The Wild Felid Monitor

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1 The Wild Felid Monitor The Newsletter of the Wild Felid Research and Management Association Summer 2015, Volume 8, Issue 2 Striking a balance between long-term research and implementing conservation. Luke Hunter, Panthera. Carnivores and politics in the western U. S. Solving human-wild felid conflicts in Chile and Argentina IN THIS ISSUE Update on small cats of Columbia Translocating a jaguar in Mexico Using scent rub stations to gather genetic material Election Candidates And more... WFA website:

2 Contents Council News 3 From the President 4 WFA Council and WFA Committees 5 Election 2015 Candidates 7 In Memory--Donna Krucki 8 Scholarship Recipients 13 Regional News 29 Literature Cited in This Issue 33 Recent Publications 35 Research Highlights Perspectives 9 Carnivores and politics in the U. S. Invited Article 10 Why did you remove all those collars? - Striking a balance between long-term research and implementing effective conservation Notes From The Field 18 Can participatory research and action reduce puma-human conflict in the high Andes of Chile? 19 An update on the small spotted cats of Colombia: neglected charismatic species 21 Monitoring and conserving carnivore communities across northern Botswana 22 Multidisciplinary view to assess the conflict between farmers and cougars in the north of Chile. 23 Factors affecting the presence of pumas in a highly conflictive area of Central Argentina 24 Jaguar translocation in western Mexico - a case study Tools of the Trade 26 Can scent elicit a rub response in pumas? WFA logo designed by Ben Wright, Cover: A Pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo) is photographed by a camera trap in the Altiplano of the Bolivian high Andes. This photograph was taken as part of the Cat in Thin Air project, a collaboration between wildlife photographer Sebastian Kennerknecht and the biologists of the Andean Cat Alliance (Alianza Gato Andino). The aim of the Cat in Thin Air project is to to help ensure the survival of the little known, little photographed, and very endangered Andean mountain cat through education on a local and global scale. By helping protect the Andean cat, the Pampas cat will subsequently also benefit. Find out more about the project at This photo exists because of the help of: Ma. Lilian Villalba, Alejandra Rocio Torrez Tarqui, Don Mario Llusco, and Juan Carlos Huaranca Ariste. Photo: Sebastian Kennerknecht/CatinThinAir.org. Back Cover: Jaguar J36 walks down an old logging road in Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve, Belize. Photo Credit: Virginia Tech and Forest Department, Belize. The Wild Felid Monitor is the biannual newsletter of the Wild Felid Research and Management Association. The publication is provided to current Association members. To join, renew your membership, or to obtain back-issues of the newsletter, please visit our website at PO Box 486, Hillsboro NM, USA Website: ISSN (print), ISSN X (online) Managing Editor: Harley Shaw, Corresponding Editor: Kyle Thompson, Editorial Policy The Wild Felid Monitor encourages submission of articles, information and letters on ecology, research, management and conservation of wild felid species, and particularly of those species native to the Western Hemisphere. Preferred length of submissions is about 750 words. Submissions of photos, drawings and charts are encouraged. Please send photos, graphics and tables as separate files suitable for portrait page formatting. Electronic submissions to are preferred; otherwise mail to the address above. For more information on formatting requirements, go to monitor.php. The WFA reserves the right to accept, reject and edit submissions. The photos and artwork are copyrighted please do not reproduce without permission. 2

3 Invited Article Why did you remove all those collars? - Striking a balance between longterm research and implementing effective conservation Luke Hunter, President, Panthera. Most large felids are declining, whether as a result of the pervasive, anthropogenic driven loss of habitat and prey, and/or due to direct persecution by people such as from depredation-related retaliatory killing or hunting for illegal markets (Hunter, in press). As the rate of decline increases and populations disappear (e.g. Henschel et al. 2014; Walston et al. 2010), the design and implementation of effective conservation action becomes more imperative. A key factor in this is the role of research. Strong science is essential to establish the impacts of threats to felids, design and monitor appropriate interventions and advocate for their execution. However, research