System Design Guidelines

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1 VITOSOL System Design Guidelines Vitosol 200-F Vitosol 300-T Model SP3 Viessmann solar collectors the right solution for every application Using solar energy to heat domestic hot water and to provide a backup for space heating Vitosol 200-F Flat plate solar collector for installation on pitched and flat roofs, and for freestanding installation Vitosol 300-T Vacuum tube solar collector, based on the heat pipe principle, for installation on sloped and flat roofs and for freestanding installation 05/2008

2 Safety, Installation and Warranty Requirements Safety, Installation and Warranty Requirements Please ensure that these instructions are read and understood before commencing installation. Failure to comply with the instructions listed below and details printed in this manual can cause product/property damage, severe personal injury, and/or loss of life. Ensure all requirements below are understood and fulfilled (including detailed information found in manual subsections). H Licensed professional heating contractor The installation, adjustment, service, and maintenance of this equipment must be performed by a licensed professional heating contractor. " Please see section entitled Important Regulatory and Installation Requirements. H Product documentation Read all applicable documentation before commencing installation. Store documentation near boiler in a readily accessible location for reference in the future by service personnel. " For a listing of applicable literature, please see section entitled Important Regulatory and Safety Requirements. H Advice to owner Once the installation work is complete, the heating contractor must familiarize the system operator/ultimate owner with all equipment, as well as safety precautions/requirements, shut-down procedure, and the need for professional service annually. H Warranty Information contained in this and related product documentation must be read and followed. Failure to do so renders warranty null and void. H Grounding/lightning protection of the solar system In the lower part of the building, install an electrical conductor on the solar circuit s piping system in compliance with local regulations. Connection of the solar system to a new or existing lightning protection or the provision of local grounding should only be carried out by a licensed professional, who must take into account the prevailing conditions on site. CAUTION Observe maximum load and distance from edge before installing the substructure to the roof. If necessary, consult with a structural engineer to determine if the structure is suitable for installing solar collectors. The collectors must be securely mounted so that the mountings can withstand intense wind conditions and local snow loads. CAUTION Gloves and eye protection must be worn when handling solar panels. CAUTION Solar panel connection pipes and solar heating fluid can become hot enough to cause severe burns. Extreme caution must be taken if panels have been in a stagnant condition (no flow of fluid). CAUTION Avoid scratching or sudden shocks to glass cover of the solar panel. CAUTION Never step on collectors or solder in close proximity to the glass surface of the solar panel. H Applicability Vitosol solar collectors are designed for use in closed loop heating systems for domestic hot water heating, space heating and pool heating via a heat exchanger. The use of Viessmann heat transfer medium Tyfocor-HTL is strongly recommended. IMPORTANT Pool water or potable water cannot be pumped directly through the Vitosol collectors. Damage to collectors caused by corrosion, freezing or scaling will void warranty. 2

3 Contents Contents Page Safety Safety Instructions Important Regulatory and Installation Requirements General Information About these Instructions Product Information Important Regulatory and Installation Requirements Basic Principles of Solar Technology Subsidies, Permits and Insurance... 7 Solar Energy... 7 HExploiting solar energy... 7 H Solar radiation... 8 H Global radiation... 8 H Exploiting solar energy with collectors... 9 H Influence of alignment, inclination and shade on energy yield H Inclination and orientation of collectors H Angle of inclination Overall System Optimisation Specification Construction and Function of Collectors H Vitosol 200-F flat panel collector H Vitosol 300-T vacuum tube collector based on the heat pipe principle 14 Collector Efficiency Solar coverage Collector Installation and Mounting Details H Installation options for different collector types H Vitosol 200-F flat panel collector H Support weight requirements - Vitosol 300-T General Installation Instructions Notes on Planning and Operation Calculating the Required Absorber Surface Area H Calculating the absorber surface area and DHW cylinder capacity H Calculating the absorber surface area for space heating Sizing Pipe Diameters and Circulation Pump H Sizing pipe diameters H Installation examples for Vitosol 200-F, models SV2 and SH H Collector pressure drop information H Sizing pipe circulation pump H Technical information on the Solar-Divicon Safety Equipment H Liquid capacity of solar heating system components H Diaphragm expansion vessel H Technical data for the expansion tank H Pressure relief valve H High limit safety cut-out H Thermostatic mixing valve Accessories

4 Contents Contents (continued) Page System Designs General Information H How to implement the installation System Design H Dual-mode DHW heating with Vitocell-B 100 or Vitocell-B 300 DHW tanks System Design H Dual-mode DHW heating and space heating backup with heating water storage tank System Design H Dual-mode DHW heating with two DHW tanks System Design H Dual-mode DHW and swimming pool water heating System Design Extensions H System with bypass circuit H Bypass circuit with solar cell H System with energy-saving mode Appendix Calculation Example Based on the Viessmann ESOP Program H Solar heating systm with dual-coil DHW tank Glossary

