Talent Detection Programs in Sport: The Questionable Use of Psychological Measures

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Talent Detection Programs in Sport: The Questionable Use of Psychological Measures"

Transcription

1 Talent Detection Programs in Sport: The Questionable Use of Psychological Measures MarkRAnshel Middle Tennessee State University Ronnie Lidor University of Haifa Recent empirical studies have questioned the use of tests assessing physical ability and skill level in talent detection (TD), also called talent identification (TID), and in early phases of sport development, particularly in terms ofpredicting future ability/success of young prospects. The main purpose of this article is to question the efficacy of predicting future talent in sport using psychological measures. It is contended that predicting future high quality performance in sport is based on psychological measures that have low validity, are based on flawed research procedures, lack consistency in defining elite versus non-elite athletes, have inherent bias in the athlete selection process, and contain inaccuracies in measuring sport personality, among other concerns. From a philosophical perspective, issues are addressed that reflect TD as an unethical procedure. Concerns about TD/TID programs include philosophical issues that question the integrity and appropriateness of talent prediction programs are also discussed. Plausible options for replacing TD/TID programs with other approaches (e.g., talent development, performance profiling) are provided Recommendations include improved athlete selection for further skill development, availability of high quality coaching to athletes of all skill levels (particularly in youth sports), and more efficient use of limited financial resources for non-elite community sports programs. Address correspondence to: Mark H. Anshel, Ph.D., Middle Tennessee State University Department of Health and Human Performance, Box 96, Murfreeshoro, Tennessee Fax:

2 240/Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 3 The pressure exerted by sports organizations, sponsors, and, in some countries, by governmental bodies (e.g.. Sport Authorities, Olympic Training Centers) on young athletes to be successful sports competitors is greater than ever. Perhaps not surprisingly, there is also considerable pressure to predict future high quality sport performance in competitive settings by using various physiological, anthropometrical, and psychological tests on young athletes (see Abbott & Collins, 2002,2004; Martindale, Collins, & Daubney, 2005; Tranckle & Cushion, 2006). Vaeyens, Gullich, Warr, and Philippaerts (2009) contend that programs whose aim is to predict future sport success, called talent detection (TD) or talent identification (TID) programs, "are designed to identify young athletes who possess extraordinary potential for success in senior elite sport, and to select and recruit them into talent promotion programs" (p. 1367). The purpose of these programs is, ostensibly, to "increase athletes' potential by means of a variety of institutional measures designed to accelerate talent development" (p. 1367). Another purpose is to provide tests - motor, physiological, anthropological, biomechanical, and psychological - during an athlete's "early" years in order to predict long-term success in competitive sport. The intention of these programs is to allocate scarce resources toward individual athletes whose test scores show "promising" talent, at least in the long-term. Are these objectives met? Are the tests valid? Is this a good idea, at least from a philosophical perspective? The main purposes of this article are: ( 1 ) to critique, both empirically and philosophically, the value of predicting future talent in sport using psychological measures, and (2) to offer suggested directions for enhancing the processes of TD/TID, and talent development (TDV). The existing evidence suggests that the use of psychological inventories to predict future success and achievement in elite-level competitive sport lacks validity and proper ethics. The review will include the following: (1) defining important concepts, such as talent detection, also called talent identification, (2) providing empirical arguments in favor of TD programs, (3) making a case against the use of psychological measures in TD programs, (4) examining the philosophical arguments against the use of psychological measures in TD programs, and finally, (5) providing recommendations and guidelines for initiating talent development programs in sport. Defining Terms and Concepts Brown (2001) and St-Aubin and Sidney (1996) have defined TD as the methodological process of predicting sport performance over various periods of time by obtaining information on the prospects' physical, physiological, and technical abilities, either alone or in combination, with measures of psychological aptitudes. TD has also been described as a process by which children are encouraged to participate in the sports in which they are most likely to

3 TALENT DETECTION IN SPORT.../241 succeed, based on the results of testing selected parameters (Bompa, 1999). Woodman (1985) defined TD programs (in Australia) as "the screening of young athletes to determine those most likely to succeed in sport and directing them towards the sports to which they are most suited" (p. 49). To Hahn and Tumilty (1989), TD programs consist of the selection of individuals who have shown to have the characteristics important for success at the highest levels of a particular sport. Durand-Bush and Salmela (2001) contend that TD programs reflect the attempt to match various performer characteristics - innate, learned, or due to training - with task demands of a given sport, to ensure the highest probability of maximum performance outcome. Williams and Reilly (2000) define TD as the discovery of potential performers who are currently not involved in any sport program. Finally, Lidor, Côté, and Hackfort (2009) use the term talent identification as "the process of recognizing individuals currently involved in sport with the potential to become elite athletes/players" (p. 134). All of these definitions consider TD as any conscious effort that recognizes individuals who have the potential to become elite athletes. Two concepts that have been used interchangeably, but erroneously, with TD are talent selection (TS) and talent development (TDV). TS consists of the ongoing process of identifying athletes/players at various stages of the training program. To Lidor et al. (2009), TS programs refer to specific tasks or tests that target an athlete's capability to demonstrate competence in a particular sport or position within that sport. TDV, on the other hand, "implies that the athletes/players are being provided with the appropriate learning/practice conditions to promote and realize their potential in a specific sport" (Lidor et al, p. 134). TS does not include attempts to predict future success based on identifying the athlete's psychological characteristics. Ostensible Advantages of TD/TID Programs TID programs are often of great importance to select sporting bodies of governments that seek national and international status in competitive sport and apply scarce financial resources toward developing potential champion athletes, so that they may achieve national and international recognition (Vaeyens et al., 2009). Effective use of these financial resources are compromised, however, if these efforts fail to accurately predict future success in competitive sport, particularly among younger competitors (Lidor et al., 2009). Ideally, therefore, the early detection of talent provides the opportunity to obtain the best "retum," or "investment," in giving potential elite level competitors the required resources in coaching expertise, equipment, facilities, practice time, and opportunities to reach their full sport potential. TID programs have been attempted with respect to the testing of sport skills, as well as of physiological and anthropological parameters.

