The UNESCO Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa

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1 ED/HED/TED/2006/ME/17 March 2006 Original: English The UNESCO Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa First Meeting of National Coordinators for UNESCO s Teacher Training Initiative for sub-saharan Africa 7-9 March 2006, BREDA, Dakar, Senegal Zambia Status of teachers in Zambia James M SILWIMBA TTISSA National Coordinator

2 The opinions expressed in this document do not necessarily reflect the official position of UNESCO or its Member States and do not imply a commitment on the part of the Organization. 2

3 Ministry of Education (Zambia) Directorate of Teacher Education and Specialised Services (TESS) Status of teachers in Zambia Paper presented at TTISSA seminar - Dakar Senegal James M Silwimba Zambia TTISSA National Coordinator. Lusaka Zambia March

4 This paper highlights the issues affecting teachers in Zambia during Training, their working conditions and staffing levels in schools. 1. Background Zambia is a landlocked country that covers a geographical area of 753,000 square kilometers and consists about 2.5 percent of the area of Africa. Administratively the country is divided into nine provinces, namely Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern; North-western, Southern and Western provinces. The country is further subdivided into 72 districts. These provinces correspond with the Ministry of Education administrative/educational management regions. a) Ministry Of Education structure In Zambia the Ministry of Education (MoE) has five directorates under one Permanent Secretary. Permanent Secretary Support Services: Accounts, Procurement and Audit Planning and Information Teacher Education and Specialised Services Human Resource and Administration Open and Distance Education Standards and Curriculum Province and District admin Schools and Colleges The ministry manages the school system through provincial (regional) and district offices. In the diagram above the directorates with double arrows have a lot more to do with schools and colleges. The directorate of Teacher Education and Specialised Services looks at both the pre-service and in-service training programmes for teachers 4

5 The directorate of Standards and Curriculum development monitor the adherence of the bench marks set by the ministry for schools and colleges Grading of schools All the schools in Zambia are grouped according to the number of pupils as follows; Grade 3: Grade 2: Grade 1: pupils pupils 841 and above pupils b) Structure of the education system Old structure Preschool Education: Below six years of age. The training of preschool teachers was a shared responsibility between the ministry of education and the private sector. The function of providing preschool education was in the hands of the district councils under the ministry of local government and housing Primary education: In Zambia the entry age into grade 1 is seven. The primary cycle is seven years grades 1 to 7. At the end of grade 7 pupils write selection examinations to grade 8 at secondary level Secondary education The secondary cycle is five years from grade 8 to 12 and is divided into two: Junior secondary for grades 8 to 9. At the end of grade 9 pupils write selection examinations to grade 10; Senior secondary is for grades 10 to 12. At the end of grade 12 pupils write school certificate examinations. Tertiary education This refers to any education or training that is offered to grade 12 school leavers. Colleges, Institutes and Universities are the ones that offer tertiary education New structure Preschool Education: Below six years of age. Training of preschool teachers is still a shared responsibility between the ministry of education and the private sector. The provision of preschool education has now been given to the ministry of education. 5

6 Basic education: The entry age into grade 1 still remains at seven years old. The basic cycle is nine years grades 1 to 9. It is envisaged that grade seven examinations will be abolished while the grade nine examinations will be maintained and will be used for selection to grade10. High school education The secondary cycle has been renamed high school and is for three years from grade 10 to 12. At the end of grade 12 pupils write school certificate examinations. No changes at tertiary level Summary Old Structure New Structure Preschool local government Below six years Preschool - MOE Below six years Primary school Grades 1 to 7 Basic school Grades 1 to 9 Secondary school Grades 8 to 12 High school Grades 10 to 12 As a ministry we are running a dual system of education in respect to the above. There are primary schools (grade 1 7) that have not yet been upgraded to basic level (grade1-9). These schools are referred to as Middle basic schools. The same applies to secondary schools. Some still run from grade 8 to12 and have not changed to high school to run grade 10 to Training Existing Programmes and Institutions in Teacher Education The nature and objectives of teacher education in Zambia have been directly related to the structure of the education system and have been influenced by successive policy documents, both in terms of the curriculum and the structure of the teacher training system. Teacher Education programmes consist of four levels on qualifications each representing a particular level of the education system and the Continuing Professional Development. This uniformity exists despite the fact that teacher training programmes are provided by different providers Pre-service Teacher Education (Initial Teacher Education) a) Pre-school This level of training is for teachers who teach in preschools. Two colleges enrol on alternate basis. In the past, due to critical shortage of teachers, preschool graduates were employed to teach at the lower basic level (grades 1 4). The course is of two years duration. Total preschool teacher output is per year from colleges under ministry of education. Admission: Full grade 12 certificate or General Certificate of Education (GCE) with two credits and three passes 6