on large carnivores often lacks a demonstrable link to conservation, and species management is frequently guided more by guesswork than by science (Ray et al. 2005). Conservation biology may be neglected in an academic setting because studies often lack rigorous experimental designs or clear a priori hypotheses, sample sizes are usually small and results may not lend themselves to robust statistical analyses (Balme et al. 2014; Laurence et al. 2012). This is especially germane for research of wild felids which do not lend themselves easily to study and are especially challenging subjects for undertaking applied conservation science (Ray et al. 2005; Brodie 2009). A young female leopard in typical KwaZulu-Natal palmveld dominated by Ilala Palm (Hyphaene natalensis). Young animals were captured for radio-collaring at around months old, prior to their first dispersal movement. We tracked 35 dispersing individuals yet dispersal remains one of the least understood aspects of felid ecology. Photo: Christian Sperka. Here I use my own long-term research on leopards, Panthera pardus, as an illustration of these challenges and, perhaps, how they can be addressed. I describe the research objectives and how they arose. I list the main outcomes and include information on the costs of the work. In providing this overview, I hope to assist felid researchers especially those just beginning their careers in designing and planning their own projects and especially in integrating specific conservation goals into research plans. Although this is my own opinion on the relative value of research versus conservation, it may also provide some insight into the programmatic and funding priorities of my organization, Panthera. Finally, it may provide some answers to academic colleagues who have often asked, why after radio-collaring 73 leopards over a ten-year period, I and my team decided to shut it down. The Study The leopard is one of the most widely distributed large cats in the world, with a range presently thought to include 75 African and Eurasian countries. As a result of their wide geographic range, the species attracted relatively little conservation effort until recently. In 2005, we estimated that leopards had vanished from at least 40% of their historic range in Africa and from over 50% of historic range in Eurasia (Ray et al. 2005). Those crude figures were almost certainly underestimates at the time and range loss has likely accelerated in the subsequent decade particularly in East Asia and South-east Asia (Stein et al. in review). Leopards are now thought to be absent or nearly so from Laos and Vietnam and persist only in protected areas in Cambodia, China, Malaysia and Thailand. When I began working on this species in 2002, it was classified on the IUCN Red List as Least Concern, based on an assessment made in 1996 (Nowell, 2002). It probably should have been assessed as Data Deficient. Although there had been numerous studies on basic ecology and behavior of leopards, all were short-term, many relied on anecdotal and opportunistic observations, and none was able to conclude anything much about the scale and impacts of threats to the species. In that context, I launched the Munyawana Leopard Project in the Phinda Private Game Reserve (220 km 2; S, E; hereafter Phinda) in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Leopards are fully protected in Phinda but the reserve is small and leopards move freely into adjoining areas which vary widely in the degree of protection, and associated levels of anthropogenic killing. Along most of its northern border, Phinda abuts the 370 km2 public Mkhuze Game Reserve where leopards are also fully protected. The Phinda-Mkhuze complex is largely surrounded by pastoral Zulu communities, and privately owned cattle farms and game ranches where leopards are legally sport hunted and frequently persecuted. Commercial game ranches and cattle farms have low human densities, suitable habitat and significant wild prey populations making them suitable for leopards. However, leopards are frequently killed in game ranching and livestock areas. Zulu communal land is mostly unsuitable for permanent occupation by leopards because it typically contains dense human populations, insufficient suitable habitat and very little prey. The Munyawana Leopard Project arose in response to anecdotal evidence that the levels of legal and illegal killing of leopards outside Phinda and adjacent reserves were unsustainable. Accordingly, the research sought to investigate two key issues; 10

