Product/Service-System Development towards Innovative and Sustainable Engineering Solutions. Tim C. McAloone

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1 Product/Service-System Development towards Innovative and Sustainable Engineering Solutions Tim C. McAloone

2 Disposition Service design* and its sustainability potential Sustainable design Sustainable product/service design All of the above from a teaching perspective * product/service-system design 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

3 Service design Sustainable design Service design Sustainable design 3 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

4 Service design Service design 4 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

5 Why is service engineering so important to study? Products Services Material 11% 30% Information/ organisation 9% 50% [Karmarkar, 2007] 5 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

6 Why is service engineering so important to study? 13:1 49:1 [Shaheen & Cohen, 2010] 6 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

7 Motivation for PSS Why be concerned about product and service? Personal computers Locomotives Ships annual cost of use: $6,259 annual operation costs: $29 bio. annual operation costs:??? 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% network administration network technical support network equipment non-productive operations by enduser (downtime, file management etc.) administration technical support desktop hardware product s e r v i c e yard operations, railway administration, etc. train operations infrastructure freight car services locomotive services locomotives decomissioning unforseen breakdowns cargo-related systems aux. motor main motor fuel Ship Illustrative sketch only Most products are not traditionally designed for service: Design for Maintenance Design for Upgrade Design for (Remote) Monitoring Design for Reuse Design for Replacement Design for Longevity total expenditure: 5 x product costs total expenditure: 21 x product costs total expenditure:?? x product costs [after Wise & Baumgartner, HBR, 1999] 7 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

8 Presentation title Total Cost of Ownership for a Ship Click to edit Master title style [Balstrup Jørgensen and Palm Johannessen, 2013] 8 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

9 Service design Service design 9 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

10 Sustainable design Sustainable design 10 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

11 Why is sustainability so important to study? Meet Allan and Bodil Climate change Resource depletion Over population Climate induced pandemics Inequity Climate refugees [US EPA] [CIRCA, after University of Augsburg] 11 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark [US Census Bureau and UN population estimates]

12 Technology just keeps getting better on its own [W. Young, IBM, 1996] Specific electrical consumption by household appliances Stock of electrical appliances in households Private consumption and electricity use in households and it surely needs to! Sustainability is like an undergraduate party. At 1 am everybody says I m really drunk! I had better stop drinking and go home Same thing happens at 2am, 3am, etc [Energy statistics: Danish Energy Agency, 2011] 12 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

13 Challenges on the path to sustainability A product s use is not defined by the designer, but does the designer have a responsibility for how products are used? 13 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

14 Two problems of material product ownership (1) Product usage The emerging pattern of environmental load vs. responsibility or ELV or packaging or Traditional producer responsibility + WEEE Here s where the action is! 14 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

15 Two problems of material product ownership (2) Consumerism 15 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

16 Factor X (1/2) In 2050 we will need 8.5 planets to absorb the amount of C0 2 produced. In 2050 it will take 3.5 planets to sustain the amount of cement currently used. In planets will be needed in order to meet our current levels of wood consumption. In planets will be required to meet our current steel consumption levels. [demi, 2001] 16 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

17 Factor X (2/2) Ehrlich and Ehrlich [1990]: To maintain environmental impacts at their current level, the desired size of impact reduction over the next forty years (where the world population is set to double) lies between Factor 4 and a Factor 20. In order to achieve Factor 20 reductions in impact, a radical reconceptualisation of both demand and supply is necessary. 17 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

18 Design for Environment......permeates all phases of the life cycle RAW MATERIALS MANUFACTURE ASSEMBLY TRANSPORT SALES INSTALLATION USE MAINTENANCE DISPOSAL 18 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

19 Seven key criteria for sustainable design Raw materials Manufacture Assembly Transport Sales Installation Use Maintenance Disposal Durability Sufficiency Efficiency Equity Systems thinking Scale Appropriateness [Datshefski, after demi project] 19 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

20 Raw materials Manufacture Assembly Transport Sales Installation Use Maintenance Disposal Please Chair from Steelcase Fewer parts & changed materials 15% less transport weight (& volume) Better recyclability Durability Efficiency [see: 20 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