7 b) Certificate This level of training is designed to prepare teachers for basic education (Grades 1 to 7) and is offered by 10 colleges of education (formerly known as Primary Teacher Training Colleges-PTTC). This is also a two year course and is examined and certified by the Examination Council of Zambia. The total teacher output from colleges under ministry is to per year Admission: Full grade 12 certificate or General Certificate of Education (GCE) with three credits and two passes c) Diploma This level prepares teachers of upper basic education classes (Grades 8 to 9). They follow a two-year residential programme and specialize in one or two teaching subjects. The High school colleges of education, which prepare these teachers, are affiliated to the University of Zambia through the School of Education. The University of Zambia underwrites the diplomas. The total teacher output at this level is per year. A three-year diploma for Grades 8 and 9 in agricultural science teachers is offered by the Natural Resources Development College (NRDC) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives with an output of while Evelyn Hone College under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training offers training for music and art and design teachers with a similar output. Admission: Full grade 12 certificate or General Certificate of Education (GCE) with three merits and two credits d) Degree level courses aim at training high school teachers (Grades 10 to 12). Both school leavers and serving teachers do train for high-school teaching at the University of Zambia. The total output is Admission: Full grade 12 certificate or General Certificate of Education (GCE) with five o levels Private Colleges and University: Initial teacher training is also provided by private colleges. However, their certificate level teacher output, in 2005, which was about 13.5% of total output from government and grant-aided colleges, was small compared to the number of colleges. The Zambia Open University is the only private university that is offering teacher programmes and it is yet to produce its first graduates. These colleges and the university are recognized by, and registered with the Ministry of Education. 2.2 Continuing professional development (CPD) This is designed mainly to provide ongoing professional support by organizing short workshops, seminars and courses. It also includes upgrading different categories of teachers from certificate to diploma and from diploma to degree levels. a) Upgrading programmes: Some continuing professional development (CPD) programmes are designed to upgrade different categories of teachers from certificate to diploma and from diploma to degree levels. CPD of teachers has become one of the most visible features of teacher development in Zambia. The upgrading of certificate to diploma certificates is done by six colleges (four of them under MOE) and from diploma to degree is done at the University of Zambia (UNZA). 7

