1 The future of the Brazilian aeronautical sector and the cooperation Sweden-Brazil Prof. Luiz Carlos S. Góes Prorector for Research and Post-graduate Studies Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica ITA-DCTA São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
2 Outline 1. The Brazilian aeronautical sector and the international scenario; 2. The Brazilian aeronautical industry: challenges and opportunities; 3. Brazil-Sweden opportunities for cooperation in aeronautics; 4. Summary and Conclusions;
3 1. The Brazilian aeronautical sector The Brazilian aeronautical sector is comprised of: Civil aviation sector; Military aviation sector; National airport and air traffic infrastructure; Aeronautical industry; Scientific-technological infrastructure for aeronautical R&D, including aeronautical schools, universities, research institutes and its specialized human resources.
4 1.1. The Brazilian civil aeronautical sector A large integrative company (OEM) with global integration, manufacturer of commercial jets, business jets and military aircraft EMBRAER. Subsidiaries of large international groups active in the aerospace industry, suppliers and partners risk of Embraer (Aernnova - Old Gamesa, Sobraer - Sonaca Brazilian Aeronautics, Latécoère, C & D Interiors, Parker Hannifin, GKN). About 300 medium, small, and micro enterprises (MSMEs), suppliers of goods and services, of which about 100 have major market in the airline industry. About 500 companies providing maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft engines and aircraft systems (MRO). Specialized companies to manufacture UAVs and light aircraft.
5 1.2 The international scenario of the civil aeronautical sector Since the 2 nd World War the consolidation of the aeronautical sector resulted in the merging and disappearance of many international aircraft manufacturers: In North-America, US companies such as Douglas, North American, Convair, Lockheed, have been replaced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The Canada Air gave origin to Bombardier; In Europe many British, French and Germany a/c manufacturer have been replaced by the conglomerate Air Bus Group; In South-America, Embraer is now a major player in the regional aircraft sector. Unique factors influence the aeronautical industry and has a profound effect on the distribution of aircraft manufactures around the world (Fig by McKinsey);
6 1.3 Main characteristics of the Aeronautical Industry As compared with other industries the distribution around the world of the aerospace manufactures is influenced by its unique structural attributes and business practices of the sector.
7 1.4 The main players of the international civil aeronautical sector Presently the wide-body ( pax) and large narrow-body ( pax) civil market is shared between Boeing and Air Bus, while the regional jet aircraft segment ( pax) is shared between Embraer and Bombardier; OEM Revenues Operational (US$ bi) R&D Investment (US$ bi) EBIT (US$ mi) Employees Airbus Comercial Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) Bombardier Aerospace 38,46 3, ,02 3, ,92 0, Embraer 4,68 0,
8 1.3. The Brazilian aeronautical industry: regional jet market The Brazilian aeronautical industry has a competitive advantage in the global market New challenges and development opportunities to keep this privileged position
9 1.6 The contribution of aeronautical sector to the Brazilian foreign trade balance
10 2. The Brazilian aeronautical industry: challenges and opportunities New competitors in the international market of regional jets aircrafts; New technological challenges in the global market; New challenges related to the development of a national aeronautical defense system; New systems and tools for air traffic control and data management.
11 2.1. New players in the international market More recently other players are entering the market of regional jets, such as China, Russia, Japan and Malaysia, bringing new challenges to the Brazilian aeronautical industry. ARJ-21 (China) Regional Jet (90 pax) Compete w/ Emb175 Prototype operational No date to enter the market SSJ-100 (Russia) Regional Jet ( pax) Compete w/ Emb-170, Emb-175 and Emb-190 First delivery 2011 Consortium Italy-Russia MRJ-70 and MRJ-91 (Japan) Regional Jet (70-90 pax) Compete w/ Emb-170 e Emb-175 First flight 2012 Deliveries started firm orders in several countries HONDAJET (Japan) Executive Jet (5 pax) Compete w/ EMB models Phenom 100 and Phenom 300 Test phase First delivery 2012
12 2.2 New technological challenges in the global market The international competition in the aeronautical sector has increased due to unique factors: The world wide economical crisis and its effect in the global aeronautical markets; Nationally based technological factors and the entrance of new competitors suported by strong nationalist states (China, Russia, Malaysia); The growth of LCC low-cost carriers and hybrid low cost + traditional carriers with greater influence on the demand for more effcient aircrafts ; The growing pressure of environmental policies, to reduce fuel emission, more silent aircraft, with sustainable use of (green) bio-fuels are amog the main factors ;
13 2.3. The challenges of the Brazilian defense industry Network Centric Warfare: Electronic countermeasure, C 4 ISTAR Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillanc e, Target Acquisition & Reconaissance; C 2 Comand & Control; Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS): autonomous guided plataforms for tactical, long duration and surveillance applications; new technologies for navigation and critical systems for sense and avoid, vison based systems, goal oriented intelligent systems, adaptive control and software for critical applications; Human-in-the-Loop: Development of user friendly computational and cognitive systems to mitigate fadique and stress in combat; Electronic Warfare and Cybernetic War Assymetrical warfare and crisis management.
