therefore, guidance is facing the crisis, too. «Like all the other crisis, this one has also produced moments of confusions, even if the final outcome will probably be the redefinition of guidance's identity towards an effective response to today's doubts» (Batini, 2012). The dishomogenous diffusion of guidance's actions as it is read in 2014 Guidelines for permanent guidance (Linee guida per l'orientamento permanente del 2014), the complexity and «polysemy of the term guidance and thus the interpretative plurality and its operative translation [...]» are matters of fact and have to be accepted in the awareness of the centrality of guidance, which demands today «new hermeneutic interpretations and theoretical and practical research paths able to contribute to give sense and meaning to a founding category of educational process, which is becoming more and more relevant in nowadays complex society» (Loiodice, 2012). But in spite of its difficult definition and the epistemological and praxis challenges it is faced with, guidance represents, today more than ever, an undeniable «social good», an «economic good», ineluctable dimension necessary to build an inclusive, activating and enabling welfare, so that Pombeni writes from a «private fact» it has become a «problem of public interest» (1994, p.2). It is thus fundamental, as reminded by the Guidelines, to activate politics and interventions useful to build an «educating guidance community» in which all actors involved take charge of the social and economic development, employability and social inclusion. It offers itself not only as an educational and vocational guiding process but also as a more complex process of person's accompaniment, as a process of choice-based education and therefore, the means for preventing exclusion, deviance and marginalisation, thus claiming its fundamental category of human existence. «Because it is a tool of strong involvement of one's cognitive, emotional, motivational and relational sphere, as well as a noble method of facilitation though in the light of responsibility and correctness of the individual and the system for the acquisition of cultural DNA we previously mentioned, and because it is a process of discovery, development, rediscovery and enhancement of the genuine aptitudes and interests in the post-compulsory educational paths, guidance, so understood, begins today to be considered as a decisive element not only for persons but also, considering the globalization era, for Countries' destinies» (Domenici, Margottini, 2007, p. 108). 422

7 This point is also underlined in the accompanying letter to Guidelines in which it is indicated that guidance is not only understood as a «tool for managing the transition between school, training and job, but it also acquires a permanent value in the individual life, thus guaranteeing the development and support in the processes of choices and decisions, with the aim of promoting active occupability, economic growth and social inclusion [ ], it acquires a strategic role with a growing impact on the entire society and, mostly, on everyone's future». If is true what Freire and Don Milan affirmed when they claimed the role of education in «giving back the word», «relieving from the fear» and building a critical awareness, it is also true that today educating is not enough. Informing is not enough. De Masi reminds us that we are «the greater collective and educated brain» ever existed, nevertheless knowing is not an indicator of happiness, «there is no progress without happiness» (De Masi, p.10). Therefore, the term guidance (the theories and operational practices it represents) acquires a complex meaning that has to be thought and planned following what, according to us, are three distinctive pedagogical strongholds. The first stronghold is based on the capacity to keep the relation between autoand hetero-direction strong and dynamic, that is between a model of guidance seen as a process involving the bi-dimensional relation between the one who knows and the one who does not know, and a model of guidance seen as a process of autonomous and responsible self-training and self-direction. Here the reference goes to the lifelong capacity of an individual to «be able to guide himself» through the acquisition of a «methodological mind, [ ] an explorative habit, [ ] a prediction skill, [ ] a deciding custom, [ ] a planning capacity that is able to animate, making a continuous appeal to a critical awareness and a presentification of the future» (Rossi, 1979, p. 504). At the same time, it is evident that those competences are not innate, on the contrary, they need to be cultivated and promoted from the earliest age thanks to some reference persons (parents, teachers, educators, etc) and occasions, experiences and training feedbacks, which, besides promoting knowledge, also promote, in the long term, competences of life guidance. The second stronghold takes for granted the longitudinal and diagonal guidance's dimension throughout life in a lifelong and lifewide learning perspective. The same has been asserted by the Council of the European Union in its Resolution of 28 May 2004 in «Strengthening policies, systems and practices in the field of guidance throughout life sets out the key objectives of a lifelong guidance policy for all European Union citizens» where it is affirmed that guidance refers to «a continuous process that enables citizens at any age and at any point in their lives to identify their capacities, competences and interests, to make educational, training and occupational decisions and to manage their individual 423

