A Safe Patient. Commonwealth Nurses Federation. Jill ILIFFE Executive Secretary. Commonwealth Nurses Federation

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1 A Safe Patient Jill ILIFFE Executive Secretary Commonwealth Nurses Federation

2 INFECTION CONTROL Every patient encounter should be viewed as potentially infectious

3 Standard Precautions 1. Hand hygiene 2. Gloves 3. Facial protection 4. Gown 5. Prevention of needle stick injuries 6. Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette 7. Environmental cleaning 8. Linens 9. Waste disposal 10. Patient care equipment

4 CHAIN OF INFECTION Causative agent (Pathogen) Susceptible host Reservoir Portal of entry Portal of exit Mode of transmission All must be present to transmit an infectious agent

5 Infection control is all about interfering with the chain of infection at as many points as possible Use standard precautions

6 Hands are the most common mode of disease transmission

7 Hand hygiene * When hands are visibly dirty, contaminated, or soiled, wash with non-antimicrobial or antimicrobial soap and water. * If hands are not visibly soiled, use an alcohol-based hand-rub for routinely decontaminating hands.

8 Ability of hand hygiene agents to reduce bacteria on hands % 99.9 Time After Disinfection log minutes 3.0 Bacterial Reduction Alcohol-based handrub (70% Isopropanol) Antimicrobial soap (4% Chlorhexidine) Plain soap Baseline Adapted from: Hosp Epidemiol Infect Control, 2 nd Edition, 1999.

9 World Health Organisation One of the most powerful approaches to fighting health care related infections is also the simplest; health care providers need to clean their hands every time they see a patient

10 Immunization of all health care workers Recommended vaccinations * Hepatitis B * Measles/Mumps/Rubella * Varicella (chicken pox) * Diphtheria/Tetanus * Polio * Influenza * Others depending on disease prevalence in the area

11 Environmental safety: * Appropriate medical waste disposal - sharps - blood - contaminated disposable products

12 Who has the responsibility? GOVERNMENT - recognise the need - set the policy in public and environmental health - provide resources and facilities - education and training

13 Who has the responsibility? HEATH ADMINISTRATORS - establish a safety culture - encourage and support reports of unsafe practices or situations - view errors and adverse events as opportunities to make systems safer - put systems in place to avoid predictable adverse events

14 Who has the responsibility? HEALTH CARE WORKERS - recognise the need for action - undertake training - universal use of universal precautions - conduct yourselves appropriately - persuade others to do the same

15 Who has the responsibility? PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS - monitor quality in professional training - regulate and monitor safe health practices - protect the public from unsafe practitioners - establish and promote codes of ethics and conduct

16 Who has the responsibility? The public YOU and ME - recognise the need for action - don t tolerate inappropriate behaviour - conduct ourselves appropriately - persuade others to do the same

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