8 The main provider of academic and professional upgrading through CPD programmes is the National In-Service Teachers College (NISTCOL), which offers four diploma programmes that prepare teachers for the upper basic level. Zambia Institute for Special Education (ZAMISE) also offers diploma and certificate courses in special education. Copperbelt College of education offers upgrading courses in the area of home economics, Mathematics and Science. Technical and Vocational Teachers College (TVTC) offers a diploma programme in Guidance and Counselling. UNZA offers five degree programmes under continuing professional development viz. Bachelor of Education (Primary), Bachelor of Education (MAS), Bachelor of Education (Special Education), Bachelor of Arts with Education and Bachelor of Science with Education. Some of these programmes are open to non teachers. b) Non- Credit CPD programmes: The Ministry of Education offers a variety of non credit CPD activities in schools and Teacher Resource Centres (TRCs). These are very important for enhancing classroom performance and for teacher motivation. Most of the school based CPD activities fall under the School PRogramme of IN-service for a Term (SPRINT) system. SPRINT is quite strong at basic school level as it has been going on for a few years now. However SPRINT for Secondary Education, started in 2004 is yet to be stabilized. School and resource centre based activities also include the 12 Teaching Skills; HIV/AIDS; Programme of Advancement of Girls Education (PAGE); School Health and Nutrition (SHN) and Inclusive Schooling Programme (INSPRO). The Teacher Resource Centre (TRC) network comprising Provincial Resource Centres (PRCs), District Resource Centres (DRCs) and Zonal Resource Centres (ZRCs) and Teacher Resource Groups (TRGs) provides a positive component of teacher development system in Zambia. This network with adequate infrastructure development with ICT facilities and capacity building of centre personnel and support faculty has the potential to develop into a strong backbone for all CPD programmes for teachers and other personnel in the education system. 3. Teacher Requirements for Projections The assessment of teacher requirements on a long-term basis depends on several variables. The most important among them are the strategic goals of the education sector. The Five-year Education Sector Strategic Plan and the Strategic Framework for EFA Implementation (April, 2005) set out the following strategic goals for Zambia s education sector: a) Achievement of universal primary education by 2005; b) Automatic promotion and progression in Grades 1 to 7 by 2008; c) Access to high quality Upper Basic Education for every child completing Grade 7; d) Ensuring a transition rate of 50% from Grade 7 to 8 by 2005; e) Achieving a transition rate of 100% from Grade 7 to 8 by 2015; f) Raising the accession rate to High Schools from 26% in 2002 to 61% in

9 Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the overall teacher requirements to meet the expansion needs during the period have been projected in the EFA Implementation Framework (Table 40,p.64) as shown in the following Table: Table 1 Overall Teacher Requirements: : Year Grades 1-7 Grades 8-9 Grades Total ,472 2,898 1,316 12, ,019 2,514 2,106 7, ,542 1,231 2,488 7, ,643 1,547 1,631 7, ,924 3,128 2,398 8, ,101 3,779 2,853 9, ,369 2,151 4,564 15, , ,999 11,154 Total 42,081 17,390 20,355 79,828 The requirements of high school teachers, however, need to be refined since the Academic Production Unit (APU) enrolment has to be excluded to assess the actual strength in regular classrooms and there is enough reason to consider a higher pupil-teacher ratio in high schools than projected to ensure better and optimum utilization of teacher capacity. The refined teacher requirements for high schools will be as follows: Table 2 Revised Total Teacher Needs for High Schools: Year EFA Projection APU Enrolment Regular Class Strength Pupil-Teacher Ratio Total Teachers Needed ,510 31,626 94, , ,749 34, , , ,281 40, , , ,107 50, , , ,298 63, , , ,252 71, , , ,841 84, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,466 9

10 The above Table shows the total number of teachers needed for high schools during each year till The additional number of teachers required each year has to be worked out after taking into account the existing stock, replacement needs and the projected total needs. The position that emerges is as follows: Table 3 Year Additional Teacher Needs for High Schools: Total Strength Needed Existing Stock Replacement Needs Additional Teachers Needed ,744 8, Nil ,128 7, Nil ,048 7, Nil ,093 6, Nil ,812 6, ,181 6, Nil ,471 7, ,061 8, , ,761 10, , ,466 12, The Supply The Strategic Plan assumes that technically the current supply outstrips the demand for trained teachers. Obviously, the needs of expansion were not in the reckoning at that time. As noted earlier, the expansion needs are taken into account only in the EFA Framework that looks beyond Even during the period, the apparent imbalance between supply and demand was due to the following reasons: a) A number of teachers were pursuing further studies, and were not on active teaching duty; b) Many teachers, though on the rolls, were unable to teach due to poor health; c) A number of new teachers do not, on appointment, take up teaching positions; and d) The inherent problems of teacher distribution between overstaffed urban schools and understaffed rural schools distorted the demand-supply equation (understaffing in rural schools is primarily due to unsatisfactory conditions of wok and life in the rural areas marked by the absence of amenities like power, potable drinking water, transport, etc.). Overall, the annual supply of teachers at the current level of training capacity is about 5650 or so primary school teachers and about 1250 or so Secondary education teachers (this does not include teachers required for the specialized colleges). 10