8 life paths in learning, work and other settings in which those capacities and competences are learned and/or used». This view of guidance introduces the third stronghold that considers the «synchronical-final» model as overtaken by a more complex diachronical-training model, which integrates the functional dimension with the existential one. This perspective integrates the functional dimension of guidance, which is essentially intentional and structured and aims at offering «geographical» and information means for professional and/or training choice and vocational update, in line with the continuous technological progresses and contemporary changes of the knowledge-based society, with its existential dimension, which is linked to individual's socio-cultural, intellectual, aesthetic dimension. In this way, subjectivity is promoted and the integration between the knowledge of hearing and the knowledge of thinking is capitalized. This integrated model «aims at founding in each pupil from the earliest school age those cognitive and emotionalmotivational conditions that lead him or her to the discovery, rediscovery and development of inclinations and authentic interests [ ] not exclusively influenced by social, economic and cultural elements; furthermore, those conditions may lead him or her towards the main information sources and conscious making of decisions in formal and informal, real and simulated contexts» (Domenici, 2007, pp ). Guidance ought thus to be thought and achieved from a new and more complex consideration on the training process and its implications that are more or less visible on the economic and cultural development of the society and on individual's social, psychological and physical wellness. It means to overtake a purely instrumental vision in order to adhere to a more global and integrated vision we may say ecosystemic of the individual and training, based on the «development of the person in his or her globality, that is the person who learns to be» (Delors, 1996, p. 80) and who rediscovers and shows the need to reflect upon his or her identity. Therefore, guidance cannot be thought and planned only for information interventions or as a mediator between a professional profile and a workplace or a training course, in other words as a functional intervention only coming from the utilitarian logic connected with market's needs. The instability, complexity, liquidity of nowadays society do not only need alphabetic, literacy-based, technical and vocational competences, but they also need the development of competences of choice, decision making, problem solving, management of the change that enable to pass the traditional concept of information guidance in favour of new forms of guidance of a formative and maturity-based nature, combining the requests for information and contents transmission and the requests for the construction of sense and meaning, of planning, personalisation and individualisation. This is also reminded by the Recommendation 2006/962/CE of the European Parliament and by the Counsel of 18 December 2006, on the key competenc- 424

9 es for lifelong learning in which together with the communication in the mother tongue and in foreign languages, digital, mathematical, scientific and technological competences, the hope is also to promote both in young and adults metacognitive competences (learning to learn), social and civic competences («personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life»), sense of initiative and entrepreneurship (creativity, innovation and risktaking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives, etc.), cultural awareness and expression, «which involves appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media». Therefore, it is in this sense that guidance process ought to combine functional reasons with existential ones and imagine to take care of the pupil-citizenworker. It must see the individual involved in bounding the threads of his or her emotional, cognitive, formative and professional history; combining the requests both for reasons and emotions; recognising and recognising himself, always in the perspective of future plan and existential project. In fact, the action of choice, planning and change involves individual's multidimension, it thus needs to bring into play its cognitive and emotional operations, affections, beliefs, values that influence it. In this direction, guidance has to be seen, first of all, as an auto-cognitive process that implies the capacity of the individual to understand him/herself, accept him/herself, monitor his or her way of learning and relate him/herself to others, have self-esteem and a good level of self-efficacy. As we told above, it is about a process both autodirected and guided that is also represented as «reinforcement of a personal point of view and perception, of a personal project in continuous becoming» (Cunti, 2008, p. 22). After all, the term guidance comes from the present participle of the Latin verb orior that means the research of the North position, which helps to determine the right direction. A voyage of research and transformation that acquires the double meaning of wandering during a travel and experiencing the error. The same etymological root implies the categories of hope, possibility, change and transformation. That evident utopian and metabletic dimension that is fundamental in this period characterised by risk, uncertainty and displacement and that may be considered as a continuous exercise of empowerment, resilience, autoefficacy, adaptability and capability. Against the risk that guidance policies might be crashed by the logic of profit and utility, guidance goes beyond the limits of information to invade and pervade the ones of communication, relationship and training, since it is a complex, dynamic, shared and situated process. It is not by chance that Pombeni stresses this complex and ecosystemic dimension of guidance process, underlining that it is «an active process that accompanies the person throughout his or her life experi- 425