4 242/Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 3 Proponents of TD programs claim that showing that sport skill tests are, in fact, efficacious in predicting future sport skill performance adds credence to the examination of the psychological dimension (Vaeyens et al., 2009). In fact, the results of selected studies have indicated that measures of motor ability and motor skill proficiency predict future sport performance to a relatively high degree, at least at the elite level (e.g., Falk, Lidor, Lander, & Lang, 2004; Kerr, Booth, Dainty, & Gaborault, 1980). Tennis Canada's First Serve TD program includes measurements of skin-fold, bone diameter, body girth, and reaction times that, ostensibly, accurately predict an athlete's future sport skill level and the athlete's compatibility with the demands of a particular sport (Leone, 1993). The program does not, however, include psychological measures. Another apparent advantage of TD programs is that they maximize the number of gifted individuals participating in a given sport, resulting in stronger domestic competition and likely increasing the number of internationally competitive athletes (Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2001 ; Hahn, 1990). This is because TD programs ostensibly promote competitiveness and direct athletes toward sports in which they are more likely to succeed, increasing the number of athletes aiming for elite levels of sport (Abbott & Collins, 2002,2004; Bompa, 1999). Meeting psychological needs reduces sport attrition, that is, the likelihood of dropping out of a sport at which the athlete is expected to succeed (Petlichkoff, 1993, 1996). As Petlichkoff noted, attempts to determine the sport that best represents a young athlete's skills might provide a more efficient way than traditional trial-and-error approaches. Along these lines, Bompa (1999), Hahn (1990), and Haskell (1983) contend that TD programs profile the athletes' strengths and weaknesses, and provide them with relevant feedback so that they can effectively monitor their progress throughout the entire training program. For example, Pethchkoff ( 1993,1996) contends that children who driftfi-om sport to sport in an attempt to fmd a satisfying and rewarding experience waste an enormous amount of time and resources. As a result, many children with high quality sport talent do not find their niche in sport, consuming considerable time in their search for a sport that is compatible with their skills and goals (Feldman, 1986). TD programs, therefore, can maximize the number of children who have positive sport experiences and a greater likelihood of success, thereby reducing the rate of sport dropout (St-Aubin & Sidney, 1996). The productivity of elite coaches is also enhanced by ensuring that their time, energy, and resources are directed toward the development of younger athletes who have the potential to succeed in elite sport (Bloom, 2002; MacNamara, Button, & Collins, 2010). One additional factor in favor of TD programs is the limited statistical evidence from numerous studies, reviewed by Deaner and Silva (2002), in which discriminant function analysis has detected unique psychological characteristics that predict long-term sport success

5 TALENT DETECTION IN SPORT... /243 among young athletes. For example, athletes are categorized as "elite" and "non-elite" on measures of self-confidence (Andersen, 1976;Vealey, 1985,2002), ambition (Mahoney, 1989), self-motivation (Mahoney, 1989), emotional stability (Missoum & Laforestrie, 1981), and enthusiasm (Missoum & Laforestrie, 1981). When these advantages are considered together, an effective TD program will not only identify (younger) athletes who already possess desirable psychological characteristics that are commensurate with successful sport performance, but will also create a template against which other athletes (and their coaches and parents) can aspire and leam over time (Renger, 1993). Table 1 lists selected studies that discriminate between successful and less-successful athletes. The Case Against the Use of Psychological Measures in TD Programs The case against the use of psychological measures in TD sports programs rests primarily on three factors, failure to take into consideration the performers' physical maturation, the coach's role in the athlete's skill development, and flaws in the scientific process. The Performers ' Physical Maturation TD programs may assist coaches, athletes, and the athletes' parents in identifying the type of sport that is most compatible based on the performer's physical attributes. These programs, however, may not accurately predict future skill development and sport performance. Predicting future successful sport performance using physiological and anthropological measures has received uneven support in the exercise science literature (Lidor et al., 2009). For example, based on their review of 13 studies that were aimed at distinguishing between highly-talented and less-talented athletes, Lidor et al. concluded that "no clear-cut evidence has been found to support the predictive value of physical tests in talent detection and early development in sport" (p. 140). They cite numerous studies indicating "no correlation of physical tests with final selection and ranking of athletes" (p. 140). Along these lines. Till, Cobley, O'Hara, Chapman, and Cooke (2010) found low relationships between anthropométrie, physiological, and selected characteristics in high performance junior rugby league players in the United Kingdom. The authors concluded that these results raise concems about the ability of motor skill testing to identify characteristics of immediate and long-term player selection and development. Similar concems have surfaced conceming the use of psychological testing for prediction purposes.

6 244/Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 3 Table 1. Psychological characteristics discriminating between successful and less successfid athletes Constructs Study N Sex Age Sport Instruments Used discriminating skill level Andersen (1976) 152 Male Swimming Cattell 16 PF Social skills Self-confidence Hahn (1990) Review of Literature Stubbomness Self-confidence Goal-orientation Self-motivation Anxiety* Haskell (1983) Review of Literature Self-confidence Goal-orientation. Self-control Enthusiasm Self-motivation Ho (1987) Review of Literature Stubbomness Ambition Self-control Intelligence Hogg (1986) * denotes a decrease in the designated trait Review of Literature Stubbomness Self-confidence Goal-orientation Emotional stability Ambition Social skills Self-motivation

7 TALENT DETECTION IN SPORT... /245 Table 1 Continued. Psychological characteristics discriminating between successful and less successfid athletes Constructs Study N Sex Age Sport Instruments Used discriminating skiu level Jerome 273 Female Synchronized (1993) Swimming Cattell HSPQ 16 PF SCAT Rotto-I-E Buss-Durkee Hostility Self-Analysis Test Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) Happy-go-lucky Anxiety* Exta-nalLOC Kalinowski 24 Male & Swimming (1985) Female Komadel (1988) Mahoney (1989") Mahoney, Gabriel, & PeiHfin«(1987) Male Male& Female Weightlifting Various Intaviews Review of Literature SCL-90R Mood (POMS) Psychological Skills in Sport (PSIS-P5) Ambition Self-motivation Emotional stability Intelligence Self-motivation Anxiety* Neuroticism* Self-motivation Neuroticism* Anxiety* Missoum & Laforestrie (1981) 220 Male Various Eysenck Personality Inventory Emotional stability Ambition Enthusiasm * denotes a decrease in the designated trait