5 Safety Important Regulatory and Installation Requirements Codes The installation of solar heating systems might be governed by individual local rules and regulations for this type of product, which must be observed. The installation of this unit shall be in accordance with local codes. Always use latest editions of codes. Mechanical room Ensure the mechanical room complies with the requirements of the system design guideline and/or technical data manual. Thesolarstoragetankmustbeinstalled in a mechanical room which is never subject to freezing temperatures. If not in use and danger of freezing exists in the mechanical room, ensure water in tank is drained. Please carefully read this manual prior to attempting installation. Any warranty is null and void if these instructions are not followed. This product must be installed observing not only the necessary product literature (see list), but also all local, provincial/state plumbing and building codes, as they apply to this product and all periphery equipment. For information regarding other Viessmann System Technology componentry, please reference documentation of the respective product. We offer frequent installation and service seminars to familiarize our partners with our products. Please inquire. Workingontheequipment The installation, adjustment, service, and maintenance of this equipment must be done by a licensed professional heating contractor who is qualified and experienced in the installation, service, and maintenance of solar heating systems. There are no user serviceable parts on this equipment. The completeness and functionality of field supplied electrical controls and components must be verified by the heating contractor. These include pumps, valves, air vents, thermostats, temperature and pressure relief controls, etc. Ensure main power supply to equipment, the heating system, and all external controls has been deactivated. Take precautions in both instances to avoid accidental activation of power during service work. Technical literature Literature applicable to all aspects of the Vitosol: - Technical Data Manual - Installation Instructions - Start-up/Service Instructions - Operating Instructions and User s Information Manual - System Design Guidelines Leave all literature at the installation site and advise the system operator/ultimate owner where the literature can be found. Contact Viessmann for additional copies. 5

6 General Information About these Instructions Take note of all symbols and notations intended to draw attention to potential hazards or important product information. These include WARNING, CAUTION, and IMPORTANT. See below. WARNING Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in substantial product/property damage, serious injury or loss of life. CAUTION Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor injury or product/property damage. IMPORTANT Warnings draw your attention to the presence of potential hazards or important product information. Cautions draw your attention to the presence of potential hazards or important product information. Helpful hints for installation, operation or maintenance which pertain to the product. This symbol indicates that additional, pertinent information is to be found in the adjacent column. This symbol indicates that other instructions must be referenced. Product Information Vitosol 200-F, Models SV2, SH2 Flat panel solar collector with 25 ft. 2 / 2.3 m 2 collector area. Max. stagnation temperature 430 F / 221 C Max. operating pressure 87 psig / 6bar Vitosol 300-T, SP3 Series Vacuum tube solar collector with 22 and 32 ft. 2 /2and3m 2 collector area. Max. stagnation temperature 302 F / 150 C Max. operating pressure 87 psig / 6bar 6

7 Basic Principles of Solar Technology Subsidies, Permits and Insurance Solar heating systems for DHW or swimming pool heating are subsidised by many regional and local authorities. Request information about subsidies from your local authority. Further information is available from our sales offices. Your local planning office will be able to advise you about whether solar heating systems need planning permission. Viessmann solar collectors are tested for impact resistance, incl. hail impact, in accordance with DIN EN Nevertheless, we would recommend you include the collectors in your building insurance, to protect you from losses arising from any extraordinary natural phenomenon. Our warranty excludes such losses. Solar Energy Exploiting solar energy The sun has provided the earth with light and heat for billions of years. Without it, our existence on earth would be impossible. We have been using the sun s heat since time immemorial. In summer, it heats our buildings directly, while in winter we make use of solar energy stored in the form of wood, coal, oil and gas, to provide heat for our buildings and domestic hot water. To protect fuel reserves, the heating industry has committed itself to finding more responsible ways of handling these precious resources, which have accumulated naturally over millions of years. One rational way of achieving this aim is to make direct use of solar energy by means of collectors. Thanks to the use of highly sophisticated collectors and a perfectly matched overall system, the economic use of solar energy is no longer a futuristic vision, but a proven everyday reality. Considering that fuel prices will continue to rise in the years ahead, investing in a solar heating system can be viewed as a genuine investment in the future. 7

8 Basic Principles of Solar Technology Solar Energy (continued) Solar radiation S Solar radiation represents a flow of energy irradiated uniformly in all directions by the sun. Of that energy, an output of 429 Btu/h/ft. 2 or 1.36 kw/m 2, the so-called solar constant, hits the outer earth s atmosphere. RT Diffused celestial radiation Direct solar radiation Wind, rain, snow, convection Convection losses Conduction losses Heat radiation of the absorber Heat radiation of the glass cover Useful collector output Reflection RT Return S Supply Global radiation Solar irradiation in Wh/(m x d) direct radiation diffused radiation 0 Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. After penetrating the earth s atmosphere, the solar radiation is reduced by reflection, dispersion and absorption by dust particles and gaseous molecules. That portion of this radiation which passes unimpeded through the atmosphere to strike the earth s surface is known as direct radiation. The portion of the solar radiation which is reflected and/or absorbed by dust particles and gas molecules and irradiated back strikes the earth s surface indirectly is known as diffused radiation. The total radiation striking the earth s surface is the global radiation Eg, i.e., global radiation = direct radiation + diffused radiation. In the latitudes of North America, the typical global radiation under optimum conditions (clear, cloudless sky at midday) amounts to a max. of 317 Btu/h/ft. 2 or W/m 2. With solar collectors, as much as 75 % of this global radiation can be utilised, depending on the type of collector.