10 ence; managed by the individual by his or her own resources (personal and social) and with reference to his or her own experiences (formative and vocational); influenced by his or her own belongings (social groups, local community, family context); historicized, that means inside a certain type of a formative system and of a complex and global labour market, primary and secondary; attentive to cultural diversity and gender specificity of each actor of the process; promoted inside the individual through vocational practises having different goals (selfguidance, vocational consulting, etc.)» (Isfol, 2006, p. 67). This idea is perfectly ascribable to an action of rational and historical guidance. The same formative action, translated into «learning to learn», directly transposes the training action's objectives from a level of knowledge and behaviours to the one of human being, thus transferring also training action's goals from an instrumentally political, ethical or social level to the one of the reaffirmation of human values, starting from the capacity to reconstruct life, survey and research directions. Which also means critics, resistance and affirmation. A guidance that does not have «lighthouses» nor «compasses» but that rather needs to found its action only on a reflexive construct, which knows how to recognise and build its own «signpost», starting from a synergic practise of an antidogmatic and dialectical rationality and of a sensitive and diagnostic pragmatics. «Hence guidance may represent for the individual what for the navigators of Puluwat island, in the Pacific Ocean, represents the Etak. 'Etak as the cognitive psychologist U. Neisser writes is the organisational principle of the cognitive map that enables navigator's journey. It works, like all orientation schemas, by receiving information and directing action' [Neisser, 1993, p. 129]. If the compass, the traditional metaphor by which guidance is described, indicates a direction, the Etak principle, certainly abstract, teaches how to read the variety of indications coming from signals like waves or birds' flight. Collecting information and directing actions autonomously, according to a cognitive schema in constant evolution: that is, at the moment, one of the main needs of the individual in his or her ongoing process of guidance» (Traetta, 2009, p. 16). GUIDANCE BETWEEN SCHOOL, UNIVERSITY AND WORK Pombeni underlines that, over these years, guidance has acquired a triple function of «reception and guiding information; accompaniment and guiding tutoring in training and vocational paths (of employment/unemployment); guiding counselling for training choices and vocational projects» (Isfol, 2006). Considering that guidance is a permanent educational task, a complex process of accompaniment service provided to person throughout his or her life and in the variety of contexts in which he or she lives, grows and learns, it is thus evident that some contexts play a crucial role. Educational system (school/university) and entrepreneurial system are, according to us, the places where it is possible to openly 426

11 and intentionally develop and employ those guiding competences useful to navigate in today's society. School, as a space of education and socialisation, is the first place, after the family, where the child, the future adult, may acquire and employ, on one hand basic competences, on the other transversal ones, such as decision making, sense making, group work, etc. Guiding at school means to exercise the right of education for all and promote talents, but it also means to recognise students' cognitive and emotional characteristics, supporting, exercising and guiding them not only to acquire competences but also to promote metacognitive and metaemotional processes, which are recognised by national and international literacy as essential, guiding and sometimes even predictive for succeeding at school. Hence school has the task to foster and achieve «guiding activities for the enhancement of specific guiding competences», «formative guidance or guiding didactics for the development of basic operational competences» as well as «accompaniment and guiding counselling activities, accompaniment to individual projects, through the exercise of competences of monitoring/management of the individual process» (Guidelines, 2014). Still too high are the school drop-out rates and the level of explicit and implicit wastage, which underline the need to increase guiding policies for the apprenticeship of knowledge and of minimum contents and for the development of life skills useful to move into the complex society. This is also possible with a rethinking of disciplines that may be «used» not as recipients of knowledge but rather as lenses to read and interpret reality (Gardner, 1999). As a consequence, the idea is to dismantle the stereotype of the discipline as a mere recipient of knowledge and information in favour of a discipline seen as a constitutive element for competences' acquisition, in order to build one's own life project. Such Ministerial documents have accepted the invitation of Oms (Life skills education in schools 1993) to foster the acquisition of life skills, i.e. those «competences that lead to positive attitudes and adaptation which enable the individual to face efficaciously the requests and challenges of everyday life», in other words those key competences of citizenship that enable student to acquire, thanks to the compulsory education up to 10, «the full development of the construction of the self, significant and right relationships with others and a positive interaction with the natural and social reality» (see the Attachment to the Regulation of the Decree of the Ministry of Education, n.139/2007). In this sense, guidance at school may, on one hand, accompany the individual towards an educational and vocational choice, on the other enable him or her to choose consciously and responsibly, in an active and participated way, bringing the dimensions of self-esteem, auto-efficiency, causal attribution, etc. into play. And it is not enough. School guidance also aims at fostering that integrated system dear to Franco Frabboni that builds synergies and collaboration between school, university and work, and that may thus realise the pedagogical ideal of 427