8 246 / Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 3 Along these lines, researchers and practitioners have examined the relationship between TD and TDV in sport. For example, Gulbin, Oldenziel, Weissensteiner, and Gagne (2010) reviewed "key developmental experiences and insights" of 673 high performance Australian athletes (p. 149). They determined that elite athletes possess several selected characteristics that are not found in their non-elite counterparts. All of the identified characteristics, however, were behavioral (e.g., commitment to practice, access to high quality coaching) and not psychological in nature. In addition, no personalify traits were listed. In their review of related literature, Lidor et al. (2009) concluded that assessing physical ability and skill level in order to determine future talent of athletes offers no clear support of the predictive value of these tests, either for individual or for team sports. Thus, while TD programs may help a young athlete decide to which sport he or she is best suited, the capability of these programs to predict future sport success may not be as promising. Coach Expertise and Influence The athlete's coach is almost always the most important external source that influences the development of physical and mental skills (Bloom, 2002). Two issues must be addressed with respect to the coach's role in the use of psychological measures in detecting and predicting an athlete's talent. First, reliance on the use of psychological inventories in TID programs imdermines the coach's role in developing the athlete's talent. Predicting future performance fi-om inventories does not take into account a coach's expertise. Coaches are primarily responsible for each athlete's development and maturation, particularly at the elite level (Salmela & Régnier, 1985). The coach's expertise is far more likely to influence an athlete's performance potential than psychological testing, especially over the long-term (Bloom). The second point related to coaches is that athletes who are designated as having "high," or "good," potential to achieve in sport are likely to receive far superior coaching than their less-skilled peers. This phenomenon, called an "expectancy effect," consists of a person in a subordinate position (e.g., child, student, athlete, experimental participant) responding to an authority figure (e.g., parent, teacher, parent, coach, experimenter) in a manner that is consistent with the authority figure's expectations (Thomas, Nelson, & Silverman, 2011 ). Three fypes of expectancy effects include halo effect, Rosenthal effect, and Hawthorne effect (see Thomas et al., for descriptions). In the current context, this phenomenon might refer to as a coaching bias built into TID programs. Two studies lend credence to this view. Christensen (2009) conducted in-depth interviews with eight elite soccer coaches, who identified the characteristics of highly-skilled soccer players. Christensen found that coaches predicted future success among highly-rated players who "were assumed to be willing to leam" and were "perceived to be hard working and dedicated" by their coaches (p. 379). These

9 TALENT DETECTION IN SPORT.../247 qualities are derived from good coaching rather than being generated from an inventory that ostensibly predicts the level of future sport performance. In another study, Davids and Baker (2007) found that highly-skilled coaches are more likely to be associated with elite athletes due to their excellent teaching and leadership skills. Specifically, better coaches (of elite athletes) offer superior structure and content of practice, maximize training time, and engage in meticulous planning. Thus, the degree of coach expertise is a mediating, but rarely controlled, variable in the attempt to validate the efficacy of TD/TID programs (Reilly, Williams Nevill & Franks, 2000). Flaws in the Scientific Process Flaws in the scientific process, which represent particularly powerful issues in questioning the role of psychological factors in talent TD, include these 12 components: (1) vague definitions of selected constructs, (2) inconsistency in defining an "elite" athlete, (3) invalid inventories/poor predictive validity, (4) poor research methodology and statistical procedures, (5) sample bias, (6) failure to use baseline measures, (7) extensive use of cross-sectional comparisons, (8) paucity of skill level comparisons, (9) poor inventory construction, (10) lhnitations in personality research, (11) inherent problems with self-report, and (12) overreliance on anecdotal evidence. Vague Definitions of Selected Constructs The terms "mental toughness," "competitiveness," and "psychological readiness" are often used when attempting to determine an athlete's potential for future success. Ahnost unknown, however, are their operational defmitions, and the extent to which these characteristics identify or predict sport skill level (Singer & Janelle, 1999). In addition, interpreting and applying such arguments would challenge most sport psychology consultants and coaches. It is not known, for example, whether these measures are stable (i.e., trait) or situational (i.e., state) constructs, or whether they refiect relatively stable, cross-situational dispositions (i.e., traits) and thus are open to change through intervention and experience (i.e., state constructs), as proposed by Anshel (2012). Similar limitations are inherent in examining specific psychological characteristics in TD research (Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2001). Inconsistency in Defining an "Elite" Athlete Examining psychological characteristics of athletes in predicting future success has usually consisted of comparing "elite" and "non-elite" athletes. Operationally defining an "elite" sports competitor, however, has been markedly inconsistent in the literature (Anshel, 2012). Often, researchers have used statistical procedures to discriminate skill level as a fimc-

10 248/Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 3 tion of his or her current success or achievement (Matsudo, 1996). Traditionally, elite athletes have been defined as individuals "who are eligible for competition at the national, intemational, or Olympic level, or who are professional sports persons" (Van den Auweele, Cuyper, Van Mele, & Rzewnicki, 1993, p. 257). An additional definition of the elite athlete includes individuals who are eligible for such competition, but may not actually compete (e.g., Spamer & Coetzee, 2002), while another definition refers to athletes who are currently involved in sport competition at a particular level (Falk et al., 2004). An additional concem is that the term "elite" is often culturally specific (Gan, Anshel, & Kim, 2009). For example, an elite athlete may be defined as a sports competitor at the national level in some studies, while in other studies the term "elite" is used for college students who played on their high school sports teams. It is unlikely, therefore, that elite athletes, as identified in various studies from different cultures will display the same characteristics in, for example, Africa (Spamer & Coetzee, 2002), Asia (Gan et al., 2009), Europe (Williams & Reilly, 2000), and North America (Brown, 2001). This inconsistency compromises the primary objective of TD programs - to predict the future quality of sport performance. Invalid Inventories: Poor Predictive Validity Perhaps one of the most compelling cases against the use of psychological measures in TD programs is poor predictive validity. Predictive validity reflects "the degree to which a measuring instrument or test yields information allowing prediction of actual behavior or performance" (Myers & Hansen, 2012, p. 592). A plethora of published studies comparing elite and non-elite or high and low-skilled sports competitors on selected psychological variables did not have promising results. For example, Prescott (1996) attempted to identify motivation, goal orientation, attribution, and locus of control as predictors of talent among British gymnasts aged 7-10 yrs, and found a very low prediction rate. In their extensive review, Deaner and Silva (2002) concluded that "while some of these studies do show personality differences based on sport type and gender...many of these studies are old and focus only on a few select sports or a few select characteristics" (p. 61). Poor Research Methodology and Statistical Procedures Researchers and theorists have noted inherent limitations of many studies concemed with identifying current psychological characteristics of athletes, comparing athletes categorized as elite and non-elite or making cross cultural comparisons (Gauvin & Russell, 1993), and predicting athletes' future achievement level in sport. Some of these issues have concemed the use of inventories that were not intended for the current sample (Morgan, 1997), and improper psychometric validation and statistical procedures that render the instrument invalid