9 Basic Principles of Solar Technology Solar Energy (continued) Exploiting solar energy using solar collectors The useful energy which a collector can absorb depends on several factors. The main factor is the total solar energy available. Annual global radiation in Canada The amount of global energy varies from location to location (see maps below). The type of collector, as well as its inclination and orientation, are also very important (see page 10). If the solar installation is to be operated economically, careful dimensioning of the system components is also essential. Btu/ft 2 /day 2.5-3kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day >4.7kwh/m 2 /day >1481 Annual global radiation in the United States Btu/ft 2 /day 3-4kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day kwh/m 2 /day Note: Average mean daily global radiation on a south-facing surface tilted at an angle equal to the latitude of the location. 9

10 Basic Principles of Solar Technology Solar Energy (continued) Influence of alignment, inclination and shade on energy yield West North East Annual irradiation in % Optimum alignment and inclination The solar generator provides the highest annual solar yield for a DHW system whenfacingsouthwithaninclinationof approx. 30 to 35 degrees to the horizontal plane. However, the installation of a solar heating system is still viable even when the installation deviates quite significantly from the above (south-westerly to south-easterly alignment, 25 to 55 degrees inclination). Example: 30 ; 45 south-west South Angle of inclination The graph illustrates the loss of yield resulting from an installation of the collector array which is less than perfect. The graph also indicates that a shallower inclination is more favourable, if the collector surface cannot be pointed south. A solar heating system with a 30º inclination and an alignment of 45º south-westerly still achieves 95% of its optimum yield. Even with an east-westerly alignment, you can still expect 85% with a roof inclination between 25º and 40º. A more steeply sloped installation would be more favourable in winter, but the system achieves two thirds of its yield during the summer months. On the other hand, an angle of inclination less than 20 degrees should be avoided, otherwise the solar generator will become too contaminated, or snowcovered. Installing the collector array on different roofs requires complex hydraulic interconnections between the individual collectors. Every array is equipped with a separate collector temperature sensor and a separate pump line. The increase in energy yield is therefore offset by the higher installation costs, resulting in a significantly reduced cost:benefit ratio. Shade reduces energy yield Position and size the collector array so that the influence of neighbouring structures, trees, power lines, etc., which throw shadows over the array, is minimised. Also consider how neighbouring properties will be likely to develop over a period of 20 years, as regards additional buildings, plants and saplings. 10

11 Basic Principles of Solar Technology Solar Energy (continued) Inclination and orientation of collectors To achieve optimum energy absorption, the collectors must be oriented towards the sun. The angle of inclination and the azimuth angle are the dimensions used to determine the orientation of the collectors. Angle of inclination Angle of inclination α IMPORTANT The angle of inclination for Vitosol 300-T collectors must be at least 25º in order to guarantee circulation of the evaporator liquid in the heat pipe The angle of inclination a is the angle between the horizontal and the collector plane. For pitched roof installations, the angle of inclination is determined by the slope of the roof. The largest amount of energy can be captured by the collector s absorber when the collector plane is aligned at right angles to the irradiation of the sun. Because the angle of irradiation depends on the time of day and the time of year, the collector plane should be aligned according to the position of the sun during the phase of maximum energy supply. In practice, angles of inclination of between 30 and 45º have proven to be ideal. For most installations in North America, for example, an angle of inclination of between 25 and 70º is advantageous, depending on the period of use. Lower angles of inclination are better for applications where more energy is required in the summer months (i.e. pool heating). Higher angles of inclination are better for applications where more energy is required in the winter months. Capturing the maximum amount of energy throughout the year can be achieved using an angle of inclination equal to the latitude of the building site. This is ideal for domestic hot water heating applications. Azimuth angle Example: Deviation from south: 15º east Collector plane Azimuth angle The azimuth angle describes the deviation of the collector plane from south; the collector plane aligned to the south is the azimuth angle = 0º. Because solar irradiation is at its most intensive at midday, the collector plane should be oriented as closely as possible to the south. However, deviations from south up to 45º south-east or south-west have minimal impact on annual energy production. 11

12 Basic Principles of Solar Technology Overall System Optimization A high-quality solar collector cannot by itself guarantee the optimum operation of a solar installation. This depends more on the complete system solution as a whole. Viessmann supplies all the components required for a solar heating system: H a control unit that is tailored to the individual solar heating system, H a DHW tank incorporating a solar heat exchanger low inside the tank, H a preassembled pump station with all necessary hydraulic components, H design details aimed at achieving fast-responding control and therefore maximum yields from the solar heating system. Correctly designed solar heating systems with well matched system components can cover 50 to 80 % of the annual energy demand for DHW heating in detached and semi-detached houses. We will be pleased to assist you with the design of solar heating systems. The elements of a solar heating system areshowninthediagram. T DHW T T S R I DCW Solar collector Solar-Divicon (pumping station) Overflow container Expansion vessel Solar manual filling pump System fill manifold valve I Brass elbow c/w sensor well Dual-mode DHW tank Tank temperature sensor Air separator Solar control unit Flexible connection pipe R S Collector temperature sensor Fast air-vent, c/w shutoff valve *1 Return to collector Supply from collector *1 Install at least one air-vent valve (quick-acting air-vent valve or a manual vent valve, see page 43) at the highest point of the system. 12

