Chapter 5: Understanding Internetworking Infrastructure

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1 Chapter 5: Understanding Internetworking Infrastructure

2 Key questions What are the basic components of Internetw orking Infrastructures? What Business Implications do they bring? The Future?

3 A Graphical Representation of Moore s Law Moore's Law Transistors per Chip Year Adapted by author from Microprocessor Report 9(6), May 1995 and ChipList 9.9.5, by Aad Offerman, July Source: Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan, Corporate Information Strategy and Management. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Chapter 5 Figure 5-1

4 Basic Components of Internetworking Infrastructures The Technological Elements Local Area networks Hubs, switches and Network Adapters Wide Area Networks Routers Firewalls and other security systems and devices Caching, content acceleration and other specialized devices

5 T h e E v o l u t i o n o f C o r p o r a t e I T I n f r a s t r u c t u r e S o u r c e : A p p l e g a t e, L y n d a M., R o b e r t D. A u s t i n, a n d F. W a r r e n M c F a r l a n, C o r p o r a t e I n f o r m a t i o n S t r a t e g y a n d M a n a g e m e n t. B u r r R i d g e, I L : M c G r a w - H i l l / I r w i n, C h a p t e r 5 F i g u r e 5-2

6 A Graphical Representation of Metcalfe s Law Metcalfe's Law Value of Network Number of Users Connected to the Network Source: Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan, Corporate Information Strategy and Management. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Chapter 5 Figure 5-3

7 T h e B a n d w i d t h E x p l o s i o n N e t w o r k B a n d w i d t h G r o w t h T r u e v o i c e - o v e r - I P t e l e p h o n y, h i g h r e s o l u t i o n I n t e r n e t t e l e v i s i o n, m u s i c a n d m o v i e s o n d e m a n d, v i r t u a l w o r k p l a c e s, b r o a d b a n d w i r e l e s s L i v e a u d i o a n d v i d e o s t r e a m i n g e v e n t s, d i g i t a l c o m m e r c e, I n t e r n e t r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n, v i o c e c h a t a p p l i c a t i o n s S t r e a m i n g a u d i o a n d v i d e o, a d v a n c e d e - c o m m e r c e, l i v e s t o c k q u o t e s, 1, M B p s M a s s W W W a d o p t i o n, g r a p h i c i n t e n s i v e, i n s t a n t m e s s a g i n g M a s s e - m a i l a d o p t i o n, b a s i c W W W s i t e s L a r g e f i l e t r a n s f e r, e - m a i l F i l e t r a n s f e r I n c r e a s i n g N e t w o r k B a n d w i d t h S o u r c e : A d a p t e d f r o m : h t t p : / / w w w. s t a n f o r d. e d u / ~ y z a r o l i a / C h a l l e n g e s. h t m C h a p t e r 5 F i g u r e 5-4

8 Basic Components of Internetworking Infrastructures (Cont) The Technological Elements of Processing Systems Client Devices and Systems Server Devices and Systems Mainframe Devices and Systems Middleware Infrastructure Management Systems Business Applications

9 A Simple LAN Workstation Laptop Workstation Printer Hub Server Printer Laptop Workstation Source: Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan, Corporate Information Strategy and Management. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Chapter 5 Figure 5-5

10 An Example of a WAN Remote Backup Frame Relay Network Backup Frame Relay Network Production Plant Frame Relay Provider Network Production Plant Corporate Backup Frame Relay Network Remote Remote Source: Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan, Corporate Information Strategy and Management. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Chapter 5 Figure 5-6

11 UPER LOWER NORMA D SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD Servers in a Typical E-Commerce Configuration Qdata Facility Big Iron Qdata Private Network VPN Cust A To Public Internet VPN Cust B Router- Cust A Ethernet Switch DNS Servers Router- Cust B VPN Cust... Internet Router Router- Cust... Network Management VPN ipremier Company ipremier Co Cage Router Firewall Web Accelerator Router to HO Ethernet Switches T1 Web Server Cluster SMTP/POP Server Network Management Database Server DIAGRAM SIMPLIFIED FOR ILLUSTRATION PURPOSES Source : Austin, Robert D.; Leibrock, Larry; Murray, Alan, The ipremier Company: Denial of Service Attack (A), Harvard Business School Case No Chapter 5 Figure 5-7

12 Basic Components of Internetworking Infrastructures (Cont) The Technological Elements of Facilities Building and Physical spaces Network Conduits and connections Power Environmental controls Security

13 A Modern Data Center Source: Allegiance Telecom Chapter 5 Figure 5-8

14 Basic Components of Internetworking Infrastructures (Cont) The Operational Characteristics of Internetworks Open Standards (TCP/IP) Asynchronous Operation Inherent Latency Decentralization Scalability

15 Fundamental Components of Internetworking Infrastructure Netw ork Processing Systems Facilities Core Technologies Fiber optics, cable systems, DSL, satellite, wireless, Internetworking hardware (routers, switches, firewalls), content delivery software, identity and policy management, net monitoring Transaction software (enterprise systems offered by companies such as SAP or Oracle; or more targeted solutions offered by companies such as Trilogy and i2), servers, server appliances, client devices (PCs, handhelds) Corporate data centers, collocation data centers, managed services data centers, data closets Key Management Issues How to select technologies and standards How to select partners How to manage partner relationships How to assure reliability How to maintain security What to keep internal and what to outsource How to deploy, grow, and modify Enterprise system or best-of-breed hybrid? Relationships with legacies How to manage incidents How to recover after a disaster Internal or external management? Choosing a facilities model suited to your company How to assure reliability How to maintain security Source: Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan, Corporate Information Strategy and Management. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Chapter 5 Table 5-1