11 There is a proposal to upgrade certificate programme into a three-year Primary Diploma, mainly to ensure parity in the duration with the Secondary Teachers training, enhance the subject content of the curriculum, curb attrition from primary to secondary and to raise the status of primary school teachers. Currently, senior teachers at primary teach Upper Basic school students; some of them are also assigned to teach in the High Schools where trained graduate teachers are required. There are several reasons for this anomaly: a) There is a regular supply of trained teachers from basic colleges of education; b) The number of teachers with Diploma level qualifications are not adequate to cope with the expansion of secondary education; c) The continued persistence of the rural-urban imbalance; d) Absence of any expansion in the training capacity of secondary teachers; e) The practice of deploying basic education teachers in the high schools to fill the gaps. 3.3 The Demand Teacher qualification are linked to the levels in the school system. Certificate holders teach in primary school, Diploma holders at lower secondary and degree holders at upper secondary On the basis of the assessment of the demand made earlier, and the availability of teachers from the levels of current training capacity, the equation for the period 2007 to 2015 works out as follows: Table Level Demand Supply Gap Basic (1-7) 42,081 48,000 +5,919 Upper Basic (8-9) 17,390 8, High Schools 5,039 1,200-3,839 Total 64,510 58, While the ministry will be addressing teacher shortfall a) The output from the Basic colleges of education will continue to meet the additional teacher needs at Grades 8 and 9. b) The teacher requirements for 8-12 are very large even after 25% of the additional enrolments in high schools are covered by distance education provision. In summary, the position relating to the additional demand for teachers during the period is as follows: a) The supply of teachers at the current level from the Basic Colleges of education would be adequate to meet the additional demand for teachers till 2015; b) The expansion of enrolment in Grades 8 and 9 will need additional teachers, at an average rate of about 1500 additional teachers per year till 2015; 11

12 c) The high schools will need an additional 5,000 teachers from 2011 onwards at an average rate of 1000 per year; d) Continuing education programmes for improvement of qualifications can meet about one-third of these additional teacher needs. 4. Conditions of Service for Teachers Teacher recruitment and deployment, their commitment, motivation and the conditions of work are all critical factors that impact on their performance. There are some problems faced by the teaching community that have financial implications; but there are also several problems that can be addressed without much financial burden through planned, systematic and sympathetic approaches and interventions. While matters like improvement in salaries, provision of promotional opportunities and better amenities at work and life (housing and transport) involve major financial commitments to the Government, issues like postings and transfers, removal of grievances, participation of teachers in the educational processes, improving the quality of life in the school community, etc. do not need much monetary inputs. On the other hand, these measures can make significant contributions to improving the status and dignity of teachers. 4.1 Recruitment and Deployment In the past students were posted during the last term of their teaching courses and transport was available to take them to schools. Currently, there is considerable delay in the recruitment and appointment of teachers. Sometimes, it takes as long as 2-3 years for many teachers to get appointed after completing their training. Presently, recruitment is a decentralized process. Yet, there are several central interventions in it. First, needs of individual schools are collected through the District and Provincial channels, these are consolidated by MOE and the clearance of the Public Service Management Division (PSMD) and Ministry of Finance and National Planning (MOFNP) are obtained. The budgetary limits are a major constraint. Once the recruitment process and the numbers are settled, positions are allocated to the Provinces, keeping also the special needs of rural districts and schools. Vacancies are then advertised, and the applications are collected by the district offices. Short-listing and determination of criteria for selection are settled at the Headquarters of MOE in consultation with the representatives of the District and Provincial Offices. Completion of all these processes can take a long time. Though the final selection is nominally at the district level, there is a significant central role in recruitment. It would be worthwhile, as a ministry, to consider how best these processes can be streamlined to cut possible delays and make the recruitment processes more efficient. 4.2 Rural-Urban Imbalances Most of the remote and rural schools do not have electricity, suitable buildings, drinking water and satisfactory living conditions including accommodation for teachers. What is provided to teachers, as a hardship allowance is not compensation enough for the hardships they have to endure in life in these difficult locations. Many among these schools are several kilometers away 12