4 Invited Article 1. The degree to which properties engaging in legal sport hunting of leopards relied on a protected, source population versus fostering healthy populations on those properties, and 2. The degree to which legal and illegal killing of leopards outside protected areas affected the entire leopard population. At the time, it was the first comprehensive study of leopards inhabiting a mosaic of divergent land-uses in which levels of protection varied considerably; in a 24-hour period, the same individual leopard could traverse properties where its status shifted from strictly protected to vermin. This scenario created a valuable opportunity to undertake some novel, conservation-oriented research, namely: I. to determine the population status of the leopard in northern KwaZulu-Natal, II. to determine spatial patterns of leopards across landtypes which are extremely variable with respect to human uses, III. to establish the factors contributing to mortality of leopards occupying different land-types, comparing protected and persecuted segments of the population, IV. to establish the vital rates (survival and reproductive parameters) in protected and persecuted segments of the population, To investigate these questions, we employed the customary tools of wildlife research, primarily radio-telemetry, camera-trapping and direct observation where possible. I did not set out to investigate other pure behavioral or ecological questions (for example, on feeding ecology, social behavior, inter-relationships with other carnivores, population completely insulated from anthropogenic mortality (Bailey, 2005). Except to remove collars, we stopped capturing leopards in 2011 and we monitored collared cats until the end of 2012 when all remaining collars were removed. The project s second, ongoing stage is characterized by a shift from intensive research to population monitoring. From 2013 forwards, we have not maintained a full-time presence at the site and we maintain monitoring of the Leopards were captured mainly by the use of soft-catch cable snares set at baits or existing kills. Snare assemblies were modified to minimize the chance of injury and were monitored remotely around the clock with radio-transmitters. Photo: Mike Karantonis. population by camera-trap surveys conducted every year. The results of the project have been widely reported in peerreviewed papers, three graduate theses, and various popular articles. As designed from the outset, the research output is geared mainly towards specific conservation objectives especially establishing the impact of anthropogenic threats (Balme et al. 2010b, Braczkowski et Table 1. Summary information on research effort and costs, Munyawana Leopard Project. Radio-telemetry ( ) >200 leopard captures/re-captures 73 leopards radio-collared 44,813 telemetry locations of leopards 2373 visual observations of leopards Camera-trapping ( ) 15 camera-trap surveys >150,000 independent photocaptures (all species) 160 individual leopards indentified. Project costs ( ) Total estimated cost of project: $690,000 Annual budget range; $25,000- $125,000 and so on) although we integrated the collection of ancillary data into the project s main objectives. My team included a full-time research assistant for most of the project s duration, three graduate students and an administrative assistant for the latter part of the project. Outcomes. The Munyawana Leopard Project has run continuously since 2002, in two main stages. The first research-intensive stage, , was characterized by constant monitoring of the population using radiotelemetry requiring the full-time presence of at least one research assistant and one graduate student. During that time, we fitted 73 leopards with a combination of VHF and GPS radio-collars. For comparison, the previous largest sample size of collared individuals was 30 during a 3-year study conducted in the 1970s on a protected al. 2015), evaluating the impact of conservation interventions (Balme et al. 2009a, 2010a) and understanding aspects of leopard ecology directly relevant to conservation planning, for example, patterns of dispersal in anthropogenic landscapes (Fattebert et al. 2013, Fattebert et al. in press). Ancillary outputs ( bonus publications) include articles on leopard ecology with limited conservation relevance (e.g. Balme et al. 2007, Hayward et al. 2006) and on technical aspects of carnivore research (Balme et al. 2009, Thomas et al. 2005). We had collected sufficient data on the Phinda leopard population by 2005 to demonstrate that its average annual mortality rate between 2002 and 2005 was ± (Balme et al. 2009a), more than double that recorded for well-protected leopards in comparable habitat (Bailey, 2005). The same comparison revealed low survival rates among cubs (AMR = ± 0.089), delayed age at first 11

