Privacy and Identity Management for Europe

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1 Privacy and Identity Management for Europe Pierangela Samarati Università degli Studi di Milano Milan, Italy Page 1

2 Vision and Objectives Users disclose vast amounts of personal information to access on-line services Large amount of data stored and exchanged (almost no control on their use and dissemination) Growing concerns about user privacy Users need to have some assurance that, while releasing information, disclosure of sensitive information is not a risk Data owners and holders need to have support of techniques for properly handling users data and protecting privacy Privacy and Identity Management for Europe Page 2

3 Driving Criteria Communication must be secure, anonymous, and correct Information release should be minimized Privacy-aware control should govern information release and usage Users need to be aware and empowered on their information System must be intuitive and easy to understand Page 3

4 Research in the Project Context Research represented a considerable driving force in the project Provided state of the art foundations Provided rigorous scientific analysis of requirements Developed new technologies for managing identities and protecting privacy Worked hand by hand with legal/social/economic WPs (requirements) prototypes and architecture development (requirements and results) Page 4

5 Research Activities Broad in scope touching different aspects of the complex privacy and identity management problem Human-Computer Interfaces (Activity 6) Authorization Models (Activity 8) Cryptographic Mechanisms (Activity 9) Communication Infrastructure (Activity 10) User-Side Identity Management (Activity 11) Services-Side Identity Management (Activity 12) Page 5

6 Overview of the Research Activities User-Side Server-Side HCI Communication Infrastructure/ Cryptographic Mechanims PRIME Toolbox PRIME Toolbox Cryptographic Mechanims Identity Management Access Control PIIs Policies Cryptographic Mechanims Identity Management Access Control PIIs Policies Page 6

7 Human-Computer Interfaces Goal: research and development of user interfaces that are intelligible, user-friendly, and compliant with legal privacy principles Research results Mediate complex PET constructs. New HCI paradigms, constructs, and guidelines for designing intuitive and intelligible user interfaces Secure interfaces. User interfaces robust against common types of Internet fraud attacks User-friendly interfaces. New interfaces that provide information about the consequences when releasing data (legal requirements) Trust in technologies. HCI solutions that allow users to understand privacy risks and can enhance the user s trust in PRIME technologies Page 7

8 Authorization Models Goal: development of privacy-enhancing access control models, policies, and languages Research results Privacy-enhancing access control system. Novel access control model and language supporting restrictions on information release and secondary use, and obligations PII protection. Novel techniques for ensuring privacy of data both at the user side and at the server side, even when outside owner s control Context (including location)-aware privacy protection. Support of context-based policies while ensuring privacy of contextual information Page 8

9 Cryptographic Mechanisms Goal: study, development, and implementation of cryptographic mechanisms for privacy-enhancing identity management Research results Anonymous credential systems. Techniques for proving properties without disclosing identities and minimizing release of information together with their implementation for supporting real-world applications Anonymous communication. Mechanisms for efficient secure anonymous communications protecting privacy of sender and receiver of private information as well as communication content Privacy-enhancing cryptographic primitives. New cryptographic primitives and properties to prove and reason about protection guarantees even against attacks Page 9

10 Communication Infrastructure Goal: enhance existing and develop new methods of anonymous communication Research results Network layer anonymization. Scalable and efficient techniques for anonymization at the network layer that are robust against strong adversaries Anonymization techniques. Techniques for estimating the security provided by anonymization techniques Anonymization and law. Network layer anonymization techniques that support the revocation of anonymity of certain users Page 10

11 User-Side Identity Management Goal: enable users to manage their personal data and identities in an intuitive way Research results Management of the user s personal data. Techniques for supporting users in managing and communicating their personal information in an intuitive way as well as for measuring their privacy in specific transactions/applications User-side identity management solutions. Techniques for supporting users in managing their identities in multilateral interactions and for establishing user s trust Page 11

12 Services-Side Identity Management Goal: solutions for automated privacy-respecting identity management in the services-side environment Research results Service and platform credential, policy management, and usage. Services side architectures for enforcing privacy promises to ensure the respect of the user s privacy needs and for enforcing obligations Service and platform trustworthiness. Trusted platform technologies that can provide the necessary trust in the service side architecture Configuration compliance. System policy compliance checking to verify whether and how the server is capable of enforcing privacy policies Page 12

13 Privacy-aware Policies Depart from user authentication and provide interactive access control Support privacy of the involved parties Maintain simplicity (logic languages powerful and expressive, but not usable by end users) Support of both user-side and server-side restrictions Allow for restrictions on secondary use and obligations Support of different conditions purpose location-based trust semantics-aware (based on defined ontologies) Page 13

14 High-Level Policy Syntax subject id WITH subject expression CAN actions FOR purpose object id WITH object expression [ IF conditions ] [ FOLLOW obligations ] Examples ACME s directors are authorized to read valid (i.e., not yet expired) cc info for marketing and service release purposes, if they are located inside the ACME building and the access is logged A registered user who works as a doctor can read for research purposes patientdata provided patient s consent Page 14

15 Privacy-aware Policies: a Global Picture Page 15

16 Protecting PII Privacy requirements (privacy promises) on PII need to be obeyed in storage locally on external storage when communicating PII to other parties Page 16

17 PII at External Storage - 1 Developed new techniques for: specifying and enforcing privacy constraints on PII data executing queries on encrypted data (balancing confidentiality and efficiency) combining encryption with authorizations (encryption-based access control) outsourcing privacy policies (not only data) ensuring protection of private data and their association (data fragmentation and encryption) Page 17

18 PII at External Storage - 2 The access control policy defined by the data owner translated into an equivalent encryption policy while minimizing the number of keys resources with the same acl can share the key, but resources with different acls need distinct keys each user knows a single key public tokens and key hierarchy exploited for deriving new keys Page 18

19 PII at External Storage - 3 Page 19

20 PII at External Storage - 4 Developed solutions combining fragmentation and encryption protect sensitive associations minimize encryption improve efficiency of query execution Page 20

21 PRIME Publications More than 300 scientific publications, among which: Journals ACM Transactions on Information and System Security IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement IEEE Transactions on Knowledge Data Engineering Journal of Cryptology Journal of Computer Security... Conferences Eurocrypt Annual Computer Security Applications ACM Symp. on Information, Computer & Communication Security ACM Computer and Communication Security IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy International Conference on Very Large Data Bases European Symposium On Research In Computer Security... Page 21

22 Conclusions Considerable work done and several results achieved: translated into usable technology (prototypes) advanced state of the art Contributed to: understanding the problem moving steps towards resolutions establishing the basis for further advancements and larger scopes/challenges...primelife Page 22

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