# State of Georgia. Teaching to Standards: SCIENCE Alignment to Georgia Science Standards Grades 3-12

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1 State of Georgia Teaching to Standards: SCIENCE Alignment to Georgia Science Standards Grades 3-12 provided to our customers by the Attainment Company, Inc. Note: Alignment is indicated in yellow highlighted text. The units and lessons are aligned to the GA standards elements. Grade: 3 Description: S3CS1 Students will be aware of the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Keep records of investigations and observations and do not alter the records later. E1, E2, E4, C5, B5 b. Offer reasons for findings and consider reasons suggested by others. All lesson, all units c. Take responsibility for understanding the importance of being safety conscious. All lesson, all units S3CS2 Grade: 3 Description: S3CS2 Students will have the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations. a. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers mentally, on paper, and with a calculator. b. Use commonly encountered fractions halves, thirds, and fourths (but not sixths, sevenths, and so on) in scientific calculations. c. Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities, such as length, weight, or time, are reasonable answers to scientific problems by comparing them to typical values. S3CS3 Grade: 3 Description: S3CS3 Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating objects in scientific activities utilizing safe laboratory procedures. LEGEND: C=Chemistry unit; B=Biology unit; W=Earth s Waters unit; E=Earth s history unit; and the number represents the lesson number [there are five lessons per unit] Attainment Company Page

2 a. Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things. b. Use computers, cameras and recording devices for capturing information. B1, B2, B3, B4 c. Identify and practice accepted safety procedures in manipulating science materials and equipment. All lessons, step 7 S3CS4 Grade: 3 Description: S3CS4 Students will use ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters. a. Observe and describe how parts influence one another in things with many parts. B2 b. Use geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories to represent corresponding features of objects, events, and processes in the real world. E1, E2, E3, E4, E5; B5; C5; all lessons in the ScienceWork student book c. Identify ways in which the representations do not match their original counterparts. E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 S3CS5 Grade: 3 Description: S3CS5 Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly. All lessons in Earth, Biology, Waters, & Chemistry Units a. Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a scientific procedure. b. Make sketches to aid in explaining scientific procedures or ideas. All lessons require some form of explaining procedure or ideas, not necessarily sketches c. Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events. All lessons, all units d. Locate scientific information in reference books, back issues of newspapers and magazines, CD-ROMs, and computer databases. S3CS6 Grade: 3 Description: S3CS6 Students will question scientific claims and arguments effectively. a. Support statements with facts found in books, articles, and databases, and identify the sources used. S3CS7 Grade: 3 Description: S3CS7 Students will be familiar with the character of scientific knowledge and how it is 2008 Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 2

3 achieved. Students will recognize that: a. Similar scientific investigations seldom produce exactly the same results, which may differ due to unexpected differences in whatever is being investigated, unrecognized differences in the methods or circumstances of the investigation, or observational uncertainties. All lessons, all units b. Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. All lessons, all units S3CS8 Grade: 3 All Lessons in Earth, Biology, Waters, & Chemistry Units Description: S3CS8 Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices: a. Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. All lessons use inquiry approach b. Clear and active communication is an essential part of doing science. It enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. All lessons use inquiry approach c. Scientists use technology to increase their power to observe things and to measure and compare things accurately. B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 d. Science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds. All lessons, all units S3E1 Grade: 3 Description: Students will investigate the physical attributes of rocks and soils. a. Explain the difference between a rock and a mineral. b. Recognize the physical attributes of rocks and minerals using observation (shape, color, texture), measurement, and simple tests (hardness). E1, E2, E3, E4 c. Use observation to compare the similarities and differences of texture, particle size, and color in top soils (such as clay, loam or potting soil, and sand). E1 d. Determine how water and wind can change rocks and soil over time using observation and research. E3 S3L1 Grade: 3 Description: Students will investigate the habitats of different organisms and the dependence of organisms on their habitat Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page