5 Invited Article parturition for females (45.33 ± 1.76 months), very low conception rates in females (19%), and low annual litter production (0.643 ± litters per female per year; Balme et al. 2009a). The combined effects of high mortality and depressed reproduction led to a negative population growth rate ( = 0.978) despite it being fully protected. Concomitantly, our intensive monitoring identified the main mortality factors in the population, and showed that anthropogenic mortality was prevalent across the population in both protected and persecuted segments, and was unsustainable. I argue that none of the above outputs have enduring value unless they contribute to conservation outcomes. The critical, often problematic next step in this scenario requires converting such research results to conservation action. Armed with our data, and in collaboration with the local statutory conservation authority, Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife (EKZNW) we overhauled the protocols that governed legal sport hunting and problem animal control of leopards in KwaZulu-Natal (described in detail in Balme et al, 2010a). These revised protocols began to be implemented by EKZNW between January 2005 and January Critically, we subsequently monitored the impacts of those interventions to evaluate their performance and we demonstrated improvements across a wide range of population parameters. Most significantly, annual mortality declined, reproductive output improved, the population underwent positive growth and population density increased (Balme et al. 2009a). The author collecting data on an anaesthetized adult female leopard. We dedicated more time to tracking collared females than males. As well as having smaller, more accessible home ranges, females required close monitoring to gather data on reproduction. Photo: Guy Balme Conclusion The Munyawana Leopard Project benefitted from having welldefined conservation questions as the nucleus of the research plan at If, as conservationists, we decide to stop once we have produced the research, we will have failed. the outset. This was essential, both to ensure the focused allocation of limited resources and to avoid the distraction of appealing research opportunities with marginal conservation value. As an example of the necessary trade-off, it would have been very tempting to follow habituated leopards as they hunted (Phinda s leopards are relatively tolerant of tourist vehicles) but intensive focal observation of few, tolerant cats would have come at the cost of constant monitoring of many more individuals in the population. Although the latter typically involved only fleeting contact with leopards, it more rapidly contributed to our growing database on the population s vital rates. We rarely spent long hours watching leopards but we covered a lot of ground keeping tabs on the wider population. The same cost-benefit analysis helped to decide when to remove radio-collars. Maintaining the radio-telemetry component of the work would doubtless have produced new, interesting data on leopard behavior and ecology, but arguably none that significantly impacted the conservation status of the population after Ongoing periodic, non-invasive monitoring by camera-traps allows us to detect changes in the trend of the population without the financial costs and other potential disadvantages of collaring including the risk of capture to animals (Balme et al. in review). Monitoring of the Phinda-Mkhuze population is now integrated into a larger monitoring program that produces annual density estimates for six protected populations in KwaZulu-Natal to track changes in leopard status across the province, detect emerging threats and to monitor whether our conservation interventions are continuing to have their intended effect. The project s results have potential widespread application without the need for repeating a long-term research effort. Including South Africa, eight range states permit trophy hunting of leopards and many more undertake legal control of the species in conflict scenarios. Currently, aside from in South Africa, no other national or regional authority undertakes trophy hunting or legal control of the species based on scientifically designed protocols. However, the protocols we developed for both management activities are directly relevant beyond the provincial level for which they were designed; for example, KwaZulu-Natal s trophy hunting guidelines will be adopted at the national level in South Africa in It is a straightforward and inexpensive enterprise for other range states to adopt a similar