11 TALENT DETECTION IN SPORT.../249 (Schutz & Gessaroli, 1993). In his review of related literature concerning methodological research problems, Morgan lists "the absence of randomization, small sample size, inadequate psychological measures, and experimenter expectancy effects, among other flaws" (p. 4). Also problematic in this area is that researchers have labeled constructs interchangeably, such as juxtaposing the athltts's personality traits with his or her orientations, styles, dispositions, and behavioral tendencies (Anshel, 2012). Each of these constructs differ; some are more amenable to change through counseling and treatment (e.g., orientations of mental toughness or competitiveness; behavioral tendencies such as pre-performance routines) than others (e.g., trait anxiefy, neuroticism, trait anger, stimulus-seeking). Failure to control for moderator variables such as gender and culture provides an additional concern. Gauvin and Russell contend, for instance, that "it is widely acknowledged that such cultural factors can potentially produce major distortions and inaccuracies in test interpretation" (p. 892). Based on their thorough review of related literature, Gauvin and Russell concluded that "the selection of sport/exercise-specific tests and scales.,.requires a careful conceptual analysis of the constructs under investigation, an examination of the measurement assumptions of the theoretical framework employed, and in some cases, a consideration of the amount of variance explained in the target variables" (p. 899). Clearly, future study is needed toward the continued development and validation of psychological measures that attempt to predict and identify the potential for future talent in sport. Taken together, a common threat to internal and external validity is the use of a selfreport instrument that was neither constructed nor validated for the intended sample (Thomas et al., 2011). For instance, sample characteristics, or the psychological demands of specific sports in which "desirable" traits are being identified, are not taken into account when developing inventory items (Andersen, 1976; Gauvin & Russell, 2003; Hahn, 1990). Consequently, one inherent limitation in the existing literature is the lack of consistency in determining for whom the inventory was intended and to whom it may be applied (e.g., a universify athlete, a highly talented competitor at the community level, a national or an international level competitor, or an Olympic or professional performer). The use of improper statistical analyses in TD research has been ubiquitous (see Renger, 1993; Schutz, 1998; Schutz & Gessaroli, 1993; and Vealey, 1985, for reviews). While an exhaustive review of these limitations goes beyond the scope of this paper, specific examples abound. For example, one statistical approach by researchers has been to attempt to statistically separate elite from non-elite athletes using multiple regression models and discriminant analyses. However, the use of a regression equation on a different population from the one for which it was developed is inappropriate (Nesselroade & Baltes, 1979). While it is important to test for predictive validity by cross-validating results (Renger, 1993), most studies have not included

12 250/Journal of Sport Behavior. Vol. 35, No. 3 attempts at cross-validation. Another statistical limitation in TD assessment is the frequent use of univariate, not multivariate, statistics resulting in low predictive power, the virtual absence of statistical interactions, and the failure to consider the complex network of factors underlying sport performance (Schutz, 1998). One misuse of multivariate statistics is the violation of acceptable caseto-predictor ratios, resulting in a loss of statistical power. An acceptable ratio is 5:1, and preferably 6:1 (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). Instead, Salmela and Régnier (1985) propose using discriminant function analyses (DFA) to determine if the selected variables discriminate among the members of each group, and specifically, to find variables that are appropriate for testing the targeted population. DFA may identify athletes who are highly skilled, however, it does not predict future performance (Régnier, Salmela, & Russell, 1993 ; Schutz & Gessaroli, 1993). Regression analyses more accurately predict outcomes within a targeted population. Yet another limitation of TD research is the incorrect interpretation of correlational data as cause and effect (Schutz & Gessaroli, 1993). Studies of the TD literature report a lack of proper research methods and statistical procedures (see Anshel, 2012; Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2001; Lidor et al., 2009; Schutz & Gessaroli, 1993; St-Aubin & Sidney, 1996; Van den Auweele et al., 1993;Vealey, 1985,2002). According to these authors, the primary issues that have compromised the integrity of attempts to predict high quality sport performance (i.e., TID) among child or adolescent age groups include sample bias, failure to use baseline measures, improper statistical procedures, extensive use of cross-sectional comparisons, a paucity of skill level comparisons, failure to control for coach expertise, poor inventory construction, inherent limitations of self-report, and over-reliance on anecdotal evidence. Sample Bias Selection bias for research purposes occurs in cases where the participants in studies are recruited based on their availability, their personal motivation to engage in the study, investigator coercion (i.e., participation not fully voluntary), or the athletes' current skill level and pre-existing personal characteristics (Thomas et al, 2011). Selection bias may result in statistical regression or spontaneous remission, which may innate positive results. Collectively, these biases may contribute to an expectancy effect (Martinek, & Karper, 1984), also called a self-fulfilling prophecy (Hom, Lox, & Labrador, 1998). This is because these athletes are usually labeled "elite" or "highly skilled," thereby influencing the coaches' (or researchers') attitudes, expectations, and behaviors toward these pre-labeled players. Ostensibly, then, athletes with "superior" scores on selected psychological characteristics may excel because of the high expectations of their coaches or researchers. Coaches with high expectations of

What is Sport Psychology?

What is Sport Psychology? What is Sport Psychology? The application of psychological theory and methods to the study of behavior resulting from or directly related to involvement in sport and physical activity. Examining the psychological

More information

Sport Development. To Test or not to Test?

Sport Development. To Test or not to Test? IJSEP, 2009, 9, 131-146 2009 ISSP To Test or not to Test? ISSP Position Stand: To Test or Not to Test? The Use of Physical Skill Tests in Talent Detection and in Early Phases of Sport Development Ronnie

More information

Performance strategies of greek track and field athletes:

Performance strategies of greek track and field athletes: Performance strategies of greek track and field athletes: Gender and level differences D.O.I: http:doi.org/10.4127/jbe.2009.0023 CHRISTOS KATSIKAS, POLYXENI ARGEITAKI, ATHANASSIA SMIRNIOTOU Kapodistrian

More information

Master of Arts, Counseling Psychology Course Descriptions

Master of Arts, Counseling Psychology Course Descriptions Master of Arts, Counseling Psychology Course Descriptions Advanced Theories of Counseling & Intervention (3 credits) This course addresses the theoretical approaches used in counseling, therapy and intervention.

More information

CHAPTER - V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER - V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS CHAPTER - V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 169 Chapter V Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations Summary Sports and games are gaining importance in human life day by day. All other factors biological

More information

ASSESSMENT: Coaching Efficacy As Indicators Of Coach Education Program Needs

ASSESSMENT: Coaching Efficacy As Indicators Of Coach Education Program Needs March, 2003 Volume 5, Issue 1 ASSESSMENT: Coaching Efficacy As Indicators Of Coach Education Program Needs Lena Fung, Ph.D. Department of Physical Education Hong Kong Baptist University Hong Kong, SAR

More information

Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Psychology

Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Psychology Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Psychology 0731111 Psychology And Life {3}[3-3] Defining humans behavior; Essential life skills: problem solving,

More information

Standards for the School Counselor [23.110]

Standards for the School Counselor [23.110] II. STANDARDS FOR THE SCHOOL SERVICE PERSONNEL CERTIFICATE Standards for the School Counselor [23.110] STANDARD 1 - Academic Development Domain The competent school counselor understands the learning process

More information

Effect of Self-Efficacy on the Performance of Athletes

Effect of Self-Efficacy on the Performance of Athletes Effect of Self-Efficacy on the of Athletes Singh 1, T.D., Bhardwaj 2, G. and Bhardwaj 3, V. 1 Lecturer in Physical Education, Kundan Vidhya Mandir, Ludhiana, Punjab 2 Director Physical Education, Guru

