The relationship between the leadership styles and Organizational citizenship behavior

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1 Available online at www. behaviorsciences. com Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper ISSN: RRAMT Vol. 40, 2014, 1 The relationship between the styles and Organizational citizenship behavior Mohammad Hakkak a, Somayyeh Baramond b * a Assistant Professor, Management Department, Lorestan University, Khoram Abad, Iran b PhD Student, Management Department, Lorestan University, Khoram Abad, Iran Abstract This study aims to investigate the relationship between the styles and organizational citizenship behavior. The style and organizational citizenship behavior were evaluated based on the Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) Model (work oriented and relationship oriented) and the Organ model, respectively. So, in accordance with the aim of this study, the conceptual model was designed and explained regarding the relationship between the styles and dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior. The statistical sample included 355 personnel of Islamic Azad University, Dezfool branch of which 152 ones were selected randomly. A questionnaire was used as a material of data collection after investigating the validity and reliability. To analyze the data, the significant relationship and correlation between the styles and organizational citizenship behavior was investigated, then, the structural equation model was used for hypothetical model. The results of the study showed that there is a relationship between the styles and organizational citizenship behavior, and the conceptual model was suitable and the relationship - oriented style affected on the organizational citizenship behavior Published by RRAMT France Ltd. Keywords: work-oriented, Relationship oriented, Organizational citizenship behavior; 1. Background Unlike the results from the history of societies, the is not limited to the champions. The human society looks for the leaders who act rather than say. The leaders deal with the followers who vary according to the interests, tastes, traditions and insights, so the flexibility of had not been existed before (Rezaeeian,2007). On the other hand, the staff help the organization be efficient by fulfilling the responsibilities beyond their limitation (Podsakoff et al,1990) and the organizations will not be able to develop their efficiency without this voluntarily inclination (Zarei Matin et al, 2006). Meanwhile, with regard to the effectiveness of the universities on the scientific, cultural, social, political and economic approaches of countries and the significance of this organization to form other organizations and inadequate studies about this subject, it is essential to investigate the relationship between the styles and organizational * Corresponding Author name.

2 citizenship behaviors to answer this question: what styles do the managers use in order that the staff show off their organizational citizenship behavior. 2.Theoretical research 2.1. The style The is a process in which the manager of organization attempts to facilitate the responsibility fulfillment to reach the organizational aims by motivating and making an effective relationship and convince the staffs do their jobs willingly (Alvani,2007). Beginning to study about the comes along with personality theories and internal features. The results of these studies showed that the internal features cannot ensure their success. Then it came to the behavioral theories of what behaviors the efficient leaders show off. Then, the researchers focused on the contingency theories in which recognizing the conditions and acting upon it are the keys of success (Moratazavi et al, 2005). In this research, in order to evaluate the styles, Fiedler style was used (Alvani,2007). Fiedler attempted to determine the most effective style (work-oriented or relation-oriented) for different situations. The relationship-oriented leader is characterized by fulfilling their duty, the accurate organizational patterns, communication channels and approaches of successful work, and the work oriented leader is characterized by the open communication channels, emotional and psychological supports, active listening and facilitating behaviors (Rezaeeian,2007) Organizational citizenship behavior The organizational citizen is someone who shows off the behaviors beyond his duty and job. In fact, this person does not wish to gain bonus and reward, but also he sacrifices himself in his career and believes in the effectiveness of the meta function behaviors and does the best to develop and improve the organization (Seyyed Naghavi et al, 2010). In this research, the Organ model was used to evaluate the organizational citizenship behavior. From the point of view of Organ, the organizational citizenship behavior has five aspects such as: a) Deontology: showing off the behavior beyond the level of duty for doing the job. These kinds of people continue their work even under the worst conditions or illness. b) Humanism: creating intimacy and communion among the colleagues and helping the colleagues directly or indirectly solve their problems. C) The virtue of citizenship: attending in extracurricular activities, increasing the awareness of daily issues of organization and participating actively. D) Patience: being patient against the unfavorable conditions without complaining or dissatisfying. F) Respect and tribute: respect the colleagues, supervisors and the audiences of organization (Organ, 1990). 3.Review of the literature Based on the evidences from different studies, the organizational citizenship behavior increases the effectiveness of organizations (Whittington et al, 2004). So, due to its importance, this issue has been considered by the researchers. The results from the studies suggest that many factors effect on the organizational citizenship behavior. One of these factors is styles and behaviors. The leaders and managers must enhance the properties if they want to effect on the organizations positively (Ekvall et al, 1994; Puffer et al, 1996). Podsakoff et al have determined four factors of organizational citizenship behaviors and one of these behaviors is style in organization (Purvanova et al, 2006). Totally, the supervisors who make weak connection with their colleagues and make acquaintance late involve in the organizational citizenship behaviors less than the others (Zarei Matin et al, 2006). Euwemal et al (2007), doing research in 33 countries, found out that ordering style has negative relationship with organizational citizenship behaviors and supporting and collaborative style has positive relationship with organizational citizenship behaviors. The results from the research by Oguz (2010) done among the teachers showed that the styles effect on the organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers considerably. 263