approach, given it does not require the investment in research that we undertook. Finally, the changes in leopard management I describe would have been impossible without the participation of the statutory conservation authority, EKZNW. In that, this project is no different to the situation confronting felid biologists in North America (and elsewhere), and I suspect our approach resembled that of colleagues around the world. We maintained constant communication with government counterparts; we did not assume that publishing scientific papers would provoke change; and we spent hundreds of hours explaining our results, designing solutions and advocating for their adoption. Applying that formula hardly guarantees outcomes but it is an essential element. If, as conservationists, we decide to stop once we have produced the research, we will have failed. 12

6 Literature Cited in this Issue Allen, M.L., et al. In press.the comparative effects of large carnivores on the acquisition of carrion by scavengers. American Naturalist 185 (June 2015). Almeida, L. B. et al Avaliação do estado de conservação do Gato-mourisco Puma yagouaroundi no Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Almeida, L. B. et al Avaliação do risco de extinção do Gatodo-mato Leopardus geoffroyi. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Arias-Alzate, A. et al Aproximación al estado de conservación de las especies de felinos en algunos municipios pertenecientes a las cuencas aportantes del sector eléctrico en jurisdicción de CORANTIOQUIA. Page 163. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Centro de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Arias-Alzate, A. et al Caracterización del Estado de los Felinos (Carnivora: Felidae) y su Interacción con el hombre en el Oriente de Antioquia. Page 84. Corporación Autónoma de las Cuencas de los Ríos Negro y Nare, CORNARE, Medellín, Colombia. Arias-Alzate, A. et al Recent confirmed records of the oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. Mammalogy Notes 1:4-5. Arias-Alzate, A. et al Presencia de felinos y evidencias de conflicto con humanos en tres regiones de Antioquia. Pages in E. Payán Garrido, and C. Castaño-Uribe, editors. Grandes Felinos de Colombia, Vol. I. Panthera Colombia, Fundación Herencia Ambiental Caribe, Conservación Internacional & Cat Specialist Group UICN/SSC, Bogotá, Colombia. Athreya, V. et al Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India. Conservation Biology 25(1): Azevedo, F. C. et al Avaliação do risco de extinção da onçaparda Puma concolor no Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Bailey, T. N The African leopard: ecology and behavior of a solitary felid. Second Edition. The Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Balme G. A. et al Failure of research to address the rangewide conservation needs of large carnivores: leopards in South Africa as a case study. Conservation Letters DOI: /conl Balme, G. A. et al. Evaluating methods for counting cryptic carnivores. Journal of Wildlife Management 73(3): Balme, G. A. et al. Impact of conservation interventions on the dynamics and persistence of a persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus) population. Biological Conservation 142: DOI: /j.biocon Balme, G. A. et al. Edge effects and the impact of non-protected areas in carnivore conservation: leopards in the Phinda-Mkhuze Complex, South Africa. Animal Conservation 13: Balme, G. A. and Hunter, L Mortality in a protected leopard population, Phinda Private Game Reserve: a population in decline? Ecological Journal 6:1-6. Balme, G. A Counting cats. Africa Geographic 19: Balme, G. A Return of the leopard. Africa Geographic 18 (1): Balme, G. A. et al. 2010a. An adaptive management approach to trophy hunting of leopards Panthera pardus: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa In Macdonald DW & Loveridge AJ (Eds). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids, Oxford Univ. Press. Balme, G.A The conservation biology of a nominally protected leopard population. Ph.D. Thesis, University KwaZulu-Natal. Balme, G. A. et al Applicability of age-based hunting regulations for African leopards. PLoS ONE 7(4): e doi: /journal.pone Braczkowski, A, Trophy harvest composition as an index of leopard population trend. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Oxford, Wildlife Conservation Research Unit. Braczkowski, A. et al Who bites the bullet first? The susceptibility of leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. PLoS ONE 10(4): e doi: /journal. pone Bradley E. H. et al Evaluating wolf translocation as a nonlethal method to reduce livestock conflicts in the northwestern United States. Conservation Biology 19: Breitenmoser U. et al Non-lethal techniques for reducing predation. In: R. Woodroffe et al., editors, People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K. pp Brodie J Is research effort allocated efficiently for conservation? Felidae as a global case study. Biodiversity and Conservation. 