4 a. Differentiate between habitats of Georgia (mountains, marsh/swamp, coast, Piedmont, Atlantic Ocean) and the organisms that live there. b. Identify features of green plants that allow them to live and thrive in different regions of Georgia. c. Identify features of animals that allow them to live and thrive in different regions of Georgia. d. Explain what will happen to an organism if the habitat is changed. S3L2 Grade: 3 Description: S3L2 Students will recognize the effects of pollution and humans on the environment. a. Explain the effects of pollution (such as littering) to the habitats of plants and animals. E5, W4 b. Identify ways to protect the environment. E5, W4, W5 1. Conservation of resources W4, W5 2. Recycling of materials E5 S3P1 Grade: 3 Description: Students will investigate how heat is produced and the effects of heating and cooling, and will understand a change in temperature indicates a change in heat. a. Categorize ways to produce heat energy such as burning, rubbing (friction), and mixing one thing with another. C2 b. Investigate how insulation affects heating and cooling. c. Investigate the transfer of heat energy from the sun to various materials. d. Use thermometers to measure the changes in temperatures of water samples (hot, warm, cold) over time. C4 S3P2 Grade: 3 Description: S3P2 Students will investigate magnets and how they affect other magnets and common objects. a. Investigate to find common objects that are attracted to magnets. b. Investigate how magnets attract and repel each other. S4CS Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page

5 Grade: 4 Description: S4CS1 Students will be aware of the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Keep records of investigations and observations and do not alter the records later. E4, C5 b. Carefully distinguish observations from ideas and speculation about those observations. c. Offer reasons for findings and consider reasons suggested by others. All lessons, all units d. Take responsibility for understanding the importance of being safety conscious. All lessons, all units S4CS2 Grade: 4 Description: S4CS2 Students will have the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations. a. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers mentally, on paper, and with a calculator. b. Use fractions and decimals, and translate between decimals and commonly encountered fractions halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, tenths, and hundredths (but not sixths, sevenths, and so on) in scientific calculations. c. Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities, such as length, area, volume, weight, or time, are reasonable answers to scientific problems by comparing them to typical values. S4CS3 Grade: 4 Description: S4CS3 Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating objects in scientific activities utilizing safe laboratory procedures. a. Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things. b. Measure and mix dry and liquid materials in prescribed amounts, exercising reasonable safety. E1, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 c. Use computers, cameras and recording devices for capturing information. B1, B2, B3, B4 d. Identify and practice accepted safety procedures in manipulating science materials and equipment. All lessons, all units S4CS4 Grade: Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page

6 Description: Students will use ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters. a. Observe and describe how parts influence one another in things with many parts. B2 b. Use geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories to represent corresponding features of objects, events, and processes in the real world. E1, E2, E3, E4, E5; B5; C5; All lessons in the ScienceWork student book Grade: 4 Description: S4CS7 Students will be familiar with the character of scientific knowledge and how it is achieved. Students will recognize that: a. Similar scientific investigations seldom produce exactly the same results, which may differ due to unexpected differences in whatever is being investigated, unrecognized differences in the methods or circumstances of the investigation, or observational uncertainties. All lessons, all units b. Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. All lessons, all units S4CS8 Grade: 4 Description: S4CS8 Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices: a. Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. All lessons, all units b. Clear and active communication is an essential part of doing science. It enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. All lessons, all units c. Scientists use technology to increase their power to observe things and to measure and compare things accurately. B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 d. Science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds. All lessons, all units S4E1 Grade: 4 Description: S4E1 Students will compare and contrast the physical attributes of stars, star patterns, and planets. a. Recognize the physical attributes of stars in the night sky such as number, size, color and patterns Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page