More information

Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis

Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis Introduction: A Common Language for Researchers...2 Steps to Follow When Conducting Research...3 The Research Question... 3 The Hypothesis... 4 Defining the

More information

M.A. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

M.A. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY M.A. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY EDCI 663 Advanced Graduate Writing This course is designed to introduce graduate students to various forms of writing required in graduate studies. It also introduces them to

More information

Department of Psychology

Department of Psychology Department of Psychology Tanner Babb, Mary Ruthi The Psychology Department seeks to provide a curriculum that stimulates the necessary knowledge base and skills for participation in a variety of fields

More information

One Stop Shop For Educators. Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Education

One Stop Shop For Educators. Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Education Introduction Physical Education is an integral part of the total education of every child from kindergarten through grade 12. Therefore, every student should have the opportunity to participate in a quality

More information

Emotionally unstable? It spells trouble for work, relationships and life

Emotionally unstable? It spells trouble for work, relationships and life Emotionally unstable? It spells trouble for work, relationships and life Rob Bailey and Tatiana Gulko, OPP Ltd Summary This presentation explores a range of studies of resilience using the 16PF questionnaire,

More information

GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS

GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS (Effective 9/01/08) Kelly Henson Executive Secretary Table of Contents Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge,

More information

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE. Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements. EDU721 (3.

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE. Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements. EDU721 (3. DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements EDU710 (3.0 credit hours) Ethical and Legal Issues in Education/Leadership This course is an intensive

More information

Executive Summary. Summary - 1

Executive Summary. Summary - 1 Executive Summary For as long as human beings have deceived one another, people have tried to develop techniques for detecting deception and finding truth. Lie detection took on aspects of modern science

More information

ABSTRACT AUTHOR. A 3-step learning and performance strategy for the 100 metres start. By Ronnie Lidor, Dapeng Chen

ABSTRACT AUTHOR. A 3-step learning and performance strategy for the 100 metres start. By Ronnie Lidor, Dapeng Chen A 3-step learning and performance strategy for the 100 metres start By Ronnie Lidor, Dapeng Chen by IAAF 18:1; 29-34 2003 A 3-step learning and performance strategy to be applied before the start of the

More information

PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND MEASURES

PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND MEASURES PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND MEASURES The goals and directives for the psychology major are taken directly from the work of the Task Force on Undergraduate Psychology Major competencies

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The need to bridge the gap between research evidence and professional practice in sport

More information

ABSTRACT OF THE DOCTORAL THESIS BY Cătălin Ovidiu Obuf Buhăianu

ABSTRACT OF THE DOCTORAL THESIS BY Cătălin Ovidiu Obuf Buhăianu ABSTRACT OF THE DOCTORAL THESIS BY Cătălin Ovidiu Obuf Buhăianu Thesis submitted to: NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS, Bucharest, Romania, 2011 Thesis Advisor: Prof. Dr. Adrian Gagea

More information

CURRENT RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html

CURRENT RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html CURRENT RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html Volume 14, No. 10 Submitted: March 17, 2009 First Revision: March 25, 2009 Accepted: May 20, 2009 Published: June 10,

More information

Understanding Burnout in Sport M. Ryan Flett, Sport Medicine & Science Council of Saskatchewan

Understanding Burnout in Sport M. Ryan Flett, Sport Medicine & Science Council of Saskatchewan Understanding Burnout in Sport M. Ryan Flett, Sport Medicine & Science Council of Saskatchewan Burnout is a state of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. Burnout negatively affects vitality, purpose,

More information

EDP 548 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. (3) An introduction to the application of principles of psychology to classroom learning and teaching problems.

EDP 548 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. (3) An introduction to the application of principles of psychology to classroom learning and teaching problems. 202 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING. (3) Theories and concepts of human development, learning, and motivation are presented and applied to interpreting and explaining human behavior and interaction in relation

More information

COURSE APPROVAL GUIDELINES APS COLLEGE OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGISTS

COURSE APPROVAL GUIDELINES APS COLLEGE OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGISTS COURSE APPROVAL GUIDELINES APS COLLEGE OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGISTS Updated October 2000 Page 2 1. General Introduction and Principles The following principles provide the bases and framework for the development

More information

Running head: SPORT PSYCHOLOGY 1. The History of Sport Psychology. Marta Pinyol Davi. Longwood University

Running head: SPORT PSYCHOLOGY 1. The History of Sport Psychology. Marta Pinyol Davi. Longwood University Running head: SPORT PSYCHOLOGY 1 The History of Sport Psychology Marta Pinyol Davi Longwood University SPORT PSYCHOLOGY 2 Abstract This research examines the most important studies and advancements that

More information

The Relationship between the Fundamental Attribution Bias, Relationship Quality, and Performance Appraisal

The Relationship between the Fundamental Attribution Bias, Relationship Quality, and Performance Appraisal The Relationship between the Fundamental Attribution Bias, Relationship Quality, and Performance Appraisal Executive Summary Abstract The ability to make quality decisions that influence people to exemplary

More information

Determining Future Success of College Students

Determining Future Success of College Students Determining Future Success of College Students PAUL OEHRLEIN I. Introduction The years that students spend in college are perhaps the most influential years on the rest of their lives. College students

More information

Leadership, Change, and Organizational Effectiveness. Martin M. Chemers University of California, Santa Cruz

Leadership, Change, and Organizational Effectiveness. Martin M. Chemers University of California, Santa Cruz Leadership, Change, and Organizational Effectiveness Martin M. Chemers University of California, Santa Cruz What is leadership? Most organizational theorists agree that effective leadership is one of the

More information

This historical document is derived from a 1990 APA presidential task force (revised in 1997).