18: Crawshaw, P. G Ecology of the jaguar and the ocelot in Iguazu National Park, Brazil. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville Florida, USA. Cruz-Rodríguez, C. A. et al Ecología espacial del Ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en un paisaje fragmentado del Municipio de Colosó (Sucre), Caribe colombiano. II Congreso Latinoamericano de Mastozoología, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Di Minin, E. et al Creating larger and better connected protected areas enhances the persistence of big game species in the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. PLoS ONE /journal.pone Dias-Pulido, A., and E. Payán Densidad de ocelotes (Leopardus pardalis) en los llanos colombianos. Mastozoología Neotropical 18:

7 Literature Cited in this Issue Espinosa, M. et al Pampas cat Leopardus colocolo in the Atacama desert: first records from Llanos de Challe National Park, Chile. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile 63: Fattebert, J Spatial socio-ecology of a recovering leopard population in the Phinda Game Reserve, South Africa. Ph.D. Thesis, University KwaZulu-Natal. Fattebert, J. et al Density-dependent natal dispersal patterns in a leopard population recovering from over-harvest. PLoS ONE 10(4): e /journal.pone Fattebert, J. et al. In press. Structural habitat predicts functional dispersal habitat of a large carnivore: how leopards change spots. Ecological Applications. Fattebert, J. et al Long-distance natal dispersal in leopard Panthera pardus reveals potential for a three-country metapopulation. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 43(1): Fitak R. et al. (2014): PumaPlex 1.0: Data generated during the development of the SNP markers and SNP genotypes of pumas. doi: /pangaea , Supplement to: Fitak, R. et al. 2014: PumaPlex 1.0: a new panel of SNP markers for the genetic management of North American pumas (Puma concolor). data submission in preparation. Fonturbel, F. and J. A. Simonetto Translocation and human carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17: García-Perea, R The Pampas Cat group (Genus Lynchailurus Severtzov, 1858) (Carnivora: Felidae), a systematic and biogeographic review. American Museum Novitates 3096:1-35. GBIF - The Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Accessed via species/ on González-Maya, J. F., and J. Schipper A High-elevation Report of Oncilla in Mesoamerica. CatNews 49: González-Maya, J. F. et al Traditional uses of wild felids in the Caribbean region of Colombia: new threats for conservation? Revista Latinoamericana de Conservación 1: González-Maya, J. F. et al. 2013a. Conflictos felinos-vida silvestre en el Caribe Colombiano: un estudio de caso en los departamentos del Cesar y La Guajira. Pages in C. Castaño-Uribe, et al. editors. Plan de Conservación de Felinos del Caribe Colombiano: Los felinos y su papel en la planificación regional integral basada en especies clave. Fundación Herencia Ambiental Caribe, ProCAT Colombia, The Sierra to Sea Institute, Santa Marta, Colombia. González-Maya, J. F. et al. 2013b. Evaluación geográfica y prioridades de conservación de hábitat para felinos en el Caribe colombiano. Pages in C. Castaño-Uribe et al, editors. Plan de Conservación de Felinos del Caribe Colombiano: Los felinos y su papel en la planificación regional integral basada en especies clave. Fundación Herencia Ambiental Caribe, ProCAT Colombia, The Sierra to Sea Institute, Santa Marta, Colombia. González-Maya, J. F. et al. 2013c. Plan de Conservación de Felinos para el Caribe colombiano (PCFC): definición de áreas prioritarias para la conservación de felinos y biodiversidad en paisajes tropicales. Pages in E. Payan and C. Castaño- Uribe, editors. Grandes Felinos de Colombia, Vol. I. Panthera Colombia, Fundación Herencia Ambiental Caribe, Conservación Internacional & Cat Specialist Group UICN/SSC, Bogotá, Colombia. González-Maya, J. F. et al. 2013d. Ecología y conservación de felinos y presas en el Caribe colombiano. Pages in C. Castaño- Uribe et al., editors. Plan de Conservación de Felinos del Caribe Colombiano: Los felinos y su papel en la planificación regional integral basada en especies clave. Fundación Herencia Ambiental Caribe, ProCAT Colombia, The Sierra to Sea Institute, Santa Marta, Colombia. Grebe, M. E Migración, identidad y culturaaymará: puntos de vista del actor. RevistaChungará16-17: Griffith B. et al Translocation as a species conservation tool status and strategy. Science 245: Gundermann, H. and González, H Pautas de integración regional, movilidad y redessociales en los pueblos Indígenas de Chile. Revista UNIVERSUM 23: Gundermann, H Ganadería Aymara, ecología y forrajes: evaluación regional de una actividad productiva. Revista Chungará 12: Hayward, M. W. et al. H Prey preferences of the leopard. Journal of Zoology 270: Henschel, P. et al The lion in West Africa is critically endangered. PLoS ONE DOI: /journal.pone Hoogesteijn R. et al Observaciones de la depredación de bovinos por jaguares en Venezuela y los programas gubernamentales de control. In El Jaguar en el Nuevo Milenio. R. Medellin, et al. editors, Fondo de Cultura Económica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Wildlife Conservation Society, Mexico, D.F. pp Hunter, L and G. Balme Trash or in trouble? The leopard s predicament. Africa Geographic Vol.12(1): Hunter, L and G. Balme The leopard; The world s most persecuted big cat. Pp in Holt Biddle, D (Ed.) Vision Annual Volume 12, Endangered Wildlife Trust, Johannesburg. Hunter, L. et al The landscape ecology of leopards (Panthera pardus) in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A preliminary project report. Ecological Journal 5:24-30 Hunter, L. in press. Wild Cats of the World, Bloomsbury Publishing, 30

8 Literature Cited in this Issue London, 240pp. Hunter, L. et al Panthera pardus Leopard : Kingdon, J. and M. Hoffmann, editors. The Mammals of Africa: Volume V: Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinoceroses. Bloomsbury Publishing, London. Inskip, C. and A. Zimmermann 2009 Human felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx43(1): Isasi-Catalá, E Is translocation of problematic jaguars (Panthera onca) an effective strategy to resolve human-predator conflicts? CEE review (SR55). Collaboration for Environmental Evidence. IUCN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland. Lewis, J. S. et al. In press. The effects of urbanization on population density, occupancy, and detection probability of wild felids.. Ecological Applications. Karanth, U. K. and R. Gopal An ecology-based policy framework for human-tiger coexistence in India. In: R. Woodroffe et al. editors. People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence?. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K. pp Laurance, W. F. et al Making conservation research more relevant for conservation practitioners. Biol. Conserv., 153, Letty J. et al Problems encountered by individuals in animal translocations: lessons from field studies. Ecoscience 14: Linnell J. D. et al Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: Madhusudan, M. D. and Mishra C Why big, fierce animals are threatened: conserving large mammals in densely populated landscapes. In: Saberwal, K. and M. Rangajaran editors. Battles over nature: science and the politics of wildlife conservation. Permanent Black, New Delhi. pp Masser, G. et al Can translocation be used to mitigate humanwildlife conficts?. Wildlife Research 37: Mazzolli, M. et al Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil. Biological Conservation 105: Miller, B. et al Biological and technical considerations of carnivore translocation: a review. Animal Conservation 2: Miquelle, D. G. et al Searching for the coexistence recipe: a case study of conflicts between people and tigers in the Russian Far East. In: Woodroffe R. et al. editors. People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K. pp Morato, R. G. et al Avaliação do risco de extinção da onçapintada Panthera onca no Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Moreno, X. S Modificación de los manejos pastoriles de las comunidades aymaras del Salar de Huasco y Lirima (Región de Tarapacá). M. Sc. Dissertation. Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Murray, J. L., and G. L. Gardner Leopardus pardalis. Mammalian Species 548:1-10. Nowell, K Revision of the Felidae Red List of Threatened Species. Cat News 37, 4-6 Nowell, K. and P. Jackson Wild cats: status survey and conservation action plan. International Union Conservation Of Nature and Natural Resources. Gland, Switzerland. Núñez R Área de actividad, patrones de actividad y movimiento del jaguar (Panthera onca) y del puma (Puma concolor), en la reserva de la biosfera Chamela Cuixmala, Jalisco. MsC Thesis. CIECO, University of Mexico. Nyakatura, K. and O. R. Bininda-Emonds Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new specieslevel supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biol 10:12. Ohrens, O. et