7 b. Compare the similarities and differences of planets to the stars in appearance, position, and number in the night sky. c. Explain why the pattern of stars in a constellation stays the same, but a planet can be seen in different locations at different times. d. Identify how technology is used to observe distant objects in the sky. S4E2 Grade: 4 Description: S4E2 Students will model the position and motion of the earth in the solar system and will explain the role of relative position and motion in determining sequence of the phases of the moon. a. Explain the day/night cycle of the earth using a model. b. Explain the sequence of the phases of the moon. c. Demonstrate the revolution of the earth around the sun and the earth s tilt to explain the seasonal changes. d. Demonstrate the relative size and order from the sun of the planets in the solar system. S4E3 Grade: 4 Description: S4E3 Students will differentiate between the states of water and how they relate to the water cycle and weather. a. Demonstrate how water changes states from solid (ice) to liquid (water) to gas (water vapor/steam) and changes from gas to liquid to solid. W1, W2, W3 b. Identify the temperatures at which water becomes a solid and at which water becomes a gas.. W1, W2, W3 c. Investigate how clouds are formed. W1, W2, W3 d. Explain the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, and precipitation). W1, W2, W3 e. Investigate different forms of precipitation and sky conditions (rain, snow, sleet, hail, clouds, and fog). W1, W2, W3 S4E4 Grade: 4 Description: S4E4 Students will analyze weather charts/maps and collect weather data to predict weather events and infer patterns and seasonal changes Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page

8 a. Identify weather instruments and explain how each is used in gathering weather data and making forecasts (thermometer, rain gauge, barometer, wind vane, anemometer). b. Using a weather map, identify the fronts, temperature, and precipitation and use the information to interpret the weather conditions. c. Use observations and records of weather conditions to predict weather patterns throughout the year. d. Differentiate between weather and climate. S4L1 Grade: 4 Description: S4L1 Students will describe the roles of organisms and the flow of energy within an ecosystem. a. Identify the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers in a community. b. Demonstrate the flow of energy through a food web/food chain beginning with sunlight and including producers, consumers, and decomposers. c. Predict how changes in the environment would affect a community (ecosystem) of organisms. d. Predict effects on a population if some of the plants or animals in the community are scarce or if there are too many. S4L2 Grade: 4 Description: S4L2 Students will identify factors that affect the survival or extinction of organisms such as adaptation, variation of behaviors (hibernation), and external features (camouflage and protection). a. Identify external features of organisms that allow them to survive or reproduce better than organisms that do not have these features (for example: camouflage, use of hibernation, protection, etc.). b. Identify factors that may have led to the extinction of some organisms. S4P1 Grade: 4 Description: S4P1 Students will investigate the nature of light using tools such as mirrors, lenses, and prisms. a. Identify materials that are transparent, opaque, and translucent. b. Investigate the reflection of light using a mirror and a light source. c. Identify the physical attributes of a convex lens, a concave lens, and a prism and where each is used Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 8

9 S4P2 Grade: 4 Description: S4P2 Students will demonstrate how sound is produced by vibrating objects and how sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration. a. Investigate how sound is produced. b. Recognize the conditions that cause pitch to vary.the real world. Identify ways in which the representations do not match their original counterparts. c. Identify patterns of change in things such as steady, repetitive, or irregular change using records, tables, or graphs of measurements where appropriate. S4CS5 Grade: 4 Description: S4CS5 Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly. All lessons, all units a. Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a scientific procedure. b. Make sketches to aid in explaining scientific procedures or ideas. All lessons require some form of explanation of procedure or ideas, not necessarily sketches. c. Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events. All lessons, all units d. Locate scientific information in reference books, back issues of newspapers and magazines, CD-ROMs, and computer databases. S4CS6 Grade: 4 Description: S4CS6 Students will question scientific claims and arguments effectively. a. Support statements with facts found in books, articles, and databases, and identify the sources used. S3E2 Description: S3E2 Students will investigate fossils as evidence of organisms that lived long ago. a. Investigate fossils by observing authentic fossils or models of fossils or view information resources about fossils as evidence of organisms that lived long ago. E2, E4 b. Describe how a fossil is formed. E2, E4 S4P Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page