12 helping learner to be integrated and integral, empowered and capabilited, in other words to be able to act and choose from his or her own resources. In this optic, on the operational level, school must promote: 1. an effective approach of each learner to all disciplinary areas of school pathways; 2. a systematic survey [ ] of the relations that [ ] are established between the development of cognitive sphere and the development of emotionalmotivational sphere in each one and in all students; 3. the promotion of conditions that improves in each student an autonomous life project, a self-evaluation of his or her own interests, aptitudes and aspirations; 4. a systematic information on the different learning pathways [ ] and on the labour market at all levels [ ] and the capacity to handle and efficiently use the information for the resolution of different problems [...]; 5. the construction of contexts adequate to promote in everybody the capacity to take decisions in the different circumstances (Domenici, Margottini, 2007, pp ). This is possible by matching the holistic and ecosystemic approach that undertakes to activate integrated strategies useful to a long-term existential project. The same can be said about University that, as asserted many times, must offer itself not only as a recipient of knowledge but also as a laboratory of competences, where the same didactic quality depends on the capacity to match theory and praxis and train not only full but also and mostly «well-done» heads (Morin). As an instance, we may consider the indication of Dublin descriptors that underline the need for university education to promote, besides knowledge and understanding skills, also communicative and learning skills, autonomy of judgement, etc., «citizenship competences». Moreover, recent data of the Ministry of Education (MIUR) and Isfol have stressed that university wastage, though decreasing after the reform, is still a paramount problem in the pedagogical thinking-acting. If this is true for the explicit wastage that, though it is an unsolved problem, is easier to assess and lends itself to faster preventive interventions and retaking actions, it is not the same for the implicit one, submerged, which is due to the wastage of cognitive potentials and talents, students' inadequate handling of their own cognitive resources and of their low awareness and participation to the learning process, but first, to their low level of awareness and planning at the time of the choice of their university pathway. Still too high is the number of students placed on supplementary years because of the difficulties they met during their study or the failure of their study choice, and still many are the students who drop-out after the first year because they are unable to make aware choices and handle their learning processes, thus causing learning and vocational failure. The interaction of the different reasons of dropping-out makes the situation more complex and confused: from the in- 428

13 ternal reasons due to the student (his or her knowledge, competences, inner motivations, etc.) to the external ones, depending on the university institution (organisation of times, places and learning strategies, personal and life history of the student, factors such as impermanence, instability, confusion and displacement of the society in which we all live). Together with the promotion of talents, the struggle against implicit and explicit wastage, in its diachronic-procedural and learning dimension, the goal of university guidance policies is certainly also the placement and the development of a vocational project. Guidance to and at work needs a separate discussion. The same Guidelines remind us how necessary is today «to lead to system the learning of the culture of work and entrepreneurship». The entry in the labour market of a young worker is an arrival point but also a new starting point. Together with the young man in search of a job and the NEET who need to be accompanied and to develop competences of agency and capability, it is also real that adult confronts himself or herself (and face) with premature lay-off, mobility, replacement, company reorganisation, etc. In the first case, university and school take on the difficult task of guiding the formative offer towards the labour market demand, albeit preserving, and it is important to underline it, their primary cultural task. On a curriculum level these institutions may reduce the scissors between theory and praxis, welcoming in the classrooms privileged witnesses and concrete examples while, at the same time, innovating and renovating didactic strategies and methods useful to the development of knowledge and competences. On the institutional plan, it may be possible by enhancing the continuous confrontation and exchange with the territory, facilitating territorial tables, local partnerships with public and private bodies, which may become protagonists of policies of school-work alternance, thus building a bridge between learning and occupability. Moreover, in the Guidelines it is read as follows: «in the school and learning world, guidance cannot be reduced to the psychological and individual dimension of knowledge of the self but it must be extended to a social and cultural projection with regard to belonging communities, social and professional identities, historical memory, shared values and work ethics». On a more specific educational plan, this means to question itself on new learning emergencies, adopting the culture of the «good work» and «good guidance». In the second case, it is about to take into account the transformations in the labour world that need a strong commitment of the learning policies. Once overtaken the idea of a long life employment, more and more frequently the society of works asks young and less young workers to change their job because new competences are required, even within a permanent work position. These are professional biographies «at risk» characterised by «an almost constitutive uncertainty» (Bresciani, Franchi, 2006, p. 39) before and after the definition of the 429