13 Specification Construction and Function of Collectors Vitosol 200-F flat panel collector Vitosol 200-F flat plate solar collector is available as: H Vertical version Model SV2 and horizontal version Model SH2, each offering 2.3 m 2 /25ft 2 absorber surface. Continuous profiled seal (vulcanised) Solar glass cover, 3.2 mm thick Meander-shaped copper pipe Copper absorber Melamine resin foam Technical Data Vitosol 200-F, SV2/SH2 Mineral fiber Aluminum frame sections Aluminum-zinc bottom panel Connection pipe The main component of Vitosol 100 is the Sol-Titanium coated copper absorber. It ensures high absorption of solar radiation and low emission of thermal radiation. A copper pipe through which the heat transfer medium flows is fitted to the absorber. The heat transfer medium channels the absorber heat through the copper pipe. The meander-shaped direct flow absorber of models SV2 and SH2 provides an extremely even flow through each individual collector in the collector arrays. The absorber is surrounded by a highly insulated collector housing which minimises collector heat losses. The high quality thermal insulation provides temperature stability and is free from gas emissions. The cover comprises a solar glass panel. The glass has a very low iron content, thereby reducing reflection losses. The collector housing comprises a powder-coated aluminium frame (recycled aluminium), within which the solar glass panel is permanently sealed. Model SV2 and SH2 Up to twelve collectors can be joined to form a single collector array. For this purpose, the standard delivery includes flexible connection pipes, sealed with O-rings. A general connection kit with clamping ring connections enables the collector array to be readily attached to the pipes of the solar circuit. The collector temperature sensor is installed in the solar circuit flow via a sensor well set. Model Gross Area Absorber Area Aperture Area Dimensions Weight m 2 ft 2 m 2 ft 2 m 2 ft 2 mm in kg lb SV x 2380x90 SH x90x ¾x 93¾x3½ 93¾x41¾x x3½

14 Specification Construction and Function of Collectors (continued) Vitosol 300-T vacuum tube collector Vitosol 300-T vacuum tube collectors areavailableintwotypes: 20 tube version, 30 tube version The tube shape gives the collector great stability and high impact resistence. Re-evacuation of the tubes is not necessary as the tubes have a permanent airtight seal. The vacuum in the glass tubes ensures optimum heat insulation. Convection losses between the glass tube and the absorber are almost completely eliminated. This enables the utilisation of even low radiation levels (diffused radiation). The performance of the collector does not drop off as significantly in cold weather as a flat plate collector. On average, approximately 30% to 50% higher annual solar energy gain than flat plate collectors can be expected. Built into each vacuum tube is a Sol-Titanium coated copper absorber. It is a highly selective surface that ensures high absorption of solar radiation and low emission of thermal radiation. Evacuated glass tube Heat pipe Absorber Technical Data Vitosol 300-T, 2m 2 /3m 2 Model Gross Area Absorber Area Aperture Area Condenser Double pipe heat exchanger Dimensions Weight m 2 ft 2 m 2 ft 2 m 2 ft 2 mm in kg lb 2m x 1996x 122 3m x 1996x ¾x 78½x 4¾ 83¾x 78½x 4¾ A heat pipe filled with an evaporator liquid is arranged on the absorber. The heat pipe is connected to the condenser via a flexible coupling. The condenser is mounted in a double pipe heat exchanger. This involves a so-called dry connection, i.e. pipes can be rotated or replaced even when the installation is filled and under pressure. Heat is transferred from the absorber to the heat pipe. This lets the liquid evaporate. The vapour then rises to the condenser. The heat is transferred to the passing heat transfer medium by the double-pipe heat exchanger containing the condenser which causes the vapour to condense. The condensate flows back into the heat pipe and the process is repeated. Please note: Theangleofinclinationmustbeatleast 25º to guarantee circulation of the evaporator liquid inside the heat exchanger. 14

15 Specification Construction and Function of Collectors (continued) Vitosol 300-T (continued) Absorber surface areas of up to 6 m 2 can be joined to form a single collector array. For this purpose, the standard delivery includes flexible connection pipes, sealed with O-rings. A connection kit with clamping ring connections enables the collector array to be readily connected to the pipes of the solar circuit. The collector temperature sensor is installed in a sensor mounting on the flow pipe in the connection housing of the collectors. 102mm / 4 Legend Groove for retaining clip 15

16 Specification Collector Efficiency Some of the solar radiation striking the glassofthecollectorsis lost dueto reflection and absorption. The optical efficiency ηo takes these losses into account. When the collectors heat up, they transfer heat to the environment as the result of conduction, radiation and convection. These thermal losses are allowed for by the heat loss factors k 1 and k 2. The heat loss factors and optical efficiency combine to form the collector efficiency curve which can be calculated on the basis of the following formula: η = η o k 1 T E g k 2 T2 E g E g = radiation intensity (W/m 2 ) T=Temperature difference between ambient air and collector fluid ºC If the difference between the collector and ambient temperature is zero, the collector loses no heat to the environment, and the efficiency η is at its maximum level; this is known as the optical efficiency η o. The thermal capacity is a measure of the thermal inertia of the collector, and shows the response behaviour of the collector when heating and cooling. A low thermal capacity is of advantage with wide ranging temparature and weather conditions typical in northerly climates. The table below lists comparative values for the optical efficiency and the heat loss factors as tested in European certification labs. Vitosol 200-F and 300-T are both tested and certified in North America to SRCC OG-100. Collector type Vitosol 200-F Vitosol 300-T Opt. efficiency level ηo *1 in % *1 η o basedonabsorberarea H 0.9 Heat loss factors k 1 in W/(m 2 K) k 2 in W/(m 2 K 2 ) Spec. thermal capacity kj/(m 2 K) Efficiency Temperature difference in degrees C between ambient air and collector fluid Vitosol 300-T Vitosol 200-F 16