10 Grade: 4 Description: S4P3 Students will demonstrate the relationship between the application of a force and the resulting change in position and motion on an object. a. Identify simple machines and explain their uses (lever, pulley, wedge, inclined plane, screw, wheel and axle). b. Using different size objects, observe how force affects speed and motion. c. Explain what happens to the speed or direction of an object when a greater force than the initial one is applied. d. Demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on the motion of an object. Teacher note: The use of mathematical formulas is not recommended in S4P3. Fourth grade students should carry out investigations to provide a foundation of concrete experience for the abstract understandings of physical science in upper grades. S5CS1 Grade: 5 Description: S5CS1 Students will be aware of the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Keep records of investigations and observations and do not alter the records later. E1, E2, E4, C5, B5. b. Carefully distinguish observations from ideas and speculation about those observations. c. Offer reasons for findings and consider reasons suggested by others. All lessons, all units d. Take responsibility for understanding the importance of being safety conscious. All lessons, all units S5CS2 Grade: 5 Description: S5CS2 Students will have the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations. a. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers mentally, on paper, and with a calculator. b. Use fractions and decimals, and translate between decimals and commonly encountered fractions halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, tenths, and hundredths (but not sixths, sevenths, and so on) in scientific calculations. c. Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities, such as length, area, volume, weight, or time, are reasonable answers to scientific problems by comparing them to typical values. S5CS Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 10

11 Grade: 5 Description: S5CS3 Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating objects in scientific activities. a. Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things. b. Measure and mix dry and liquid materials in prescribed amounts, exercising reasonable safety. E1, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 c. Use computers, cameras and recording devices for capturing information. B1, B2, B3, B4 d. Identify and practice accepted safety procedures in manipulating science materials and equipment. All lessons, all units S5CS4 Grade: 5 Description: S5CS4 Students will use ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters. a. Observe and describe how parts influence one another in things with many parts. B2 b. Use geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories to represent corresponding features of objects, events, and processes in the real world. Identify ways in which the representations do not match their original counterparts. E1, E2, E3, E4, E5; C5; All lessons in the student book ScienceWorks c. Identify patterns of change in things such as steady, repetitive, or irregular change using records, tables, or graphs of measurements where appropriate. d. Identify the biggest and the smallest possible values of something. S5CS5 Grade: 5 Description: S5CS5 Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly. All lessons, all units a. Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a scientific procedure. b. Make sketches to aid in explaining scientific procedures or ideas. All lessons, all units though not in the form of sketches c. Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events. All lessons, all units d. Locate scientific information in reference books, back issues of newspapers and magazines, CD-ROMs, and computer databases. S5CS6 Grade: Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 11

12 Description: S5CS6 Students will question scientific claims and arguments effectively. a. Support statements with facts found in books, articles, and databases, and identify the sources used. b. Identify when comparisons might not be fair because some conditions are different. S5CS7 Grade: 5 Description: S5CS7 Students will be familiar with the character of scientific knowledge and how it is achieved. Students will recognize that: a. Similar scientific investigations seldom produce exactly the same results, which may differ due to unexpected differences in whatever is being investigated, unrecognized differences in the methods or circumstances of the investigation, or observational uncertainties. All lessons, all units b. Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. S5CS8 Grade: 5 Description: S5CS8 Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices: a. Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. All lessons, all units b. Clear and active communication is an essential part of doing science. It enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. All lessons, all units c. Scientists use technology to increase their power to observe things and to measure and compare things accurately. B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 d. Science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds. All lessons, all units S5E1 Grade: 5 Description: S5E1 Students will identify surface features of the Earth caused by constructive and destructive processes. a. Identify surface features caused by constructive processes. E1, E3 * Deposition (deltas, sand dunes, etc.) * Earthquakes 2008 Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 12

13 * Volcanoes * Faults b. Identify and find examples of surface features caused by destructive processes. E3 * Erosion (water rivers and oceans, wind) * Weathering * Impact of organisms * Earthquake * Volcano c. Relate the role of technology and human intervention in the control of constructive and destructive processes. Examples include, but are not limited to * Seismological studies * Flood control (dams, levees, storm drain management, etc.) * Beach reclamation (Georgia coastal islands) Grade: 5 Description: S5L1 Students will classify organisms into groups and relate how they determined the groups with how and why scientists use classification. a. Demonstrate how animals are sorted into groups (vertebrate and invertebrate) and how vertebrates are sorted into groups (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal). b. Demonstrate how plants are sorted into groups. S5L2 Grade: 5 Description: S5L2 Students will recognize that offspring can resemble parents in inherited traits and learned behaviors. a. Compare and contrast the characteristics of learned behaviors and of inherited traits. b. Discuss what a gene is and the role genes play in the transfer of traits. Teacher note: Be sensitive to this topic since biological parents may be unavailable. S5L3 Grade: Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 13