14 career. «Career becomes nomadism across many places and many roles [ ] professional goals interfere more and more with personal and civil goals» (Bocchi, Ceruti, 2004, p. 7). Nowadays we are facing professional transitions of a work that is never the same and needs quick and long-lasting guiding interventions, which require the activation of profiles able to be resilient and empowered and flexible to the change, risk and uncertainty. These are «emergencies» that may be solved through the promotion of guiding paths, capacities and supports to personal and professional projects, through practicing forms of understanding, mediation, interpretation of behaviours also in order to foster professional reflections and self-knowledge management, which may translate the experiences into new apprenticeship. In this way, together with guiding interventions for the training of competences needed for the active research of work, placement, autoplacement, self-marketing, professional update and requalification, it is necessary to consider, also and most of all, those guiding interventions useful for the re-planning, redefinition and enhancement of the existing vocational projects, in other words those professional biographies that, today more than ever, know the risk, the insecurity, the crisis and, more in general, the complexity. «If at the beginning of the 20 th century the goal of guiding processes was to achieve the match between individuals and occupations [ ], at the middle of 20 th century the commitment was to determine factors and stages of a longlife process of a career development [ ], now in the 21 rst century, the goal of each guiding action is to enable persons to plan their lives as best they can, despite the complexity of the society in which we live» (Di Fabio, 2014). The reference goes quickly to the theories of Guiscard and of Savisacks, the former more general about life design, the latter more specifically shaped on the career construction, that seem to us to be particularly effective because they combine the dimension of guidance counselling with the self-directed one. Such theories are strongly connected with the idea of an active participation of the individual to his or her process of construction of a life and/or vocational project, which considers him/her as a «proactive agent» who is able to self-organise and manage his or her own experiences and competences. In this perspective, it is essential for the construction of an efficient project to acquire career management skills necessary to autonomously analyse, select, synthetize all information coming from the educational, training and labour world, as well as «to take decision and face moments of transition. Learning these competences may help individuals manage non-linear career paths (learning and vocational)» (Guidelines, 2014). 430

15 THE PEDAGOGY OF CRISIS FOR THE «SOCIETY WITHOUT GUIDANCE» In the light of what has been said hitherto, it is therefore evident that guidance has acquired all the characteristics of a pedagogical category. But the real challenging question is: is it possible to guide and to guide oneself in a «society without guidance»? Are the necessary competences innate and thus the asset of a few? «Whose responsibility is it to elaborate [a] new model for the crisis? Who possesses the experience, wisdom, brilliancy, bravery to sketch it? Does an embryo already exist anywhere?» (De Masi, 2014, p.12). We reply yes to De Masi's questions. A «pedagogical yes» that sees in pedagogy, in men and women's longlife training and in its operators the privileged guiding mediators who are able to promote competences, which are clearly not innate but may be nurtured from the earliest years of life. A «pedagogical yes» that recognises that pedagogy, for its logical, ethical, heuristic, methodological nature, which is like a tattoo on its critical and reflexive, hermeneutic and problematic skin, may answer the question «on», «for», «of» the future, project and wandering seen in its double meaning of need of voyage and need of error, which are functional categories of the research of the future. Of course, the other temporal dimensions are equally important for the integrated and integral men and women's learning. But the lack of clairvoyance, the shortage of perspective and the scarceness of projections may mean for pedagogy the failure of its principal task that is project's construction. And this is both a social and political responsibility in its wider and deeper sense. In front of this situation, we then believe that the problem of contemporary pedagogy is not to learn to manage the crisis, which is «to walk in the quicksand» as Bauman says; a goal pedagogy has always set. We rather believe that the real challenge is to move across the crisis, without losing the point of references and trying to find new ones: the great challenge is thus to learn and guide in the crisis, «get involved» in it and «get dirty» of it but get out of it in an updated and redefined way. Besides all, as De Masi underlines, «perhaps it is not the reality to be in crisis, perhaps is our way of interpreting it and our explanatory models to be in crisis. Seen that mental categories we inherited from the industrial age are no more able to explain us the present, we are induced to be suspicious about the future, swinging between disorientation and fear» (D. De Masi, 2014, p.11). De Masi also reminds us that «any sphere is immune to this disorientation: [ ] we do not know whether this disorientation represents a symptom of development or rather the first sign of a collapse. We only know that it causes a wide 431