16 Measuring Network Bandwidth Term Bandwidth bit bits per second or bps Definition The maximum rate at which information can be transmitted along a communication link. Smallest unit of information handled by computers Bandwidth measurement unit Bandwidth Rates Bit equivalent Information Transfer speed 1 kilobit (Kb) 1 thousand bits 1,000 bits/ second 1 megabit (Mb) 1 million bits 1,000,000/ second 1 gigabit (Gb) 1 billion bits 1,000,000,000/ second Source: Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan, Corporate Information Strategy and Management. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Chapter 5 Table 5-2

17 The Rise of Internetworking: Business Implications The emergence of Real Time Infrastructures Broader Exposure to Operational Threats New Models Of Service Delivery Managing Legacies

18 Communication Technology Bandwidths and User Groups Communication Technology Bandwidth a User Groups Telephone Modem 33.6 kbps 56 kbps Individuals and small businesses Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 128 kbps Individuals and small businesses Cable Modem 128 kbps 512 kbps Individuals and small businesses Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 128 kps 1.5 mbps Individuals and small businesses Ethernet LAN 10 mbps 100 mbps Most businesses and organizations Leased Lines (T1, T3) mbps, 45 mbps Government, universities, medium and large businesses Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)/ Gigabit Ethernet 155 mbps 25.6 gbps Government, universities, and large corporations a We have listed the typical bandwidth performance. Some of the technologies are theoretically capable of higher bandwidths. Additional, some technologies perform at different speeds upstream and downstream. Source: Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan, Corporate Information Strategy and Management. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Chapter 5 Table 5-3

19 W a k e - U p C a l l : D e n i a l o f S e r v i c e A t t a c k s i n F e b r u a r y D a t e T a r g e t C o m p a n y R e s u l t s o f A t t a c k F e b r u a r y 7 Y a h o o O v e r w h e l m i n g s p i k e i n t r a f f i c t h a t l a s t e d 3 h o u r s. N e t w o r k a v a i l a b i l i t y d r o p p e d f r o m 9 8 % t o 0 %. A t t a c k o r i g i n a t e d f r o m 5 0 d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s a n d w a s t i m e d t o o c c u r d u r i n g m i d d l e o f b u s i n e s s d a y. S t o c k w a s d o w n 3. 2 % f o r w e e k i n w h i c h N A S D A Q r o s e a l m o s t 3 %. F e b r u a r y 8 B u y. c o m A t t a c k o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a n h o u r o f t h e c o m p a n y s I n i t i a l P u b l i c O f f e r i n g ( I P O ). S t o c k w a s d o w n a t w e e k s e n d m o r e t h a n 2 0 % f r o m I P O p r i c e. E b a y S t o c k w a s d o w n 7. 3 % f o r w e e k i n w h i c h N A S D A Q r o s e a l m o s t 3 %. C N N. c o m S e r v i c e d i s r u p t e d F e b r u a r y 9 E * T r a d e A t t a c k e d d u r i n g p e a k t r a d i n g h o u r s. S t o c k w a s d o w n 7. 6 % f o r w e e k i n w h i c h N A S D A Q r o s e a l m o s t 3 %. Z D N e t S e r v i c e d i s r u p t e d F e b r u a r y 1 8 F e d e r a l B u r e a u o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n S e r v i c e d i s r u p t e d. ( F B I ) F e b r u a r y 2 4 N a t i o n a l D i s c o u n t B r o k e r s G r o u p A t t a c k e d d u r i n g p e a k t r a d i n g h o u r s. ( N D B ) O p e r a t o r s a c c i d e n t a l l y c r a s h e d s i t e a s t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o d e f e n d a g a i n s t t h e a t t a c k. a O v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e I n t e r n e t d e g r a d e d b y a s m u c h a s 2 5 % d u r i n g t h e p e a k o f t h e a t t a c k s a s c o m p u t e r s r e - s e n t m e s s a g e s r e p e a t e d l y a n d a u t o m a t i c a l l y, t r y i n g t o r e c o v e r i n t e r r u p t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s. S o u r c e : A d a p t e d f r o m : N e t w o r k W o r l d F u s i o n, w w w. n f u s i o n. c o m, c o m p l i e d b y L e G r a n d E l e b a s h. C h a p t e r 5 T a b l e 5-4

20 The Future Client-Server model became popular LANs, WANs, VANs Less dependence on Mainframe comput ers & MIS Electronic communication/workgroup computing tools support group work See GWUForecast.gwu.edu

21 Organizational Design Challenges The Virtual Corporation From Control to Learning From Autonomy to Collaboration Organizational Structure Authority and Decision Making Operating Processes Management Processes Incentives and rewards Roles/Skills and Expertise Career Development

22 Targeted Opportunities Communicating Organizational Priorities Meaningful Budgets Effective Incentive Systems Solution for Production Adaptation for Change

23 Interorganizational Systems (IOS) Networked information systems used by two or more separate organizations to perform a joint business function Interorganizational systems (IOS) Electronic Data Interchange uses EDI standards Extranets - IOS over the Internet

24 IOS EXAMPLE Kmart has opened its IS to help suppliers better serve customers. The interface has an extensive GUI component and allows 50 to 100 vendors to look at Kmart s merchandising database. For example, the system lets Black and Decker access to any data that Kmart believes helps B&D better serve Kmart and its customers. Kmart implemented this program in exchange for more frequent and smaller deliveries, but also because it was in the best interested of the company, its customers and its suppliers. Why did Kmart implement this IOS? What is the implication for having Kmart decide on what info B&D can access?

25 IOS Risks Forces automation & lock-in to a particular system Government regulations may change Great impacts on organizational structures, systems, & people - loss of control Diminishes organizational boundaries -- requires trust in partners

26 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Computer-to-computer exchange of standard business transaction documents between 2 organizations purchase orders invoices bill of lading

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