14 Description: S5L3 Students will diagram and label parts of various cells (plant, animal, single-celled, multi-celled). a. Use magnifiers such as microscopes or hand lenses to observe cells and their structure. B1, B2, B3 b. Identify parts of a plant cell (membrane, wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplasts) and of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and determine the function of the parts. B1, B2, B3 c. Explain how cells in multi-celled organisms are similar and different in structure and function to singlecelled organisms. B1, B2, B3 S5L4 Grade: 5 Description: S5L4 Students will relate how microorganisms benefit or harm larger organisms. a. Identify beneficial microorganisms and explain why they are beneficial. B5 b. Identify harmful microorganisms and explain why they are harmful. B4 S5P1 Grade: 5 Description: S5P1 Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts. a. Demonstrate that the mass of an object is equal to the sum of its parts by manipulating and measuring different objects made of various parts. b. Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification. B1, B2, B3 S5P2 Grade: 5 Description: S5P2 Students will explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change. a. Investigate physical changes by separating mixtures and manipulating (cutting, tearing, folding) paper to demonstrate examples of physical change. C1, C2, C3, C4 b. Recognize that the changes in state of water (water vapor/steam, liquid, ice) are due to temperature differences and are examples of physical change. W1, W2, W3 c. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemical reaction to find evidence of change. C2, C3 S5P3 Grade: Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 14

15 Description: S5P3 Students will investigate the electricity, magnetism and their relationship. a. Investigate static electricity. b. Determine the necessary components for completing an electric circuit. c. Investigate common materials to determine if they are insulators or conductors of electricity. d. Compare a bar magnet to an electromagnet. S6CS1 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS1 Students will explore the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Understand the importance of and keep honest, clear, and accurate records in science. E4, C5 b. Understand that hypotheses are valuable if they lead to fruitful investigations, even if the hypotheses turn out not to be completely accurate descriptions. All units, all lessons S6CS10 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS10. Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by: a. Reading in All Curriculum Areas * Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas. * Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse. * Read technical texts related to various subject areas. b. Discussing books * Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas. * Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse. * Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area. * Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline. * Examine author s purpose in writing. * Recognize the features of disciplinary texts. c. Building vocabulary knowledge 2008 Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 15

16 * Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects. All lessons, all units * Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking. All lessons, all units * Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts. d. Establishing context * Explore life experiences related to subject area content. In ScienceWork student book, All lessons, all units * Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related. * Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words. S6CS2 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS2 Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations. a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus. All lessons, all units b. Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations. All lessons, all units c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations. All lessons, all units S6CS3 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS3 Students will use computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations. a. Analyze scientific data by using, interpreting, and comparing numbers in several equivalent forms, such as integers and decimals. b. Use metric input units (such as seconds, meters, or grams per milliliter) of scientific calculations to determine the proper unit for expressing the answer c. Address the relationship between accuracy and precision and the importance of each. d. Draw conclusions based on analyzed data. All lessons, all units S6CS4 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS4 Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific activities. a. Use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and keyword files, and create simple files. Simple files, E4, C Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 16

17 b. Estimate the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole. c. Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and temperature, and choose appropriate units for reporting various quantities. C2, C3, C4 S6CS5 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS5 Students will use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters. a. Observe and explain how parts are related to other parts in systems such as weather systems, solar systems, and ocean systems including how output from one part of a system (in the form of material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts (e.g., El Nino s effect on weather). W1, W2, W3, W4; B4, B5 b. Identify several different models (such as physical replicas, pictures, and analogies) that could be used to represent the same thing, and evaluate their usefulness, taking into account such things as the model s purpose and complexity. E1, E2, E3, E4 S6CS6 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS6 Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly. All lessons, all units a. Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting scientific investigations, operating a piece of equipment, or following a procedure. b. Understand and describe how writing for scientific purposes is different from writing for literary purposes. c. Organize scientific information using appropriate tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal. C5 S6CS7 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS7 Students will question scientific claims and arguments effectively. a Question claims based on vague attributions (such as Leading doctors say... ) or on statements made by people outside the area of their particular expertise. b. Recognize that there may be more than one way to interpret a given set of findings. S6CS8 Grade: Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 17