16 sense of crisis that, in turn, makes the future difficult and risky to plan» (De Masi, 2014, p. 24). Therefore, the answer we think is that of «a pedagogy after the pedagogies» that adopts «a bold project which is at the same time a guide path and an arrival line» (Cambi, 2006, p. 26) and that looks at the postmodern society and its contradictions non only as a lost but also as an opportunity, as «time to receive and [ ] certainly to govern too, putting at the centre a social commitment [ ] and the individuals' learning» (Cambi, 2006, p. 26). A Pedagogy which first of all re-orients itself in terms of models, languages and means in an historical moment in which, De Masi recalls, «the lack of an interpretative model, indeed the interpretative emptiness of a non-model, [that] makes us defenceless» (2014). It is thus a Pedagogy that accepts the challenge, that opens itself to the risk, future, anxieties the present brings with itself, complexity, liquidity and «towards them it acts as validation, regulation and also possible achievement» (Cambi, p. 27). A commitment that, albeit transitory and not decisive for the problematic aspect of the experience, takes on the engagement of an ethic responsibility that reconstructs the continuity between tradition and innovation, always in the respect of man's generativity (Bertin). As De Masi affirms (reminding us provokingly that we live in a society without guidance), «a century ago, if a doubt had arisen in a person's mind, he would have had books, doctrines, slogans, programs and masters to hang on to. [ ] Once we have refused the ideologies, killed the masters, loose the leaders, which model, which teaching must we adhere to, we who are the bewildered of the third millennium?» (De Masi, p. 27). Again we reply: to Pedagogy. To a Pedagogy of the «society without guidance», which has to take into consideration a rethinking of its theoretical, methodological and practical paradigms, which has to adopt an emancipative dimension (where emancipation is the fruit of critical engagement and dissent) and which is aware that as Domenici asserts «guidance and self-guidance represent behavioural and intellectual operations that are particularly complex and difficult». Pedagogy has an undeniable social role and, through the promotion of thinking models shaped on reflexivity and metacognition, first on itself and then on the rest of the world, may «be considered as a knowledge that plays an important social role, that is to help to rebuild a new way of thinking both for the individual and the society in their "normality" [ ]. It may offer itself as a disciplinary conceptual structure, as the apparatus of thinking about the thoughts, in this case of a society that has lost itself after the fall of its traditional models, as if, after the fall of these models, the apparatus of thinking had fell too. [ ] Now, it would be necessary to promote and Pedagogy, together with other sciences, may assume the role of important guide in this process the construction of a 432

17 new apparatus to think, based on a new recipient which receives, metabolises, reelaborates, supports in the creation of flexible boarders and limits» (Riva, 2012). As a project-based and historical knowledge, it must «reflect on its own capacity to do pedagogy, in a logical sense, in a phenomenological sense and in a hermeneutical sense» (Cambi, 2006, p. 132). It must set itself as an anti-dogmatic and an anti-reductionist action and thinking, able at the same time «to take care, in its whole, of the pedagogical sense, and to relaunch it [ ] widening its borders» (Ibid., p. 134). De Masi strengthens the following thesis: in my opinion, the impasse we live comes from the unpleasant and singular circumstance for which nowadays postindustrial society, differently from other macrosystems before, is not based on a pre-existent model, a paradigm already elaborated and shared: it has issued from a rapid sequence of genial but partial ideas, of surprising technologies and prosthesis but also of unnecessary products, boring rites, senseless conducts, grew up side by side before someone put them into system, theorising them, drawing, planning, protecting and guiding them as a whole [ ]. A new model does not arise by chance and suddenly: it arises from the remains of all the previous models and needs a strong effort of analysis, fantasy, concreteness, that means of collective creativity. First of all, it is thus necessary to patiently retrace those models that have been tested throughout human history, throwing the old parts away and stilling what remains of the fruitful juice, intellectuals will value in the elaboration of a new model, finally able to free ourselves from the sense of crisis which lives inside us inhibiting the ideation of a happy future (2014, pp ). To reach this model, the Science of Education must de-construct itself, reject outdated and «tired» apparatus, working, as Mariani says, on «that something we are partially aware of and which is considered as a condition of thinking and reflecting, in the pedagogical field» (Mariani, 2008, p. 84). It is about that «something almost natural. It does not only concern silences, but also pedagogical implicit/archetypes, which anyway have to be defined and (critically) interpreted, de-constructed and reconstructed (through a hermeneutic pit) [ ]. It is about historical- eidetic a-priori that only a critical-genealogic rereading of the past (starting from the present) may bring out and subject to a rational analysis». Bringing to light the implicit sides and being aware of them is possible only «starting from a deconstruction that frees [ ] from unconscious conditionings, unsaid prerequisites, hidden infrastructures» (Ibid., p. 85). At this purpose, in the critical and deconstructionist pedagogical model, Mariani tracks down the «effective device for unmasking hidden conditionings [ ] and for their overtaking towards a thought characterised by "difference" and "dissemination"» (Mariani, 2000, p. 18). Then, Cambi claims the social, planning, critical, deconstructive and hermeneutical role of Pedagogy which has been able to face changes, revise models, 433