17 Specification Solar Coverage Vitosol 200-F Absorber surface in m 2 Absorber surface in m 2 ltrs/day USG/day Vitosol 300-T DHW consumption DHW consumption USG/day ltrs/day USG/day The solar coverage value indicates what percentage of the energy required annually for domestic hot water applications can be covered by the solar heating system. The absorber surface area should be sized so that the production of surplus heat is just about avoided during the summer months. The higher the solar cover rate, the lower the efficiency, since a high cover rate has the effect of raising the temperature level of the solar circuit. This results in increased heat losses and lower seasonal efficiency. The diagrams show the coverage values that can be achieved with the various collector types, based on H the meteorological records for a typical location at 49 latitude, H south-facing roofs, H a roof pitch of 45º and H a DHW temperature of 113 F / 45ºC in the standby tank. This data represents approximate guide values. Note: Solar fractions will be higher for locations in southern parts of the USA due to higher levels of radiation. Influence of various parameters on solar coverage Reference system 100 litres/day 300 litres/day 400 litres/day Collector inclination 30 Collector inclination 60 Westerly orientation South-west orientation *1 Vacuum tubes Hannover Freiburg Reference system: H 4-person household with hot water consumption of 53 USG/day / 200 litres/day H 2 Vitosol 200-F collectors, model SV2 and SH2 H 45º roof inclination H South-facing roof orientation H Dual-mode DHW cylinder, 300 litres H Meteorological records for a typical location at 49 latitude The bars indicate the expected coverage values for deviations from the reference system Solar cover rate in % *1 For comparable absorber surface area. 17

18 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting Installation options for different collector types Viessmann offers universal mounting systems to simplify installation. The mounting systems are suitable for virtually all forms of roofs, as well as installation on flat roofs or ground mounted free-standing installations. Fitting Collector type Pitched roofs A Vitosol 200-F, model SV2 Vitosol 300-T B Vitosol 200-F, model SH2 Flat roofs C Vitosol 200-F, model SV2, SH2 Vitosol 300-T Freestanding installation D Vitosol 200-F, model SV2, SH2 Vitosol 300-T Sloped roofs - rooftop installation Required roof area Collector Type A mm A in B mm B in Vitosol 200-F, type SV / * /8 + 5/8* 1 Vitosol 200-F, type SH / * /4 + 5/8* 1 Vitosol 300-T, type SP3, 2m * /4 + 4* 1 Vitosol 300-T, type SP3, 3m * /4 + 4* 1 *1 Add this value for every additional collector. 18

19 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting (continued) Vitosol 200-F flat panel collector Flat collectors are ideally suited for domestic hot water and swimming pool heating applications. Both vertical and horizontal types are suitable for installation on pitched roofs. The selection of method of installation is influenced by the structural characteristics of the building. Model SH2 has been specially designed for installation on flat roofs and for freestanding installation. Viessmann offers a universal fastening system to simplify installation. The fastening system is suitable for virtually all forms of roof and roofing. Installation kits are available for installing collectors on flat roofs. An engineering evaluation is required to establish additional superimposed loads from wind or snow, as described in the local building code. Retain the services of a professional structural engineer to calculate additional live loads due to the installation of solar collectors on the roof. Sloped Roofs Installation Details a b c Collector Lag bolt Mounting rail Roof bracket Collector Dimension a b c Model SV2 Model SH2 inches mm inches mm 93¾ ¾ ¾ - 82½ ½ - 35½ ½ 89 3½ 89 19

20 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting (continued) Flat roof installation The collectors should be installed with an angle of inclination of 35 º to 45 º if the load capacity of the roof allows this. Maintain a minimum distance of 2m/6ft from the roof edge in all installations. Outsideofthisareayoumay experience significant increases in wind turbulance. The system will also be hard to access if modifications are required. If the roof size dictates a modification of the array distribution, ensure that arrays of the same size are created. A collector system must be secured by additional weights against slippage and lifting (see table on the following page). Slippage is the movement of the collectors on the roof surface due to wind, because of insufficient friction between the roof surface and the collector system. H Collectors secured against slippage require more ballast weight, but no additional attachment to the roof or substructure. H Collectors secured against lifting require less ballast weight, but additional attachment to the roof or building structure with wires, cables or other sufficient means. Min. 6 ft/ 2m Roof edge Collector array Min. 6 ft/ 2m Determining the collector row distance z When installing several collector rows in sequence, exact dimensions (dimension z ) must be maintained to prevent unwanted shade. Determine angle of the sun β. This should be chosen so that the midday sun on Dec. 12 can fall onto the collector without creating shade. In North America, this angle is dependent upon latitude and is between 13 º (Edmonton) and 41 º (Miami). Example Boston is located approx º latitude. Angle of the sun β= 90 º º -latitude (23.5 º should be accepted as the constant) 90 º º º =24 º l sin (180º - ( α+ β )) z = sin β z l l α = Collector row distance = Collector height (see page 13 and 14) z β l α β α = Collector angle of inclination = Angle of the sun Vitosol 200-F, type SV2 l = 2380mm α= 45 º β =24 º (Boston) 2385mm 0 sin (180º - 69 º ) z = sin 24º z = 5474mm Collector row distance z (all dimensions in mm) Collector type Vitosol 200-F Vitosol 300-T Type SV2 Angle of inclination α Type SH2 Angle of inclination α Angle of inclination α Angle of sun β 35º 45º 35º 45º 35º 45º 55º 15.0º º º º º º