al The relationship between rural depopulation and puma-human conflict in the high Andes of Chile. In review. Oliveira, T. G. et al Avaliação do risco de extinção da jaguatirica Leopardus pardalis no Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Oliveira, T. G. et al Avaliação do risco de extinção do gatodo-mato Leopardus tigrinus no Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Packer, C. et al Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores. PLoS ONE 4(6):e5941. doi: / journal.pone Payán, E. and J. F. González-Maya Distribución geográfica de la Oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) en Colombia e implicaciones para su conservación. Revista Latinoamericana de Conservación 2: Payán, E., and L. A. Trujillo The tigrilladas in Colombia. CatNews 44: Queirolo D. et al Avaliação do risco de extinção do gatopalheiro Leopardus colocolo no Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Quigley, H. B. and P. G. Crawshaw Reproducción, crecimiento y dispersión del jaguar en la region del Pantanal de Brasil. In El Jaguar en el Nuevo Milenio. R. Medellin, et al., editors. Fondo de Cultura Economica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Wildlife Conservation Society, Mexico, D.F., pp Rabinowitz, A. R Jaguar depredation on domestic livestock 31

9 Literature Cited in this Issue in Belize. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 14: Ray, J. C. et al Setting conservation and research priorities for larger African carnivores, WCS Working Paper 24: Wildlife Conservation Society, New York. Rodríguez-Mahecha, J. V. et al Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos de Colombia. Conservación Internacional Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ministerio del Medio Ambiente., Bogotá, Colombia. Rogers L. L Homing tendencies of large mammals: a review. In: L Nielsen and R Brown, editors. Translocation of Wild Animals. Wisconsin Humane Society, Milwaukee. Pp Roux, D. J. et al Bridging the science-management divide: moving from unidirectional knowledge transfer to knowledge interfacing and sharing. Ecology and Society11(1): 4. Ruíz-García, M. et al Possible records of Lynchailurus in south-western Colombia. CatNews 38: Ruth T. et al Evaluating cougar translocation in New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management 62(4): Sánchez, F., B. et al Primeros datos sobre los hábitos alimentarios del tigrillo, Leopardus pardalis, en un bosque andino de Colombia. Revista UDCA Actualidad & Divulgación 11: Serieys, L. E. K. et al Clinical chemistry abnormalities in bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure. Journal of Parasitology 99(6): Solari, S., Y. et al Riqueza, endemismo y conservación de los mamíferos de Colombia. Mastozoología Neotropical 20: Stander, P. E A suggested management strategy for stockraiding lions in Namibia. South Africa Journal of Wildlife Research 20: Stein, A. et al. in review. Panthera pardus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thomas, P. et al Using scent attractants to non-invasively collect hair samples from cheetahs, leopards and lions. Animal Keepers Forum 32: Tortato, M. A. et al Avaliação do risco de extinção do gatomaracajá Leopardus wiedii no Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(1), Treves, A. and K. U. Karanth Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17: Treves, A. et al Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human wildlife conflicts. Conservation Biology 23: Treves, A. et al Co-managing human-wildlife conflicts: A review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11: Walston J. et al Bringing the tiger back from the brink the six percent solution. PLOSBiology 8(9): e Weerts, D. J. and L. R. Sandmann Building a two-way street: challenges and opportunities for community engagement at research universities. The Review of Higher Education32(1): Wilkens, David Ecology of Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in the North Dakota Badlands: Population Dynamics and Prey Use. Master of Science, South Dakota State University. Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. Wilson, D. E. and R. A. Mittermeier Handbook of Mammals of the World. Volume 1: Carnivores. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain. Woodroffe R. and J. R. Ginsberg Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280: Zárrate-Charry, D. A. et al Caracterización y diagnóstico de las poblaciones de félidos y otros mamíferos medianos y grandes en el departamento de la Guajira: estrategias de conservación a escala regional. CORPOGUAJIRA, Fundaherencia, Riohacha, Guajira. 32

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