3 Ling Taia et al (2012) showed that the styles have positive effect on the organizational function by means of organizational citizenship behaviors. Örgev (2013) considered the styles as a predictor for organizational citizenship behavior in the studies by Bass (1985), Organ (1988), Howell et al (1993), Lowe et al(1996), Wang et al (2005), Boerner et al (2007), Mohd Soieb et al (2013) and Harwiki et al (2013). 4. Research design The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the styles and organizational citizenship behavior. So the variables of this research are represented in a conceptual model. In this hypothetical model, style is considered as independent variable and organizational citizenship behavior as dependent variable. Below hypotheses are proposed based on the figure 1. Deontology work- oriented relationshiporiented styles organizational citizenship behavior Humanism The virtue of citizenship Patience Respect and tribute Figure 1. The primary model of research 4.1.The primary hypotheses Primary hypothesis 1: There is a significant relationship between the styles and organizational citizenship behavior. Primary hypothesis 2: the hypothesis model is fitted with the data. 4.2.The secondary hypotheses The secondary hypothesis 1: There is a significant relationship between the work- oriented and organizational citizenship behavior. The secondary hypothesis 2: There is a significant relationship between the relationship- oriented and organizational citizenship behavior. 5. Materials and methods The present study is descriptive. The samples of this research included all of the staffs of Islamic Azad University of Dezfool branch such as full time definitive official, fulltime testing official, and contractual employees with the education degree of M.A, B.A, associate degree, diploma and lower which were 355 and are working as deputy of administrative and financial affairs, deputy of education, deputy of research, deputy of development, deputy of students affairs, and the department president. Need to mention that 75.5 % were male, 32.5 % in administrative and financial area, 64.5% at the age of and 71% had education degree of associate degree and higher and the random sampling was used in order to estimate the parameters of a society. In this regard, the university staffs were classified into six sections and the individuals were selected based on the volume of each area. The volume of sample was determined using the correction coefficient of finite community without replacing the 152 staffs. 264

4 The data were collected by library method. The material of data collection was questionnaire. It included two parts, the first part was related to the Fiedler style (Alvani,2007) and the second part was about the organizational citizenship behavior proposed by Podsakoff et al (1990). The variables of this research are qualitative and measurement scale is ranking. The five-point Likert was used to measure the variables. The validity of the research was justified based on the standards of questionnaire and the experts views. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to measure the reliability. According to Table 1, the results of this scale were calculated based on the answers to each variable by 40 samples and the questionnaires were distributed and completed after ensuring about the reliability and validity. Table 1. The reliability of questionnaires The criteria Cronbach s Leadership styles Organizational citizenship behavior To analyze the data of this research, first the demographic data of samples and data of each variable of styles and organizational citizenship behavior were classified based on the frequency and percentage and described in Table and Figure. To generalize the results of the study, Kruskal-Wallis test and to investigate the intensity and dependency of correlation coefficient, Tao Kendall were calculated. The fitness of primary model was investigated by modeling test of structural equations. All the analyses were done using SPSS and LISREL. 6. Results As the university was established in 1366, most of the testees were aged between 20 and 40 (70 %), male (68%) with academic education (70% M.A and above), working full time (86%) and having less than 10 years of experience (58%) and having non-managerial jobs(80%). Based on the findings of the study, relationship-oriented style had the highest mean, in fact most of the people are human oriented. Also the mean of organizational citizenship behavior suggests that most of the staffs tend to work beyond their ability (table 2). Table 2. Statistical indexes of variables Statistical indexes variable Mean SD No. Work-oriented style Relationship-oriented style Statistical indexes The inferring findings are presented based on the tables 3-5. Table 3. The results of Kruskal-Wallis test for investigating the relationship between the styles and organizational citizenship behavior Leadership styles There is significant relationship between the work- oriented and organizational citizenship behavior. There is significant relationship between the relationship- oriented and organizational citizenship behavior organizational citizenship behavior Chi-Square df (Asymp. Sig)