21 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting (continued) Vitosol 200-F flat panel collector (continued) Please refer to Vitosol 200-F Installation instructions for additional information on collector mounting on IMPORTANT An evaluation by a professional structural engineer is required to calculate additional live loads due to the installation of solar collectors on a roof. Vitosol 200-F, type SV2 and SH2 Collector angle of inclination - 25 º or 45 º Ballast to be applied and maximum load on the substructures of flat roofs to DIN 1055 Collector angle of inclination 25º 45º Ballast against slippage* 1 Ballast against lifting* 1 Ballast against slippage Ballast against lifting Installation height above ground m up to 8 8 to to 100 up to 8 8 to to 100 up to 8 8 to to 100 up to 8 8 to to 100 Ballast to be applied Type SV2 kg Type SH2 kg * 1 See description on page 20. Collector supports The collector supports are pre-assembled. They consist of foot support A, bearing supports and adjustment pieces. The upper adjustment pieces contain holes for adjusting the angle of inclination. Connection cross ties are required for 1 to 6 collectors connected in a series. Type SV2 Foot support hole dimensions 80 Type SH2 Foot support hole dimensions A Foot support A

22 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting (continued) Vitosol 200-F Installation on substructures A A Connection cross ties X Y X Z* 1 * 1 For calculating dimension z, see page 20 Installation with ballast A A Connection cross ties X Y X Z* 1 * 1 For calculating dimension z, see page 20 Collector type x mm x in y mm y in SV / SH /

23 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting (continued) Vitosol 300-T sloped roof installation details 230mm / 9 340mm / mm / mm / 65 Deviations from south can be compensated by axial rotation of the vacuum tubes. Collector Roof bracket Roof joist Collector installation rail with tube mountings Roof sheathing complete with shingles Lag bolt 2m 2 version 1419mm/55 3 / 4 102mm / 4 3m 2 version 2126mm/83 3 / 4 23

24 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting (continued) Flat roof support weight requirements - Vitosol 300-T Collector angle of inclination of 25º Weight of supports Installation height above ground Weight of supports ft. m lbs per support A kg per support A Secured against slippage* 1 Secured against lifting* 1 up to to 66 up to to 66 up to 8 8to20 up to 8 8to20 2m 2 Version m 2 Version m 2 Version m 2 Version m 2 Version m 2 Version m 2 Version m 2 Version lbs per support B kg per support B * 1 See description on page 20. Support A Support B B A Model 2m 2 Version 3m 2 Version Dimension X Dimension Y inches mm inches mm 76¼ ¾ 1440 Surface area (X x Y) ft. 2 m Weight of collector lbs kg ¼ ½ ½

25 Specification Collector Installation and Mounting (continued) Flat roof support weight requirements - Vitosol 300-T (continued) Collector angle of inclination of 45º Weight of supports Installation height above ground Weight of supports ft. m lbs per support A kg per support A lbs per support B kg per support B Secured against slippage up to 26 up to 8 2m 2 Version H m 2 Version to 66 8to20 2m 2 Version m 2 Version Secured against lifting up to 26 up to 8 2m 2 Version m 2 Version to 66 8to20 2m 2 Version m 2 Version Support A Support B B A Model 2m 2 Version 3m 2 Version Dimension X Dimension Y inches mm inches mm 60¼ ¾ 1440 Surface area (X x Y) ft. 2 m Weight of collectors lbs kg ¼ ½

26 Specification General Installation Instructions H Vitosol solar collectors are hailproof. Nevertheless we recommend to include bad weather and hail damage coverage into your home owners insurance package. Our warranty does not cover such damages. H Please observe local building code guidelines for maximum load restrictions on the substructure and for necessary distance to roof edge. H Make sure to remove snow off collectors if more than 20 / 50 cm have accumulated. H Mount collectors carefully, so that even during storm and bad weather mounting clamps can absorb any tension. H An access door or skylight should be provided in the roof in the vicinity of the collectors to facilitate inspection and maintenance work. H When there is a relatively large distance between the collector panel and the roof ridge, a snow board must be installed above the collector panel in regions where heavy snowfalls can be expected. H Filling the solar heating systems with Viessmann Tyfocor-HTL heat transfer medium is highly recommended. Other heat transfer fluids may be suitable if they have the same temperature range (-35ºC / -31ºF to 170ºC / 338ºF) and are non-toxic. H Use high temperature insulation materials. In pump idle mode and with strong solar irradiation, collectors could reach an idle temperature of over 200 º C / 392ºF. Protect pipe insulation and sensor cables against attack by birds and animals. H Grounding and lightning protection of the solar heating system An electrically conductive connection ofthepipeworksystemofthesolar circuit should be implemented in the lower part of the building in accordance with local regulations. Connection of the collector system to a new or existing lightning protection system or the provision of local grounding should only be carried out by a licensed professional, taking local conditions into account. 26