18 etc. over the centuries. As for example, the Pedagogy of the 60ties or the one that has faced the crisis of the modern school, of the «death of the family», etc. «They are all sides from which strongly emerge the emblem and critical role of an after-the-pedagogies (empirical), [...] which stands as radical and total reflection. [an] "emancipative pedagogy" [ ] that is able to think ahead the present, the man, the culture, the society [ ] at the 'service' of a "Progress" and against the "Conservation"» (Cambi, 2006, p. 135). But the theoretical reflection is not enough. It has also the task to renovate and continuously calibrate its operative-planning-concrete function of a science of the pedagogical «to do» and «to create"». Because it is a generative science, it must claim the training primacy as a process of guidance to person and planning of cultural, social and professional self, aimed at accompanying the individual in the different phases of life and at giving him or her the capacity to take responsible and aware choices on his or her training and professional project, through a culture of the choice and planning. The Report from the Educational Council to the European Council on the concrete and future objectives of education and training systems, Council of European Union of 14 February 2001, underlines, and this is not by chance, that the society attributes to education and training «-the development of the individual, who can thus realise his or her full potential and live a good life; - the development of the society, in particular by fostering the democracy, reducing the disparities and inequities among individuals and groups and promoting cultural diversity; - the development of economy, by ensuring that the skills of the labour force correspond to the economic and technological evolution». These concepts have been confirmed in the Resolution of the European Council of 2002, in which it is read that lifelong learning has not only an occupational but also civic, personal and social perspective and presents itself as a pedagogical strategy of promotion of an active citizenship, of a social cohesion and of a personal and professional fulfilment of the individual, as well as a tool of adaptability to the rapid changes of today's complex society. In the background, the Pedagogy of the utopia that recognises the historicity to be man and woman as «unfinished, uncompleted beings in and with a likewise unfinished reality, which, because of its historical nature, is incomplete too. [ ] In this incompletion and awareness lie the roots of education as an exclusively human manifestation. The unfinished character of human beings and the transformational character of reality need education to be an ongoing activity [ ]. In order to be it is necessary "to be in becoming"» (Freire, 2005, p. 84). A pedagogy of the radical hope, Freire would have added, aware of the reality and of the risks it runs but also of the possibilities of transformation and change. A pedagogy that believes in its capacity to educate to the planning, the change, the integration and the capitalisation of the crisis as an opportunity. And to do so, it needs the relation, the transformative and dialogical power it carries with it. 434