14 2.4. New systems for air traffic control New architecture for air traffic control to cope with increasing number of aircraft in operation worldwide (up to three times over the next decade); Projects such as NextGen (USA) and SESAR (Europe) point to the use of more automated and accurate GPS-based operations systems. To reduce the distances between aircraft the paths should be optimized (eg climbing, cruise and continuous descend), imposing an airport and air traffic able to accommodate this high density operation infrastructure; Emphasis on technologies for automation of pilot interaction and tower control; Detection and mitigation of Wake Vortex; GPS-based navigation (4D).
15 3. The Research Agenda: present and future New aeronautical concepts including the optimization of the conventional configuration (wing+fuselage+stabilizers), wing-body blend configuration, double bubble configuration, Propulsion: new motorization such as Geared Turbo-Fan (GTF), Advanced Turbo-Fan (AFT) e Open-Rotor; with the use of bio-fuels Aerodynamics: flow control for laminar flow, load factor active control, highaspect ratio wings, new methodologies for high fidelity CFD and computational tools for computational aeroacoustics; Advanced aeronautical structures with concepts of tailored structures; 2nd generation composite structures, and very-light hybrid aeronautical structures; Advanced manufacturing with application of robotic automation; Development of new computational tools to develop a Virtual Aircraft to reduce the lead time of new projects and its certification by wind tunnel and flight test validation;
16 4. Brazil-Sweden opportunities for cooperation in aeronautics Brazilian Universities: State of São Paulo (ITA/DCTA; USP-EESC; UFABC;UNESP-IS) State of Minas Gerais (UFMG, UFU, UNIFEI) State of Santa Catarina (UFSC); Federal District (UNB). Brazilian Industrial Partners: Embraer, Akaer, Mectron, Flight Technologies.
17 4. Brazil-Sweden opportunities for cooperation in aeronautics Aeronautical Research Programs: FAPESP (PICTA) FNDCT : CT-AERO; CT-Espaço PNPC: Aeronautical Platform FINEP: R&D Research with Industrial Partners: Embraer, Akaer, Mectron, Flight Technologies (INOVA-Aerodefesa)
18 Experiments Supp. Labs LNCA framework Flight Physics Modeling and Simulation Green, Ultra Safe, Integrated, Mobility, Economic / Social Affairs Integrated Flight Dyn. Aeroservoelasticity Surrogate / ROM (NL) Aeroacustics Noise Emission Lightweight Structures Special / Composite Materials Integrated Aircraft Propulsion Systems MDO Conceptual Design Industry Regional Benefits (Aerospace & Defense) Academic Formation R&D Orientation ITA - Prof. Roberto Gil
19 4. Brazil-Sweden opportunities for cooperation in aeronautics Aerodynamics (USP-EESC)
20 4. Brazil-Sweden opportunities for cooperation in aerodynamics (USP-EESC)
22 4. Brazil-Sweden opportunities for cooperation in adaptive structures Morphing Wings (USP-SC: Catalano, Marcus Angelo Patent required)
23 4. Brazil-Sweden opportunities for cooperation in flight control Flight Mechanics and Control
24 Development of a Methodology for Multidisciplinar, Multiobjective Optimization of Conceptual Design of Aircrafts (USP-EESC: Álvaro Abdalla; LIU: Prof. Petter Krus)
25 Structural Health Monitoring The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Motivation Composite Structures Smart Repair Challenges Many Questions? Identification, Localization and Extension of the Damage, as well as Residual Strength - What type of technique? - What type of sensor? - What the best position of the sensors? - What number of the sensors? - What type of metric to identify the damage? - What damage model to quantify residual strength? 25