18 Description: S6CS8 Students will investigate the characteristics of scientific knowledge and how it is achieved. a. When similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which often requires further study. Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as meaningful. b. When new experimental results are inconsistent with an existing, well-established theory, scientists may require further experimentation to decide whether the results are flawed or the theory requires modification. c. As prevailing theories are challenged by new information, scientific knowledge may change and grow. Grade: 6 Description: S6E1 Students will explore current scientific views of the universe and how those views evolved. a. Relate the Nature of Science to the progression of basic historical scientific theories (geocentric and heliocentric) as they describe our solar system, and the Big Bang as it describes the formation b. Describe the position of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy and the universe. c. Compare and contrast the planets in terms of * Size relative to the earth * Surface and atmospheric features * Relative distance from the sun * Ability to support life d. Explain the motion of objects in the day/night sky in terms of relative position. e. Explain that gravity is the force that governs the motion in the solar system. f. Describe the characteristics of comets, asteroids, and meteors. S6E2 Grade: 6 Description: S6E2 Students will understand the effects of the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun. a. Demonstrate the phases of the moon by showing the alignment of the earth, moon, and sun. b. Explain the alignment of the earth, moon, and sun during solar and lunar eclipses. c. Relate the tilt of the earth to the distribution of sunlight throughout the year and its effect on climate Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 18

19 S6E3 Grade: 6 Description: S6E3 Students will recognize the significant role of water in earth processes. a. Explain that a large portion of the Earth s surface is water, consisting of oceans, rivers, lakes, underground water, and ice. W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 b. Relate various atmospheric conditions to stages of the water cycle. c. Describe the composition, location, and subsurface topography of the world s oceans. d. Explain the causes of waves, currents, and tides. S6E4 Grade: 6 Description: S6E4 Students will understand how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather. a. Demonstrate that land and water absorb and lose heat at different rates and explain the resulting effects on weather patterns. b. Relate unequal heating of land and water surfaces to form large global wind systems and weather events such as tornados and thunderstorms. c. Relate how moisture evaporating from the oceans affects the weather patterns and the weather events such as hurricanes. S6E5 Grade: 6 Description: S6E5 Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth s surface is formed. a. Compare and contrast the Earth s crust, mantle, and core including temperature, density, and composition. E1 b. Investigate the composition of rocks in terms of minerals. c. Classify rocks by their process of formation. E1 d. Describe processes that change rocks and the surface of the earth. E3 e. Recognize that lithospheric plates constantly move and cause major geological events on the earth s surface. E3 f. Explain the effects of physical processes (plate tectonics, erosion, deposition, volcanic eruption, gravity) on geological features including oceans (composition, currents, and tides). E Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 19

20 g. Describe how fossils show evidence of the changing surface and climate of the Earth. E2, E4 h. Describe soil as consisting of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material. i. Explain the effects of human activity on the erosion of the earth s surface. j. Describe methods for conserving natural resources such as water, soil, and air. W5 S6E6 Grade: 6 Description: S6E6 Students will describe various sources of energy, and with their uses, and conservation. a. Explain the role of the sun as the major source of energy and the sun s relationship to wind and water energy. b. Identify renewable and nonrenewable resources. E5 S7CS1 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS1 Students will explore the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Understand the importance of and keep honest, clear, and accurate records in science. E4, B5, C5 b. Understand that hypotheses can be valuable, even if they turn out not to be completely accurate. All units, all lessons S7CS10 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS10 Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by: a. Reading in All Curriculum Areas * Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas. * Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse. * Read technical texts related to various subject areas. b. Discussing books * Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas. * Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 20