27 Notes on Planning and Operation Calculating the Required Absorber Surface Area Calculating the absorber surface area and DHW tank capacity Absorber surface area Estimates based on meteorological conditions such as annual global radiation, cloud cover etc. are sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. In order to obtain a comprehensive summary of the solar coverage for domestic hot water heating, it is recommended that this estimate should form the basis of a calculation carried out using a solar computer simulation. Viessmann can provide design support and computer simulations upon request. Contact your local Viessmann sales representative. The cover rate determined by this program should be 50 to 60 % for relatively small systems (detached house), and at least 40 % for larger systems (apartment block). Guide values for estimating the required absorber surface area can be drawn from the table on page 30. The absorber surface area calculated on the basis of this table has proved to be accurate in practice. The basis for designing a solar DHW heating system is the DHW daily demand. It can be estimated based on the following table: Residential properties *1 High demands Average demands Low demands DHW Demand V p litres/(d person) For DHW temps temps. 45ºC 60ºC DHW tank capacity (solar storage) The following values can be used as a basis for calculating the cylinder storage capacity: The total available solar DHW tank capacity (dual-coil tank or preheating tank) should be sized on the basis of 1.5 to 2 times the daily requirements. For fluctuating DHW demand use larger storage (daily demand x2). For relatively constant demand use value 1.5. The minimum solar storage tank volume should be based on 50 liter/m 2 / 1.25gal/ft 2 collector absorber area. Typical Solar Storage and Collector Selection # People in household Daily DHW 50ºC/120ºF 120L 32 gal L gal L gal. Solar Tank Capacity 200L 53 gal. 300L 79 gal. 450L 120 gal. Vitosol 200-F Flat Plate Collectors SH2/SV2 Vitosol 300-T Tube Collectors 2 1 1x2m x3m x2m 2+ 1x3m 2 27

28 Notes on Planning and Operation Calculating the Required Absorber Surface Area System for space heating backup - DHW cylinder and collector Energy requirement or gain (%) A E B D C Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. A Space heating requirement for one house (typical construction) B Space heating requirement for one low energy house C Hot water requirement D Solar energy yield at 5 m 2 absorber surface (2 flat collectors) E Solar energy yield at 15 m 2 absorber surface (6 flat collectors) The period when the greatest amount of solar energy is available does not coincide with the time when the most heat is required. While the heat consumption for DHW heating is relatively constant throughout the year, only very little solar energy is available at the times when the heat demand for central heating is at its highest (see diagram). A relatively large absorber area is required to provide central heating backup. In summer, this can result in stagnation in the solar circuit. Systems for heating backup require additional storage tanks and controls. The basis for sizing a solar heating system for central heating backup is the space heating demand of the building during spring, autumn and in winter, as well as the heating demand in summer (i.e. the demand for DHW heating). Heat demand in summer, e.g to avoid condensation in cellars, to use underfloor heating in bathrooms, increases the demand. For efficient operation of a solar central heating backup, the collector area should be 2 to 2.5 times larger than the DHW heat demand in summer requires. To avoid excessive summer time temperature stagnation avoid using collector areas greater than 3 times whatwouldbeusedfordhw requirements only. Concentrating exclusively on the central heating demand can lead to problematic oversizing of the system. For low energy houses (heat demand less than 50 kwh/(m 2 p.a.), solar coverage of 20 to 25% refers to the total energy demand, incl. provision for DHW heating. For buildings with a higher energy demand the coverage drops lower. Use the Viessmann ESOP calculation program when making sizing calculations. Max. connectable collector area when using Vitocell tanks must follow the chart on page

29 Notes on Planning and Operation Calculating the Required Absorber Surface Area (continued) Swimming pool water heating system - heat exchanger and collector Open-air swimming pools Open-air swimming pools are mainly used between May and September [in northern USA]. The energy demand required depends mainly on the leakage rate, evaporation, loss (water must be replenished cold) and the transmission heat loss. Through using a cover, the evaporation and consequently the energy demand of the pool is reduced to a minimum. The largest energy input comes direct from the sun, which shines onto the pool surface. Therefore the pool has a natural base temperature which can be shown in the adjacent diagram as an average pool temperature over the operating time. A solar heating system in no way alters this typical temperature pattern. The solar application leads to a definite increase in the base temperature. Subject to the ratio between the pool surface and the collector area, a different temperature can be reached. The adjacent diagram shows with which ratio of aperture or absorber area to the pool surface what average temperature increase can be reached. This ratio is independent of the collector type used due to the comparably low collector temperatures and the operating period (summer). For this reason, unglazed collectors are most often used for outdoor pools. Indoor swimming pools Note Revising and maintaining the pool temperature at a higher base level using a conventional heating system does not alter this ratio. However, the pool will be heated up much more quickly Jan Feb MarApr May Jun JulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average pool temperature in 0C25 Average temperature increases in degrees C/day Ratio-absorber area to the pool surface (open-air swimmimg pool) Location Boston 40m 2 Upper surface 1.5m deep protected position covered at night Indoor swimming pools generally have a higher target temperature than open-air pools and are used throughout the year. If, over the course of the year, a constant pool temperature is required, indoor swimming pools must be heated in dual-mode. To avoid sizing errors, the energy demand of the pool must be measured. For this, suspend heating the water for 48 hours and determine the temperature at the beginning and end of the test period. The daily energy demand can therefore be calculated from the temperature difference and the capacity of the pool. For new builds, the heat demand of the swimming pool must be calculated. On a summer day (clear skies), a collector system used to heat a swimming pool in northern USA produces energy of approx. 4.5kWh/m2 absorber area. Calculation example for Vitosol 200-F Pool surface: 36 m 2 Average pool depth: 1.5m Pool capacity: 54m 3 Temperature loss on 2 days: 2ºC Daily energy demand: 54m 3 1K 1.16 kwh Km 3 = 62.6kWh 62.6 kwh Collector area: =13.9m kwh/m 2 This corresponds to 6 collectors. For a first approximation (cost estimate), an average temperature loss of 1C/day can be used. With an average pool depth of 1.5m an energy demand of 1.74kWh/day is required to maintain the base temperature. It is therefore sensible to use approx. 0.4m 2 absorber area per m 2 of pool surface. 29