26 26/1 6 Laboratory Smart Structure USP-SC Data acquisition systems and exciter Specifica(ons Development of smart structures for energy harvesting, vibration control and shape morphing in the context of aerospace systems. The exploitation of piezoelectric materials is tested for low power consumption network and energy harvesting capabilities. The laboratory is equipped with the following facilities: LMS SCADAS Mobile data acquisition system TMS Miniature shaker model: K2007E01 16 channels for ICP/Voltage sensor acquisi8ons 8 channels for strain transducer acquisi8ons 4 channels for general purpose signal generation module Force ra8ng 31N (7 lbf) Frequency range DC to 11 khz Piezoelectric and SMA materials: smart materials for sensing and actuation in broad range of application APS 113 ELECTRO- SEIS Long Stroke Shaker APS 125 Voltage Mode/ Current Mode Amplifier ICP PCB Piezotronics accelerometers 16- channel, line- powered, ICP Long stroke 158 mm (6.25 inch) peakpeak Max. force 133 N (30 lbf) or 186 N (42 lbf) Frequency Range DC Hz sensitivity (±15%): 10mV/g frequency range: 1 to Hz measurement range (pk): ±500g sensor signal cond. (base model - requires op8ons). Digital Laser Vibrometer PDV 1000 dspace DS1104 R&D Controller Board Single- board system with real- 8me hardware and comprehensive I/O Electronic equipment for circuit design, breadboarding and testing Tuned Damped Optical Table Upgradable to SmartTable IQ Damping Blower wind tunnels Whirl Tower
27 Microphone array 260mics Fly-over beamform
28 Programa de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico EMBRAER-FINET-CTAero Projeto Aeronave Silenciosa Fase II: DSA - Desenvolvimento de soluções aprimoradas, através de ensaios aeroacústicos, para o problema de ruído externo de aeronaves. Parceria Embraer e USP. The Project Silent Aircraft Phase II is a partnership between Embraer e USP/EESC. The program is supported by Finep, USP and Embraer, and is coordinated by USP/EESC. O Projeto Aeronave Silenciosa Fase II tem por objetivo desenvolver tecnologia para redução de ruído de aeronaves. Além da USP/EESC, outras quatro instituições participam da iniciativa: Escola Politécnica da USP, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) e Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC).
29 Application of Viscoelastic Materials (LVA- UFSC)
30 Vibroacoustic Studies of Composite Pannels (LVA-UFSC)
31 Measurement of Transmission Noise through Aircraft Pannels
32 Simulation of Internal Noise Generation in Aircraft UFSC Aplication of different computational tools dor simulation of internal aircraft noise and its validation with experimental techniques
33 Beamforming Identification of external noise sources UFSC
34 5. Summary and Conclusions Brazil dominates the full technological cycle in the development and certification of civil and military aircraft, in spite of the technology used by major suppliers is imported. The industry has achieved high technical levels with Brazilian engineers dominating all the followed technological trajectory. From the point of view of national integration company, it is required investment in pre-competitive technologies in Brazil. From the point of view of chain of suppliers, investment is concentrated in the United States, Europe and Japan. There are countries with significant leadership from the technological point of view, as the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan => currently the technological gap in relation to Brazil is sensitive, however in certain technological areas, this distance is considerably greater - for example, in system avionics and propulsion. The expansion of the sector depends on government support => tax equality with the imported product, sales support on adherence to OECD standards, and lines of credit for developing, producing, in compliance with WTO rules and support the elimination technical barriers in target countries.
35 References The material presented here was taken from the following references : Diagnóstico do Setor Aeronáutico, 2ª Reunião do Comitê Executivo de Defesa, Aeronáutico e Espacial, Plano Brasil Maior, Fevereiro de 2012; Plataformas Demonstradoras Tecnológicas Aeronáuticas: Experiências com programas internacionais, modelagem funcional aplicável ao Brasil e importância da sua aplicação para o País, ABDI, 2012, ISBN: Proceedings do Workshop sobre Programa Nacional de Plataformas do Conhecimento (PNPC), ITA, Outubro, 2014.
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