21 * Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area. * Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline. * Examine author s purpose in writing. * Recognize the features of disciplinary texts. c. Building vocabulary knowledge. All units, all lessons * Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects. * Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking. All units, all lessons * Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts. d. Establishing context * Explore life experiences related to subject area content. All units, all lessons in ScienceWork * Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related. * Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown word S7CS2 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS2 Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations. All units, all lessons a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus. All units, all lessons b. Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations. All units, all lessons c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations. All units, all lessons S7CS3 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS3 Students will have the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations. a. Analyze scientific data by using, interpreting, and comparing numbers in several equivalent forms, such as integers, fractions, decimals, and percents. b. Use the mean, median, and mode to analyze a set of scientific data. c. Apply the metric system to a scientific investigation that includes metric to metric conversion. (i.e. centimeters to meters). d. Draw conclusions based on analyzed data. All units, all lessons Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 21

22 e. Decide what degree of precision is adequate, and round off appropriately. f. Address the relationship between accuracy and precision and the importance of each. S6CS9 Grade: 6 Description: S6CS9 Students will investigate the features of the process of scientific inquiry. a. Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. They usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and formulating explanations. All units, all lessons. b. Scientists often collaborate to design research. To prevent bias, scientists conduct independent studies of the same questions. c. Accurate record keeping, data sharing, and replication of results are essential for maintaining an investigator s credibility with other scientists and society. E1, C5 d. Scientists use technology and mathematics to enhance the process of scientific inquiry. B1, B2, B3, B4 e. The ethics of science require that special care must be taken and used for human subjects and animals in scientific research. Scientists must adhere to the appropriate rules and guidelines when conducting research. Grade: 7 Description: S7CS4 Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific activities. a. Use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and keyword files, and create simple files. Simple files, E4, C5 b. Use appropriate tools for measuring objects and/or substances. c. Learn and use on a regular basis standard safety practices for scientific investigations. All units, All lessons S7CS5 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS5 Students will use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters. E1, E2, E3, E4 a. Observe and explain how parts can be related to other parts in a system such as predator/prey relationships in a community/ecosystem. b. Understand that different models (such as physical replicas, pictures, and analogies) can be used to represent the same thing. E1, E2, E3, E4 S7CS Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 22

23 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS6 Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly. a. Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting particular scientific investigations, operating a piece of equipment, or following a procedure. b. Write for scientific purposes incorporating data from circle, bar, and line graphs, two-way data tables, diagrams, and symbols. c. Organize scientific information using appropriate simple tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal. C5, B5 S7CS7 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS7 Students will question scientific claims and arguments effectively. a. Question claims based on vague attributions (such as Leading doctors say... ) or on statements made by people outside the area of their particular expertise. b. Identify the flaws of reasoning that are based on poorly designed research (i.e., facts intermingled with opinion, conclusions based on insufficient evidence). c. Question the value of arguments based on small samples of data, biased samples, or samples for which there was no control. d. Recognize that there may be more than one way to interpret a given set of findings. S7CS8 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS8 Students will investigate the characteristics of scientific knowledge and how that knowledge is achieved. a. When similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which often requires further study. Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as meaningful. b. When new experimental results are inconsistent with an existing, well-established theory, scientists may pursue further experimentation to determine whether the results are flawed or the theory requires modification. c. As prevailing theories are challenged by new information, scientific knowledge may change. S7CS9 Grade: Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 23

24 Description: S7CS9 Students will investigate the features of the process of scientific inquiry. a. Investigations are conducted for different reasons, which include exploring new phenomena, confirming previous results, testing how well a theory predicts, and comparing competing theories. b. Scientific investigations usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and formulating explanations to make sense of collected evidence. All lessons, all units c. Scientific experiments investigate the effect of one variable on another. All other variables are kept constant. d. Scientists often collaborate to design research. To prevent bias, scientists conduct independent studies of the same questions. e. Accurate record keeping, data sharing, and replication of results are essential for maintaining an investigator s credibility with other scientists and society. All lessons, all units f. Scientists use technology and mathematics to enhance the process of scientific inquiry. B1, B2, B3 g. The ethics of science require that special care must be taken and used for human subjects and animals in scientific research. Scientists must adhere to the appropriate rules and guidelines when conducting research. S7L1 Grade: 7 Description: S7L1 Students will investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically. a. Demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key. b. Classify organisms based on physical characteristics using a dichotomous key of the six kingdom system (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). S7L2 Grade: 7 Description: S7L2 Students will describe the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow and divide and to make needed materials. B3, B4, B5 b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria) to basic cell functions. B3, B4, B5 c. Explain that cells are organized into tissues, tissues into organs, organs into systems, and systems into organisms. d. Explain that tissues, organs, and organ systems serve the needs cells have for oxygen, food, and waste 2008 Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 24