This historical document is derived from a 1990 APA presidential task force (revised in 1997). LEARNER-CENTERED PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES: A Framework for School Reform & Redesign TABLE OF CONTENTS: Background Learner-Centered Principles Prepared by the Learner-Centered Principles Work Group of the

More information

English Summary 1. cognitively-loaded test and a non-cognitive test, the latter often comprised of the five-factor model of

English Summary 1. cognitively-loaded test and a non-cognitive test, the latter often comprised of the five-factor model of English Summary 1 Both cognitive and non-cognitive predictors are important with regard to predicting performance. Testing to select students in higher education or personnel in organizations is often

More information

Assessment, Case Conceptualization, Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning Overview

Assessment, Case Conceptualization, Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning Overview Assessment, Case Conceptualization, Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning Overview The abilities to gather and interpret information, apply counseling and developmental theories, understand diagnostic frameworks,

More information

SCQ. Sales Competencies Questionnaire. Sales Competencies Report. Example Report

SCQ. Sales Competencies Questionnaire. Sales Competencies Report. Example Report SCQ Sales Competencies Questionnaire Sales Competencies Report Example Report Introduction The Sales Competencies Questionnaire (SCQ) measures your current selling skills and style by asking you to rate

More information

Section I: USA Gymnastics Membership Requirements New additions are highlighted

Section I: USA Gymnastics Membership Requirements New additions are highlighted I. Athlete Membership Section I: USA Gymnastics Membership Requirements New additions are highlighted All athletes appearing in a USA Gymnastics sanctioned event must be pre-registered athlete members

More information

Influenced by - Alfred Binet intelligence testing movement

Influenced by - Alfred Binet intelligence testing movement SA1 Trait Psychology Influenced by - Alfred Binet intelligence testing movement Origins - Psychologists became interested in seeing whether the success achieved with mental measurement might be repeated

More information

University of Michigan Dearborn Graduate Psychology Assessment Program

University of Michigan Dearborn Graduate Psychology Assessment Program University of Michigan Dearborn Graduate Psychology Assessment Program Graduate Clinical Health Psychology Program Goals 1 Psychotherapy Skills Acquisition: To train students in the skills and knowledge

More information

Coaching Ethics Code

Coaching Ethics Code Coaching Ethics Code USA Shooting and National Rifle Association of America (NRA) Foreword We are not immune from ethical problems in the shooting sports. Large cases brought to court often seem to be

More information

CSL 502 Legal, Ethical, and Professional Issues. CSL 503 Human Relations Methods and Skills

CSL 502 Legal, Ethical, and Professional Issues. CSL 503 Human Relations Methods and Skills CSL 501 Evaluation and Assessment This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of individual, couple, family, group and environmental/community approaches to assessment and evaluation.

More information

Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Special Education

Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Special Education Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Special Education 0731111 Psychology and life {3} [3-3] Defining humans behavior; Essential life skills: problem

More information

- Inside Team Denmark s Sports Psychology support

- Inside Team Denmark s Sports Psychology support The Sport Psychology Professional Model - Inside Team Denmark s Sports Psychology support The sports psychology profession in Denmark has been characterized by a diversity of approaches and has acted as

More information

INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of

INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of learning help us understand individual change? The behavioural approach to change how can we change people s behaviour? The

More information

Certified Consultant, Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology

Certified Consultant, Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology Certified Consultant, Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology Questions and Answers Certified Consultant, AAASP The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)

More information

Which Questionnaire? Assessment Practices of Sport Psychology Consultants

Which Questionnaire? Assessment Practices of Sport Psychology Consultants Brief Report The Sport Psychologist, 2004, 18, 464-468 2004 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. Which Questionnaire? Assessment Practices of Sport Psychology Consultants Edmund A. O Connor, Jr. Rehabilitation

More information

Abstract. Introduction

Abstract. Introduction Predicting Talent Management Indices Using the 16 Primary Personality Factors John W. Jones, Ph.D.; Catherine C. Maraist, Ph.D.; Noelle K. Newhouse, M.S. Abstract This study investigates whether or not

More information

Clive W Pack Managing Principal Louis A Allen Associates (Aust) Pty Ltd. March 1990.

Clive W Pack Managing Principal Louis A Allen Associates (Aust) Pty Ltd. March 1990. DESIGNING A PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM THAT WORKS Clive W Pack Managing Principal Louis A Allen Associates (Aust) Pty Ltd. March 1990. INTRODUCTION: People are our most important asset. One of the best

More information

Coaches Coach, Players Play, and Companies Win

Coaches Coach, Players Play, and Companies Win Coaches Coach, Players Play, and Companies Win Patrick C. Caironi Pennsylvania State University Executive coaching has been a part of business consulting for some time now, and according to London (2002),

More information

G.F. Huon School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

G.F. Huon School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia INTERVIEWING AND OBSERVATION G.F. Huon School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Keywords: Unobtrusive observation, systematic observation, ethical considerations, reactivity,

More information

Minnesota Co-occurring Mental Health & Substance Disorders Competencies:

Minnesota Co-occurring Mental Health & Substance Disorders Competencies: Minnesota Co-occurring Mental Health & Substance Disorders Competencies: This document was developed by the Minnesota Department of Human Services over the course of a series of public input meetings held

More information

Psychology: Course Descriptions

Psychology: Course Descriptions Psychology Courses-1 Psychology: Course Descriptions PSY 096/Orientation to Psychology PSY 097/Exploring the Psychology Major PSY 098/Exploring the Psychology Profession PSY 099/Psychology Professional

More information

Psychology Courses (PSYCH)

Psychology Courses (PSYCH) Psychology Courses (PSYCH) PSYCH 545 Abnormal Psychology 3 u An introductory survey of abnormal psychology covering the clinical syndromes included in the diagnostic classification system of the American

More information

Performance Appraisal Review for Exempt Employees

Performance Appraisal Review for Exempt Employees Client Company Performance Appraisal Review for Exempt Employees Employee Name Department Title Date Started Current Position Date of Review Current Supervisor Instructions Review employee s performance

More information

Studying Gender and Ethnic Differences in Participation in Math, Physical Science, and Information Technology

Studying Gender and Ethnic Differences in Participation in Math, Physical Science, and Information Technology 2 This chapter describes the history of the Eccles et al. Expectancy Value Model and research on the influence of social and psychological factors on gender and ethnic differences in math, science, and

More information

English Language Learners AND Special Education

English Language Learners AND Special Education 1 English Language Learners AND Special Education Before Assessing a Child for Special Education, First Assess the Instructional Program A Summary of English Language Learners with Special Education Needs

More information

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT January 2008 Page 1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Having a positive and effective relationship with your players is necessary to ensure that they receive the most out of their hockey participation.

More information

GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES

GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES NEW ZEALAND COMMUNITY SPORT COACHING PLAN 2012-2020 GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION www.sportnz.org.nz www.sportnz.org.nz Sport is neither inherently good nor

More information

Executive Summary. 1. What is the temporal relationship between problem gambling and other co-occurring disorders?

Executive Summary. 1. What is the temporal relationship between problem gambling and other co-occurring disorders? Executive Summary The issue of ascertaining the temporal relationship between problem gambling and cooccurring disorders is an important one. By understanding the connection between problem gambling and

More information

PRINTED NAME WESTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY - DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELOR EDUCATION - CN 597 INTERNSHIP SCHOOL COUNSELING STUDENTS ONLY TO STUDENTS:

PRINTED NAME WESTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY - DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELOR EDUCATION - CN 597 INTERNSHIP SCHOOL COUNSELING STUDENTS ONLY TO STUDENTS: WESTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY - DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELOR EDUCATION - CN 597 INTERNSHIP SCHOOL COUNSELING STUDENTS ONLY TO STUDENTS: Students are responsible for the completion of all activities on this form.

