HYGIENE IN THE GALLEY

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1 HYGIENE IN THE GALLEY - good advice for self-assessment aboard Guidance for company and ship s management and galley crew

2 Good hygiene is thinking twice about things when cooking for others. To limit the risk of passing on food-borne infection, wash your hands, keep the place tidy and be aware of how you act in the galley.

3 3

4 Micro-organisms are everywhere and are a natural part of our daily lives. They can make us sick. Other things need your awareness as well.

5 What can be harmful in food? Micro-organisms Bacteria, mildew, mould, viruses and parasites. Viruses lead to vomiting and diarrhoea. So do dangerous bacteria, but they can also give life-long injuries and mould can develop poisons in food. Physical objects Glass shards, plastic packaging, metal fragments from worn brushes, dirty condensate from the cooker hood and mouldy wood in the galley can be hidden sources of broken teeth, stomach pains and unhygienic cooking. Chemicals Detergents can poison food. Oxidised metal and spray residues that touch food can transfer dangerous chemicals. Pesticide residues from surface-treated fruit, chemical substances formed during production and naturally-occurring poisons, for example in dried fruit, may also be a risk. 5

6 If goods are on the quayside, they are the supplier s responsibility. If the delivery note has been signed and goods hoisted aboard, they are the ship s responsibility.

7 What should you remember when accepting stores? Check use-by date. Check surface temperature for refrigerated and frozen goods. All chilled goods should be refrigerated/frozen as quickly as possible. The temperature of refrigerated products must not exceed 8 C (46 F). On delivery and receipt, the temperature of frozen goods must not be higher than -12 C (10 F). If the packaging is punctured, it must be rejected. Move the oldest products to the front of shelves and put the new ones at the back. Keep dry goods in good order and put them all on shelves. The distance between the bottom shelf and deck must be min. 15 cm (6 inches). Make it easy to clean by not placing boxes and containers directly on the deck. 7

8 What should you remember when storing refrigerated and frozen food? Refrigerate perishable food at max. 5 C (41 F). Store frozen goods at -18 C (0 F) or less. The ideal temperature for keeping dry stores is C (55-68 F). Fruit and vegetables stay fresh longest when stored at 8-13 C (46-55 F). Meat, processed meat and meat products can be frozen for max. 6 months at -18 C (0 F) or less. Check date for freezing (packing date) on receipt of frozen food. Fat-containing frozen products such as fresh salmon has lower durability, because the fat become rancid. Keep good order in refrigerated and frozen stores and place all goods on shelves. Keep defrosting food covered and in a tray on the lowest shelf of the refrigerator. 8

9 9 Correct storage cuts the risk of bacteria multiplying. The correct low temperatures are important.

10 It is easier for bacteria to multiply when meat is chopped up, because it increases its surface area.

11 What must you remember when preparing hot food and placing it on the buffet? Hot food must always be heated to a core temperature of 75 C (167 F) and be piping hot. Stir hot dishes to provide an even temperature throughout. Check the temperature with a roasting thermometer. Never heat food in packaging that is not approved for microwaving. Keep hot dishes in the buffet at least at 65 C (149 F). Three hours is the maximum time from preparing hot food for the buffet until it is back in the refrigerator. Leftovers must only be used once and those that have stood on the table for more than three hours must never be used in new dishes. Leftovers can only be used when reheated to 75 C (167 F). 11

12 What are the most important things to remember when chilling and defrosting food? Hot food must be cooled from 65 C (149 F) to 10 C (50 F) in less than three hours. Place food in the refrigerator if you are interrupted or are preparing food in advance, if you plan to use it later when cooking. Three hours is the maximum time from taking cold food from the refrigerator for the buffet, until it is back in the refrigerator. Frozen meat, processed meat and meat products can not be thawed more than ones. Defrosted food can not be stored in the freezer again for reuse. Always chill hot food e.g. on oven trays or divide into smaller portions to make the surface as great as possible. Food then cools faster. Place leftovers on the night tray in the refrigerator and cover with microwave film. Always defrost food products in the refrigerator and keep them separate. Always defrost meat at the bottom of the refrigerator, so that juices do not drip onto other food. 12

13 13 Use an extra thermometer to double check the temperature in the chiller/freezer and refrigerator.

14 Good work routines ensure safe food hygiene Always wash your hands before you start and remove jewellery. Only use clean work clothing, cloths and tea towels. Wherever possible, use paper instead of cloths and food-grade gloves as required. Always wash hands when switching from one raw ingredient to another. Always keep raw ingredients separate when preparing and cooking your dishes. Always use clean chopping boards and knives, preferably in different colours. Keep your work table in the galley tidy. Good order in the storage, galley and mess are alpha and omega. Clean with hot water and disinfectant. Comply with the ship s self-assessment/cleaning plans and have a plan for using leftovers and procedures for disposal of waste. Keep written documentation and menu plans. 14

15 15 Clean everywhere thoroughly and use hot water and suitable detergent. Good design of the galley and store rooms makes cleaning easier.

16 Seahealth Denmark Seahealth Denmark is an independent private institution that provides advice to shipowners and crew on occupational health issues. We work to promote health and safety at sea. We provide consultants and advisory services, knowledge and tools to the Danish maritime industry. You can contact us on T: (+45) or Seahealth Denmark Amaliegade 33 B DK-1256 Copenhagen K uk.seahealth.dk Graphical design: martinsonnedesign Photo: &film ISBN: Seahealth Denmark Copenhagen, All rights reserved. All trademarks acknowledged. Limited copying permitted with acknowledgement of source.

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