5 Table 4. The results of correlation coefficient of Tao Kendall between the styles and organizational citizenship behaviour Leadership styles There is significant relationship between the work- oriented and organizational citizenship behavior. There is significant relationship between the relationship- oriented and organizational citizenship behavior organizational citizenship behavior Value Asymp. Std. Error(a) Approx. T(b) Approx. Sig According to Tables 3 and 4, and with regard to the Kruskal-Wallis test, we can declare that there is a significant relationship between the work oriented /and relationship oriented styles and the organizational citizenship behavior. On the other hand, the correlation coefficient of Tao Kendall suggests that there is positive and direct relationship between the work oriented /and relationship oriented and organizational citizenship behavior; but the high scale of correlation coefficient relating to the relationship oriented suggests that increasing the application of this style causes the organizational citizenship behavior increase among the staffs. Regarding the primary hypothesis 2, the goodness of fit index primary model and the related number is shown in table 8. Table 5. Goodness of fit index of the conceptual model Degrees of Freedom Minimum Fit Function Chi-Square Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) Normal Fit Index (NFI) Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (P=0.156) One of the most reliable indexes for investigating the fitness of model, is GFI which means the relative amount of variance and covariance are justified jointly by the model. This index can be considered as the characteristics similar to R 2 in multivariate regression. The scale of GFI in this model equals (near 1.0) which suggests that the model is fitted to the data. - Also Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) equals and the Confidence interval is between 0.1 and 0.00 because the lower limit of this scale is less than 0.05, we can conclude that the degree of approximation is not so high. - Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) equals and is small which suggests the slight errors and fitness of model. - The Fit Index such as AGFI, NFI and CFI should be considered. The scales of these indexes are 0.922, and 1.05, respectively which shows the fitness of model Conclusions and discussions Based on the results of this study, the work oriented and relationship-oriented styles have positive relationship with the organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study are consistent with those of the previous studies. Based on the correlation coefficient and analysis of variables in this model, the styles are able to enhance the organizational citizenship behavior. Figure 2 shows the causal relationships of conceptual model structure in this research. 266