30 Notes on Planning and Operation Calculating the Required Absorber Surface Area (continued) Guide values for sizing solar heating systems (continued) H Absorber surface area (data based on meteorological records for a site at 49 latitude) Application DHW heating Detached & semi-detached houses Multi-occupancy dwellings Required absorber surface area A 60 % 40 up to 50 % for coverage of Vitosol 200-F Vitosol 300-T Vitosol 200-F Vitosol 300-T ft. 2 /person m 2 /person ft. 2 /person m 2 /person Information regarding the DHW cylinder When sizing the solar heating system, observe the max. aperture area which may be connected to the different DHW cylinders. At a design output of 600W/m 2 and a temperature difference between DHW temperature (at the height of the solar heat exchanger, lower indirect coil) and solar circuit return (lower than 10 º C), the max. number of collectors mentioned in the table (values apply to all Viessmann collectors) should not be exceeded. If a higher system temperature range is acceptable, then the number of collectors can be no more than doubled. DHW Tank Capacity Max. connectable number of collectors Vitocell-B 100/300 Vitocell-B 100/300 Vitocell-V 100/300 Vitosol 200-F Vitosol 300-T 2m 2 Vitosol 300-T 3m L/79 gal L/120 gal L/53 gal. 300 L/79 gal. 450 L/120 gal

31 Notes on Planning and Operation Sizing Pipe Diameters and Circulation Pump Solar heating system operating modes Volume flow in the collector array Generally, very low flow rates are required for Vitosol collectors. This results in small pipe and pump requirements. There are different operating modes, which depend on the total area of collectors installed, and piping requirements. At the same irradiation level, and consequently the same collector output, a higher flow rate means a lower temperature spread in the collector circuit; a lower flow rate means a higher temperature spread. With a high temperature spread, the average collector temperature increases, i.e the operating efficiency of the collector drops accordingly. Therefore, with lower flow rates the use of electrical energy (pump size) reduces and a smaller size connection pipe is possible. To safeguard a safe flow rate and a turbulent flow, Vitosol flat-plate collectors require a flow rate of at least 15 liters/(h. m 2 ). Vitosol tube collectors require at least 25 liters/(h. m 2 ). Generally, when setting the collector volume flow, the necessary volume flow of the connected heat exchanger should also be taken into account. 1. High-flow mode For solar heating systems up to 270º ft. 2 /25m 2 absorber surface area, we recommend the high flow operation. This reduces the temperature spread between supply and return. The higher flow rate requires a slightly larger pipework size, and larger pump sizes. In the high-flow operating mode, the pipes can be sized on the basis of a flowrate of H Vitosol 200-F: approx. 40 liters/h per m 2 absorber surface area (approx gpm/m 2 absorber surface area). H Vitosol 300-T: 60 liters/h per m 2 absorber surface area (0.27 gpm/m 2 absorber surface area). 2. Low-flow mode For large solar installations (larger than 270 ft. 2 /25m 2 absorber surface area), low flow mode operation can be used.. Advantages of the low-flow mode: H A high temperature level is reached quickly in the collector circuit. H The low flow rate in the collector circuit means that much smaller pipe sizes are required. H A smaller pump capacity is required resulting in lower electrical consumption. In the low-flow operating mode, the pipes can be sized on the basis of a flowrate of H Vitosol 200-F: approx. 15 liters/h per m 2 absorber surface area (approx gpm/m 2 absorber surface area). H Vitosol 300-T: approx. 25 litrers/h per m 2 absorbed surface area (approx. 0.11gpm/m 2 absorber surface area). With both collector models, a uniform flow rate through all collectors is guaranteed if the Viessmann piping layout drawings are followed. To reduce the amount of installation work required for the piping, it is advisable to connect two rows of collectors with all piping connections on one side of the array. Pipe installation information To minimise the pressure drop through the piping of the solar heating systems, the flow velocity in the copper pipe should not exceed 3.5ft/s. We recommend flow velocities between 1.3 and 2.3ft/s. At these flow velocities, pressure drops of between 1 and 2.5 mbar/m pipe length occur. For the installation of the collectors, we recommend the use of commercial copper pipe and red bronze fittings or stainless steel pipe. The cross-sections should be sized as for a conventional heatingsystemonthebasisofflow rate and velocity (see the tables below). IMPORTANT Do not use galvanized pipes, galvanized fittings or graphitised gaskets. Hemp should be used only in conjunction with pressure and temperature-resistant sealant. IMPORTANT The components used must be resistant to the heat transfer medium (for composition, see the datasheet for the specific collector). IMPORTANT The thermal insulation of external piping must be resistant to temperature, UV radiation and to attack by birds or animals. Insulate internal hot pipework according to current practice (fire protection, touch protection), e.g. using high-temperature resistant insulation, as offered by Armacell. 31

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