13 from the main roads and markets and teachers have to walk the whole distance to procure the supplies to meet their daily needs. In some cases community participation, has mitigated the hardship of teachers working in these areas, for example they provide accommodation for teachers; assist teachers in securing consumption needs by securing the supplies from markets in the vicinity and making them available at the places they live and so on. Parent-Teacher Associations can play a role in this. However the majority of the communities do not offer schools the needed assistance. One way the ministry could address the teacher requirement in rural areas is by introducing bursary scheme for teacher trainees. The recipients of such bursaries would be bonded to serve in rural areas for a specified period Teacher Motivation, Retention, Professional Development and Career Structure A clear policy supporting systematic professional development and growth of the members of the teaching profession is not in place. A Primary Teachers Diploma by Distance Learning (PTDDL) that was designed to raise the academic qualifications of primary school teachers is the only institutional device now available to teachers. The quest for professional growth through improvements in qualifications is, for most teachers, an individual initiative in Zambia. In this endeavour, those who are lucky to secure sponsorship from MOE might be able to go for a higher qualification. A clearly defined career structure, with opportunities for upward movement, is an essential prerequisite for attracting and retaining talent in any organized service. This is more critical in the teaching profession. With the rapid growth of knowledge and its applications, teachers should have the opportunity to renew their knowledge at regular intervals. Those who join the profession at lower levels should be provided with the means to continue their learning and improve their qualifications if the profession has to retain its vitality. A qualification-linked promotion scheme for teachers is an inescapable necessity for retaining talent. The current retention allowance for degree holders is the only step that has been made to retain talent. MOE has decided to convert the existing two-year Certificate programme in the Colleges of Education to a three-year diploma programme and to affiliate all Colleges of Education to the University of Zambia. One of the most critical elements of this reform is the upgrading of academic qualifications of the teacher educators in the concerned colleges. Teacher educators need to be adequately empowered. The absence of adequate opportunities for serving teachers to pursue degree programmes offered by the university is a matter of serious concern. By the design of the system degree holders are the ones to teach at senior secondary or high school level. Teacher output at degree level from the University of Zambia does not the demand. The diploma holders have taken up the job. The solution is to expand the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) provision by the universities on a large scale. Special provision needs to be made for teachers through appropriate exemptions and/or credit transfers to encourage them to enrol in distance education programmes. As a ministry we should take the initiative in getting all the universities together and launching this much needed effort to augment the supply of more qualified teachers in the system. The Directorate of Distance Education (DODE) should play a positive and enduring role in this initiative. 13