More information

Impact of Psychological Variables on Playing Ability of University Level Soccer Players

Impact of Psychological Variables on Playing Ability of University Level Soccer Players Sportif Bakış: Spor ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(1),30-35, 2014 www.sportifbakis.com ISSN:2148-905X Impact of Psychological Variables on Playing Ability of University Level Soccer Players Dr. Ertan Tufekcioglu,

More information

EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT FOR VIOLENT JUVENILE DELINQUENTS

EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT FOR VIOLENT JUVENILE DELINQUENTS EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT FOR VIOLENT JUVENILE DELINQUENTS THE PROBLEM Traditionally, the philosophy of juvenile courts has emphasized treatment and rehabilitation of young offenders. In recent years,

More information

JAIL BULLETIN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF REHABILITATION - PART I SUBSTANCE ABUSE-DEVELOPING THE PROGRAM

JAIL BULLETIN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF REHABILITATION - PART I SUBSTANCE ABUSE-DEVELOPING THE PROGRAM N E B R A S K A JAIL BULLETIN NUMBER 114 DECEMBER 1994 The Jail Bulletin is a monthly feature of the Crime Commission Update. The Bulletin may be used as a supplement to your jail in-service training program

More information

Program Attendance in 41 Youth Smoking Cessation Programs in the U.S.

Program Attendance in 41 Youth Smoking Cessation Programs in the U.S. Program Attendance in 41 Youth Smoking Cessation Programs in the U.S. Zhiqun Tang, Robert Orwin, PhD, Kristie Taylor, PhD, Charles Carusi, PhD, Susan J. Curry, PhD, Sherry L. Emery, PhD, Amy K. Sporer,

More information

Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders S H A N A M. H A T Z O P O U L O S G E O R G E W A S H I N G T O N U N I V E R S I T Y S P E D 2 0 1 S U M M E R 2 0 1 0 Overview of Emotional and Behavioral

More information

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

FACULTY OF EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION Division of Applied Psychology Rapport Teen Leadership Breakthrough Program: An Evaluation Report Prepared by Anne McKeough, Vicki Schwean, Yvonne Hindes, and Keoma Thorne for The

More information

Western Carolina University Program Assessment Plan Program: School Psychology College of Education and Allied Professions

Western Carolina University Program Assessment Plan Program: School Psychology College of Education and Allied Professions Western Carolina University Program Assessment Plan Program: School Psychology College of Education and Allied Professions Assessment Plan for 2006-2007 Primary Contact: Candace H. Boan, Ph.D. Associate

More information

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FOR ATHLETIC PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS OF HANDICAPPED TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS IN TAIWAN

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FOR ATHLETIC PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS OF HANDICAPPED TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS IN TAIWAN Wang Ming-Yueh*, Hsu Chi-Yueh*, Liou Jin-yann** *Chaoyang University of Technology **Jih-yann Liou National Sun Yat-sen University AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FOR ATHLETIC PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS OF HANDICAPPED TABLE

More information

Use of Placement Tests in College Classes

Use of Placement Tests in College Classes By Andrew Morgan This paper was completed and submitted in partial fulfillment of the Master Teacher Program, a 2-year faculty professional development program conducted by the Center for Teaching Excellence,

More information

Psychology (MA) Program Requirements 36 credits are required for the Master's Degree in Psychology as follows:

Psychology (MA) Program Requirements 36 credits are required for the Master's Degree in Psychology as follows: Psychology (MA) ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Carla Marquez-Lewis CUNY School of Professional Studies 101 West 31 st Street, 7 th Floor New York, NY 10001 Email Contact: Carla Marquez-Lewis, carla.marquez-lewis@cuny.edu

More information

Self-Confidence and Intrinsic Motivation in Sport. Chapter 5 Part I. Presentation Objectives. Models of Self-Confidence. Models of Self-Confidence

Self-Confidence and Intrinsic Motivation in Sport. Chapter 5 Part I. Presentation Objectives. Models of Self-Confidence. Models of Self-Confidence Self-Confidence and Intrinsic Motivation in Sport Presentation Objectives Understanding Self-Confidence and Self-Efficacy Role of Self-Confidence in the Development of Intrinsic Motivation Motivational

More information

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION FOR PARENTS

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION FOR PARENTS LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION FOR PARENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Long-Term Athlete Development Information for Parents... What is LTAD?... Getting an Active Start... FUNdamentals... Learning to

More information

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical

More information

WESTERN UNIVERSITY LONDON CANADA Department of Psychology Fall Distance 2014 Psychology 3301F-650 - Online Clinical Psychology

WESTERN UNIVERSITY LONDON CANADA Department of Psychology Fall Distance 2014 Psychology 3301F-650 - Online Clinical Psychology WESTERN UNIVERSITY LONDON CANADA Department of Psychology Fall Distance 2014 Psychology 3301F-650 - Online Clinical Psychology Page 1 of 7 1.0 CALENDAR DESCRIPTION This course offers a survey of major

More information

12/30/2012. Research Design. Quantitative Research: Types (Campbell & Stanley, 1963; Crowl, 1993)

12/30/2012. Research Design. Quantitative Research: Types (Campbell & Stanley, 1963; Crowl, 1993) Quantitative Prepared by: Amanda J. Rockinson-Szapkiw Liberty University A research design is a plan that guides the decision as to: when and how often to collect data what data to gather and from whom

More information

Mentoring in Construction Engineering Firms

Mentoring in Construction Engineering Firms Mentoring in Construction Engineering Firms Nice Sophia Antipolice University, France Abstract. Mentoring is a relationship between a senior, experienced mentor and a young, less experienced protégé for

More information

School of Social Work

School of Social Work Social Work 282 School of Social Work St. Patrick s Building 469 Telephone: 788-5601 Fax: 788-7496 The School Director of the School: Gillian Walker Supervisor of Graduate Studies: Allan Moscovitch The

More information

APPENDIX B GUIDELINES FOR CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATIONS IN DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS

APPENDIX B GUIDELINES FOR CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATIONS IN DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS APPENDIX B GUIDELINES FOR CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATIONS IN DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS American Psychologist July 1994 Vol. 49, No. 7, 677-680 1994 by the American Psychological Association For personal use only--not

More information

Rehabilitation programs for young offenders: Towards good practice? Andrew Day. Forensic Psychology Research Group. University of South Australia

Rehabilitation programs for young offenders: Towards good practice? Andrew Day. Forensic Psychology Research Group. University of South Australia 1 Rehabilitation programs for young offenders: Towards good practice? Andrew Day Forensic Psychology Research Group University of South Australia Andrew.day@unisa.edu.au Invited paper for the Understanding