19 Because, when you think about it, guidance is a relational process of the individual with him/herself and others (with the world, friends, family, colleagues, trainers, etc.). Guidance is dialogue, an attempt to learn together «to give a name to the world, in view of its transformation», «the means of research, reflection, reasonable approximation to the knowledge» (Vigilante, Vittoria, 2011), which also needs a competent accompaniment. The form of dialogue we refer to arises from Watzlavich's theory of communication as a relation and not only and not much as information, that form of communication that interprets its etymological root of the Latin verb «to communicate» in the sense of «to share», «to put in common». Dialog seen not simply as a praxis but, systemically, as formae mentis marked by the doubt, the heuristics, the divergence, the opening, the «political fundament», the «reduction process of the gap from the stranger and strangeness». A dialogue that achieves its full realisation in the concreteness of the network that «enables to overtake the fragmentation of the services and interventions, which have characterised guidance policies so far, that polycentric service structure that produces in the individuals it is composed of [those who benefit from it] liaisons, sharing, dialogue, communication» (Guidelines, 2014). BIBLIOGRAPHY Annacantini G. (2014). Pedagogia dal sottosuolo. L'Harmattan Italia: Torino. Bauman Z. (2008). The Art of Life. Cambridge: Polity. Bauman, Z. (2000). La solitudine del cittadino globale. Milano: Feltrinelli. Batini F. (2012). L'orientamento alla prova della contemporaneità. In "MeTis. Mondi educativi. Temi, indagini, suggestioni", n. 1. Calaprice, S. (2004). Alla ricerca d'identità. Per una pedagogia del disagio. Brescia: La Scuola Cambi, F. (2006). Abitare il disincanto. Novara: Utet. Cataluccio M. (2004), Immaturità, Einaudi, Torino. Cunti A. (2008). Aiutami a scegliere. Milano: FrancoAngeli. Dato D. (2004). La scuola delle emozioni. Bari: Progedit. Dato D. (2009). Pedagogia del lavoro intangibile. Problemi, Persone, Progetti. Milano: FrancoAngeli. Dato D. (2014). Professionalità in movimento. Riflessioni pedagogiche sul "buon lavoro". Milano: FrancoAngeli. De Luigi, N. (2007). I confini mobili della giovinezza. Esperienze, orientamenti e strategie giovanili nelle società locali. Milano: Franco Angeli. Delors J. (1996). Nell'educazione un tesoro. Roma: Armando. Demetrio, D. (1991). Tornare a crescere. L'età adulta tra persistenze e cambiamenti. Milano: Guerini. Di Fabio A. (2014) ( a cura di), Mark Savickas, Career counseling. Trento: Erickson. 435

20 Domenici G. (1995). L'orientamento diacronico formativo. Roma: Ed. SEAM. Domenici, G., Margottini., M. (2007). Orientamento diacronico-formativo tra scuola e università. In T. Grange Sergi (a cura di). L'orientamento nella progettualità educativa. PensaMultimendia: Lecce. Freire, P. (2004). La pedagogia degli oppressi. Torino: Ega. Freire, P. (2007). Pedagogy of the heart. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. Fukuyama F. (2003). La fine della storia e l'ultimo uomo. Milano: BUR Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli. Gardner H. (1999). Sapere per comprendere. Discipline di studio e discipline della mente. Milano: Feltrinelli. Isfol (2006). Dialoghi sull'orientamento. Dalle esperienze ai modelli. Roma. Isfol, (2007). Orientare l'orientamento. Politiche, azioni e strumenti per un sistema di qualità. Isfol. Editoriale della collana "Temi & Strumenti". Roma. Loiodice I. (2012). Orientamento come educazione alla transizione. Per non farsi "schiacciare" dal cambiamento. In "MeTis. Mondi educativi. Temi, indagini, suggestioni", n. 1. Loiodice I. (a cura di) (2009). Orientamenti. Teorie e pratiche formative per la formazione permanente. Bari: Progedit. Loiodice I. (2004). Non perdere la bussola. Milano: FrancoAngeli. Mariani A. (2000). La decostruzione e il discorso pedagogico. Pisa: Ets. Mariani A. (2008). La decostruzione in pedagogia. Roma: Armando. Neisser U. (1993). Conoscenza e realtà. Bologna: Il Mulino. Pietropolli Charmet G. (2012). Cosa farò da grande? Il futuro come lo vedono i nostri figli. Roma-Bari: Laterza. Pombeni M.L., D'Angelo M.G. (1994). L'orientamento di gruppo. Roma: N.I.S. Relazione del Consiglio (istruzione) per il Consiglio europeo sugli obiettivi futuri e concreti dei sistemi di istruzione e di formazione, Consiglio dell'unione europea, Bruxelles, 14 febbraio Riva M. (2012). Giovani oggi: riflessioni pedagogiche tra crisi del modello d'autorità e sindrome narcisistica. In EDUCATION SCIENCES & SOCIETY, 3(1), Rossi, B. (1979). Educazione e orientamento. Verifiche concettuali e criteri metodologicioperativi. In "Pedagogia e vita", n. 5. Traetta L. (2009). L'evoluzione storica dell'orientamento tra teorie e pratriche. In I. Loiodice, Orientamenti. Teorie e pratiche formative per la formazione permanente. Bari: Progedit. Vigilante, P. Vittoria (2011). Pedagogie della liberazione. Freire, Boal, Capitini, Dolci. Foggia: Edizioni del Rosone. 436

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