14 These efforts in expanding opportunities for enhancement of academic and professional qualifications should be supported by a clearly defined career advancement policy that rewards merit and recognizes the efforts made by serving teachers in improving their qualifications. As a ministry we should develop and put in place policies and guidelines that will assure the teachers that merit and good performance will be recognized and rewarded. 4.4 Salary and related conditions Like I have stated earlier in this write-up, improvement in salaries, provision of promotional opportunities and better amenities at workplace involve major financial commitments by the central Government. The tables below show salary bands for teachers and their administrators segregated as Middle Basic, Basic and High school a) High school Position Salary band in Zambian Kwacha per annum US dollar equivalent Head grade1 ESS 4: 36,600,000 40,091, Deputy grade 1 ESS 5: 30,530,000-33,419, Head grade 2 ESS 5: 30,530,000-33,419, Deputy grade 2 ESS 6: 25,422,000 29,258, Head grade 3 ESS 6: 25,422,000 29,258, Deputy grade 3 ESS 7: 19,711,000 21,633, Head of department ESS 7: 19,711,000 21,633, (Specialist subjects) Teacher degree ESS 8: 17,254,000 19,206, Teacher diploma ESS 10: 13,054,000 14,552, b) Basic school Position Salary band in Zambian Kwacha per annum US dollar equivalent Head grade1 ESS 5: 30,530,000-33,419, Deputy grade 1 ESS 6: 25,422,000 29,258, Head grade 2 ESS 6: 25,422,000 29,258, Deputy grade 2 ESS 7: 19,711,000 21,633, Head grade 3 ESS 7: 19,711,000 21,633, Deputy grade 3 ESS 8: 17,254,000 19,206, Head of section ESS 10: 13,054,000 14,552, (a number of subjects) Teacher degree ESS 8: 17,254,000 19,206, Teacher diploma ESS 10: 13,054,000 14,552, Teacher certificate (12) ESS 11: 11,251,000 12,628, Teacher certificate (9) ESS 12: 9,870,000 10,981,

15 c) Middle Basic school (transition) Position Salary band in Zambian Kwacha per annum US dollar equivalent Head grade1 ESS 6: 25,422,000 29,258, Deputy grade 1 ESS 7: 19,711,000 21,633, Head grade 2 ESS 7: 19,711,000 21,633, Deputy grade 2 ESS 8: 17,254,000 19,206, Head grade 3 ESS 7: 19,711,000 21,633, Deputy grade 3 ESS 9: 15,012,000 16,711, Senior teacher ESS 10: 13,054,000 14,552, Teacher certificate (12) ESS 11: 11,251,000 12,628, Teacher certificate (9) ESS 12: 9,870,000 10,981, A teacher enters a salary scale beginning with the lower figure of the salary band and gets yearly increments until he/she reaches the highest figure in the band. The teacher will remain in that band for ever till retirement unless he/she is either promoted or upgrades oneself to a higher qualification On paper the general working conditions for teachers are good. For example teachers are entitled to a car loan, a household loan, a house loan, salary advance, allowances when working away from their stations, allowances for extra duty and allowance for working in a rural area. The only allowances that most teachers access are those that are attached to the salary. The rest of the other stated conditions are a pipe dream for teachers. Currently most of the promotions in the school system are based on academic qualification of a teacher. Performance is either given second consideration or ignored completely when promotions are processed. The growing number of basic schools, has led to the deployment of certificate holder teachers in the upper basic section and this requires proper planning to ensure that the CPD programmes meet the needs of basic schools. In Zambia the retirement age for public workers is 55 years teachers inclusive. It takes a lot of time sometimes as many as three years for teachers (and others) to get their retirement package Conclusion There is no denying the fact that the long-term solution to this maladjustment is improvement in the quality of life in whole school system especially those less developed regions, and that the MOE cannot, by itself, resolve the problem. Nevertheless, the MOE could consider some shortterm solutions like increasing the hardship allowances to an attractive level, provision of suitable living accommodation, installation of solar panels for provision of minimum required electricity supply. Pre-service teacher training programmes should be matched with the demands at any given time. Thus the ministry should now target the training of teachers at deficient levels 15

16 Support from UNESCO The following are the areas where the Ministry of Education (Zambia) requires support from UNESCO. The needs are based on the assessment done by the ministry. The detailed work plan including timeframe and budget will be submitted to you by mid April Up grading of seconded teachers teaching grade 8 and 9 to diploma level. The course should be by distance. 2. Increase Teacher output at grade 8 and 9 from pre-service colleges. 3. Upgrading of Teacher Education to degree level through distance learning. 4. Capacity building of teachers in learner centred methodologies. 5. Some support to initial running expenses for a TTISSA office jms 16

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