More information

Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The BEST kind of personality test is one that is. A) both

More information

SigmaRADIUS Leadership Effectiveness Report

SigmaRADIUS Leadership Effectiveness Report SigmaRADIUS Leadership Effectiveness Report Sample Report NOTE This is a sample report, containing illustrative results for only two dimensions on which 360 performance ratings were obtained. The full

More information

Procrastination in Online Courses: Performance and Attitudinal Differences

Procrastination in Online Courses: Performance and Attitudinal Differences Procrastination in Online Courses: Performance and Attitudinal Differences Greg C Elvers Donald J. Polzella Ken Graetz University of Dayton This study investigated the relation between dilatory behaviors

More information

CHAPTER 8 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CHAPTER DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER 8 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CHAPTER DESCRIPTION CHAPTER 8 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CHAPTER DESCRIPTION After describing the 360-degree feedback evaluation method, we begin this chapter by defining performance appraisal and discussing its relationship to

More information

Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology Program Description Objectives The program aims to develop competent and effective academicians and practitioners in counseling psychology by: a. Exposing

More information

Strategies for Promoting Gatekeeper Course Success Among Students Needing Remediation: Research Report for the Virginia Community College System

Strategies for Promoting Gatekeeper Course Success Among Students Needing Remediation: Research Report for the Virginia Community College System Strategies for Promoting Gatekeeper Course Success Among Students Needing Remediation: Research Report for the Virginia Community College System Josipa Roksa Davis Jenkins Shanna Smith Jaggars Matthew

More information

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1 Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida The critical reader of a research report expects the writer to

More information

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership. DM 004 Requirements

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership. DM 004 Requirements School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership The mission of the Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership degree program is to develop the critical and creative

More information

Psychology. Department Faculty Kevin Eames Michael Rulon Phillip Wright. Department Goals. For General Education. Requirements for Major in

Psychology. Department Faculty Kevin Eames Michael Rulon Phillip Wright. Department Goals. For General Education. Requirements for Major in Psychology Department Faculty Kevin Eames Michael Rulon Phillip Wright Department Goals The discipline of psychology is concerned with the examination of human behavior. For General Education The goals

More information

Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession

Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession 12 Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession 1 Teachers understand student learning and development and respect the diversity of the students they teach. Teachers display knowledge of how

More information

Education and life long learning: summary

Education and life long learning: summary Education and life long learning: summary The material in this section explores the potential of sport (including sports event volunteering) to contribute, directly and indirectly, to improved cognitive

More information

The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample

The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample Addictive Behaviors 29 (2004) 843 848 The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample Irene Markman Geisner*, Mary

More information

indicates that the relationship between psychosocial distress and disability in patients with CLBP is not uniform.

indicates that the relationship between psychosocial distress and disability in patients with CLBP is not uniform. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most prevalent health problems in western societies. The prognosis of CLBP is poor, as indicated by very low rate of resolution, even with treatment. In CLBP,

More information

Applied Psychology. Course Descriptions

Applied Psychology. Course Descriptions Applied Psychology s AP 6001 PRACTICUM SEMINAR I 1 CREDIT AP 6002 PRACTICUM SEMINAR II 3 CREDITS Prerequisites: AP 6001: Successful completion of core courses. Approval of practicum site by program coordinator.

More information

COACHING GUIDE. Preparing Athletes for Competition

COACHING GUIDE. Preparing Athletes for Competition COACHING GUIDE Preparing Athletes for Competition Table of Contents Table of Contents Psychological Considerations Anxiety and Stress Management Winning and Losing Handling Grief Taking Athletes to Competition

More information

Effectiveness of positive psychology training in the increase of hardiness of female headed households

Effectiveness of positive psychology training in the increase of hardiness of female headed households Effectiveness of positive psychology training in the increase of hardiness of female headed households 1,2, Ghodsi Ahghar* 3 1.Department of counseling, Khozestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad

More information

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 9th edition by Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University Prentice Hall International, Inc.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 9th edition by Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University Prentice Hall International, Inc. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 9th edition by Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University Prentice Hall International, Inc. "... the number-one-selling organizational behavior (OB) textbook in the United States

More information

Department of Psychology

Department of Psychology Colorado State University 1 Department of Psychology Office in Behavioral Sciences Building, Room 201 (970) 491-3799 colostate.edu/depts/psychology (http://www.colostate.edu/depts/ Psychology) Professor

More information

The Leader s Edge. How Best Practices Programs Can Be Used Most Effectively to Support the Growth of Women Leaders

The Leader s Edge. How Best Practices Programs Can Be Used Most Effectively to Support the Growth of Women Leaders The Leader s Edge How Best Practices Programs Can Be Used Most Effectively to Support the Growth of Women Leaders The Leaders Edge research study completed in February, 2004 demonstrates the need for companies

More information

Glossary of Terms Ability Accommodation Adjusted validity/reliability coefficient Alternate forms Analysis of work Assessment Battery Bias

Glossary of Terms Ability Accommodation Adjusted validity/reliability coefficient Alternate forms Analysis of work Assessment Battery Bias Glossary of Terms Ability A defined domain of cognitive, perceptual, psychomotor, or physical functioning. Accommodation A change in the content, format, and/or administration of a selection procedure

More information

CONTENTS PART ONE LEARNING, MOTIVATION, AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

CONTENTS PART ONE LEARNING, MOTIVATION, AND SOCIAL INTERACTION CONTENTS Preface xii Contributors xvii 1 Sport Psychology: Past, Present, Future 1 Jean M. Williams, of Arizona, Emeritus; Vikki Krane, Bowling Green State History of Sport Psychology 2 1965 1979: Birth

More information

Journal of Sport Behavior Sept 1999 v22 i3 p399(1) Page 1

Journal of Sport Behavior Sept 1999 v22 i3 p399(1) Page 1 Journal of Sport Behavior Sept 1999 v22 i3 p399(1) Page 1 by Michael C. Meyers, Anthony E. Bourgeois, Arnold LeUnes and Nancy G. Murray Unlike most traditional sports, where both mental and physical abilities

More information

Psychology. Academic Requirements. Academic Requirements. Career Opportunities. Minor. Major. Mount Mercy University 1

Psychology. Academic Requirements. Academic Requirements. Career Opportunities. Minor. Major. Mount Mercy University 1 Mount Mercy University 1 Psychology The psychology major presents a scientific approach to the study of individual behavior and experience. The goal of the major is to provide an empirical and theoretical

More information

AP Psychology 2000 Scoring Guidelines

AP Psychology 2000 Scoring Guidelines AP Psychology 2000 Scoring Guidelines The materials included in these files are intended for non-commercial use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use must be sought

More information