6 workoriented 0.07 relationshiporiented 0.56 styles 0.75 organizational citizenship behavior Figure 2. The conceptual model based on the modeling test of structural equations Based on the above figure, the effect of styles on the organizational citizenship behavior was compared. 0.75: total effect of styles on the organizational citizenship behavior (0.07)(0.75)=0.0525: total effect of work oriented style on the organizational citizenship behavior (0.56)(0.75)=0.420: total effect of relationship oriented style on the organizational citizenship behavior Based on the estimations of statistical models of structural equations, the coefficient of each style showed that the relationship oriented was more effective than the work oriented, on the other hand, the more the relation oriented is used, the more the organizational citizenship behavior will be shown off by the staffs. Based on the previous research, the efficiency and effectiveness of organization will be developed as the organizational citizenship behavior increases. According to the above mentioned issues, the strategies and suggestions relying on the results from the hypotheses will be presented to create conditions in order that the staffs can enhance these behaviors. - The results of this study showed that relationship oriented style is more effective, so the organizations should improve the organizational citizenship behavior by creating communication channels, emotional and psychological supports, active listening and facilitating behaviors which is the characteristic of the relationship oriented (Rezaeeian,2007). - With regard to the low effect of work oriented on the organizational citizenship behavior, it seems that overemphasizing on fulfilling the duties, accurate and determined patterns and troublesome principles which are the characteristic of the work oriented, cannot effect on increasing the organizational citizenship behavior. - By removing the obstacles and creating an open environment and security, organizations can help the staffs ensure their competitive success and strategy of organizations in a competitive atmosphere to increase the added value. References Rezaeeian, A.(2007), Principles of Organization and Management, Tehran;SAMT, p.421. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., Fetter, R.(1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviours. Leadership Quarterly, 1,PP: Zarei Matin H, Jandaghi Gh, Tooreh N. (2006). Recognizing the factors of organizational citizenship behavior and investigating its relationship with the function of organization, Culture of management, Issue 12, pp Alvani, M. (2007). Public Management, Tehran, Nashre-Nei, p.141. Moratazavi, S. Nazemi, S, Sadegh Mahmoodi F. (2005). Investigation of the relationship between emotional quotient and style (transformative exchanging). Humanities Journal, Special journal of Management, Autumn, p Rezaeeian, A(2007). Principles of Organization and Management, Tehran; SAMT, p Seyyed Naghavi A, Jafari Farsani J (2010). The relationship between the perceived quality in style-member and organizational citizenship behavior, Research and planning in higher education. Issue 56.pp

7 Organ, D. (1990). The Motivational Basis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. in Staw, B.M., Cummings, Research in OrganizationalBehavior; pp Whittington J,L., Goodwin, V.L.,&Murry, B.(2004). Transformational, goal difficulty, and job design: independent and interactive effects on employee outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 15 (5),pp Ekvall, G.,& Arvonen, J. (1994). Leadership profiles, situation and effectiveness. Creativity and Innovation Management, 3, Puffer, S.M.,&Mc Carthy, D.L. (1996). A framework for in a TQM context. Journal of Quality Management, 1,pp Purvanova, K. R., Bono, E. J.,Dzieweczynski, J.(2006). Transformational Leadership, Job Characteristics, and Organizational Citizenship Performance.Human Performance, 19,1,PP: Euwemal M.C, Wendt H, Emmerik, H. (2007). Leadership styles and group organizational citizenship behavior across cultures. Journal of Organizational Behavior. May. Ebru Oguz.(2010). The relationship between the styles of the school administrators and the organizational citizenship behaviours of teachers. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, pp Cheng Ling Taia et al, (2012). Alternative models for the relationship among, organizational citizenship behavior, and performance:a study of new product development teams in Taiwan. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 57,pp Örgev, C. (2013). The Relationshipamong the Leadership Styles, organizational citizenship and Health Worker Performance in Public Hospitals. International Journal of Education and Research Vol. 1 No. 6 June,pp1-16. Bass, BM., (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York; Free Pres. Organ, DW. (1988),Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA:Lexington Books. Howell, JM. andavolio, BJ. (1993). Transformational, transactional, locus of control,and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, pp Lowe, KB.,Kroeck, KG. andsivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional : A metaanalytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, l 7, pp Wang, H., Law, KS., Hackett, RD., Wang, D. and Chen, ZH.( 2005). Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational and followers performance and organizational citizenship behavior.academy of Management Journal, 48(3),pp Boerner, S, Eisenbesiss, SA. andgriesser, D. (2007). Follower behavior and organizational performance: The impact of transformational leaders. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13(3), pp Mohd Soieb,A Z., Othman, J& D Silva, J. (2013). The Effects of Perceived Leadership Styles and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour on Employee Engagement: The Mediating Role of Conflict Management. International Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 8, No. 8; pp Harwiki W. (2013). Influence of Servant Leadership to Motivation, Organization Culture, Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), and Employee s Performance in Outstanding Cooperatives East Java Province, Indonesia. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. Volume 8, Issue 5 Mar. Apr, PP

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