25 removal. e. Explain the purpose of the major organ systems in the human body (i.e., digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination, and for protection from disease). S7L3 Grade: 7 Description: S7L3 Students will recognize how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. a. Explain the role of genes and chromosomes in the process of inheriting a specific trait. b. Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction in organisms (bacteria, protists, fungi, plants & animals). c. Recognize that selective breeding can produce plants or animals with desired traits. S7L4 Grade: 7 Description: S7L4 Students will examine the dependence of organisms on one another and their environments. a. Demonstrate in a food web that matter is transferred from one organism to another and can recycle between organisms and their environments. b. Explain in a food web that sunlight is the source of energy and that this energy moves from organism to organism. c. Recognize that changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of both individuals and entire species. W5 d. Categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial. e. Describe the characteristics of Earth s major terrestrial biomes (i.e. tropical rain forest, savannah, temperate, desert, taiga, tundra, and mountain) and aquatic communities (i.e. freshwater, estuaries, and marine). Grade: 7 Description: S7CS4 Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific activities. a. Use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and keyword files, and create simple files. Simple files E4, C5 b. Use appropriate tools for measuring objects and/or substances. C1, C2, C3, C4, C Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 25

26 c. Learn and use on a regular basis standard safety practices for scientific investigations. All units, all lessons. S7CS5 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS5 Students will use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters. a. Observe and explain how parts can be related to other parts in a system such as predator/prey relationships in a community/ecosystem. b. Understand that different models (such as physical replicas, pictures, and analogies) can be used to represent the same thing. E1, E2, E3, E4 S7CS6 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS6 Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly. a. Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting particular scientific investigations, operating a piece of equipment, or following a procedure. b. Write for scientific purposes incorporating data from circle, bar, and line graphs, two-way data tables, diagrams, and symbols. c. Organize scientific information using appropriate simple tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal. C5, E4 S7CS7 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS7 Students will question scientific claims and arguments effectively. a. Question claims based on vague attributions (such as Leading doctors say... ) or on statements made by people outside the area of their particular expertise. b. Identify the flaws of reasoning that are based on poorly designed research (i.e., facts intermingled with opinion, conclusions based on insufficient evidence). c. Question the value of arguments based on small samples of data, biased samples, or samples for which there was no control. d. Recognize that there may be more than one way to interpret a given set of findings. S7CS8 Grade: Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 26

27 Description: S7CS8 Students will investigate the characteristics of scientific knowledge and how that knowledge is achieved. a. When similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which often requires further study. Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as meaningful. b. When new experimental results are inconsistent with an existing, well-established theory, scientists may pursue further experimentation to determine whether the results are flawed or the theory requires modification. c. As prevailing theories are challenged by new information, scientific knowledge may change. S7CS9 Grade: 7 Description: S7CS9 Students will investigate the features of the process of scientific inquiry. a. Investigations are conducted for different reasons, which include exploring new phenomena, confirming previous results, testing how well a theory predicts, and comparing competing theories. b. Scientific investigations usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and formulating explanations to make sense of collected evidence. All lessons, all units c. Scientific experiments investigate the effect of one variable on another. All other variables are kept constant. All lessons, all units d. Scientists often collaborate to design research. To prevent bias, scientists conduct independent studies of the same questions. e. Accurate record keeping, data sharing, and replication of results are essential for maintaining an investigator s credibility with other scientists and society. E4, C5 f. Scientists use technology and mathematics to enhance the process of scientific inquiry. g. The ethics of science require that special care must be taken and used for human subjects and animals in scientific research. Scientists must adhere to the appropriate rules and guidelines when conducting research. S7L1 Grade: 7 Description: S7L1 Students will investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically. a. Demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key. b. Classify organisms based on physical characteristics using a dichotomous key of the six kingdom system 2008 Attainment Company State of Georgia Standards Page 27

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