21 Raw materials Manufacture Assembly Transport Sales Installation Use Maintenance Disposal ReElight: Battery-free bicycle lamps Inductive safety lamps for cycles Eliminates all need for batteries Extra safety elements added Durability Efficiency Systems thinking [see: 21 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

22 Raw materials Manufacture Assembly Transport Sales Installation Use Maintenance Disposal A-Pump from Grundfos Low-energy circulation pump for housing complexes Durability Efficiency Systems thinking [see: 22 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

23 Ecodesign methodology Danish EPA Campaign Step 1 Use context Step 2 Overview Step 3 Eco profile Step 4 Actor network Step 5 Quantifying Step 6 Conceptualisation Step 7 Eco strategy 23 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

24 Main output: A guide for product development Guides printed/distributed: (4.500 DK UK) Downloaded: Available electronically Link on Free of charge No copyright 24 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

25 Product Life Thinking workshop Steelcase USA, Sept DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

26 Twelve months after this they still couldn t do it (on their own) 26 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

27 ...so how to help with ecodesign implementation? Questionnaire with 34 questions Sent out to 500+ DfE practitioners Response: 80 companies Just over half of respondents from DK Denmark 42 USA 10 Sweden 8 UK 7 France 5 Croatia 2 Finland 2 Portugal 2 Slovenia - 2 Company demographics: 27 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

28 Largest drivers What do you think were the main drivers for your company to start taking environmental initiatives? (Maximum 3 answers to be selected) Top 3: Legislation Customer demands Proactive drivers 28 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

29 Largest barriers When you started your environmental initiatives, what were the four most difficult barriers to overcome? (Maximum 4 answers to be selected) Paraphrasing the survey: Lack of allocation of resources in company Difficulty finding relevant data Need for training/ competency lift No systematic approach to ecodesign in the company product development model 29 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

30 Ecodesign practices Collection of ecodesign best practices Process: comprises all tasks required to bring a product from concept to product including all activities from raw material to finished goods. This is both formal processes and day-to-day work practices. People: recruiting, selecting and training engineers, leadership style, organizational structure and learning patterns. This area also covers the organizational culture Technical: all tools and technologies needed to bring a product into being. It also entails the soft tools that support the effort of the people involved in the development process. [Pigosso, 2012] 30 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

31 Promising answer to these problems: Ecodesign Maturity Model (EcoM2), Daniela Pigosso Coloplast Embraer S/A Grundfos LEGO Group Natura Philips Healthcare Tecumseh [Pigosso, 2012] 31 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

32 But what about that thing called Factor X? Lighting Fixtures F2.44 Microwave ovens F1.27 Increasing amounts of Factor X examples However, X is still low X=10 or X=20 seems impossible through product design alone Automatic washing machines F2.00 [Mitsubishi, 2006] 32 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

33 Service design Sustainable design Service design Sustainable design 33 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

34 Vertical integration of sustainability strategy in the organisation 34 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

35 Sustainability as a driver for innovation of whole systems 35 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

36 Environmental improvements through PSS 36 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark [Shaheen & Cohen, 2010]

37 Integrated product/service design Sustainable design...from an engineering education perspective Service design Sustainable design 37 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

38 This is ecodesign! 38 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

39 Educating engineers in product life thinking and sustainable design Learning vs. teaching ecodesign First task: Eco-game Second task: Write an article about one of the aspects of the course DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

40 Teaching Sustainable PSS to engineers Eco + PSS teaching at DTU Tasks on PSS course 2013: Light and lighting control Soft drink vending machines Organic waste sorting Inter-campus transportation: Lyngby-Ballerup Commuting to and from DTU Lyngby campus Optimisation of paper consumption Coffee rituals, technologies and consumption at DTU Hand-tools in DTU s Estates department 40 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

41 Product Life Galleries from DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

42 PSS final results from the students 42 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

43 Reflection & conclusion 43 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

44 Integrated product and service development PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURE PRODUCT MARKET DELIVERY DESIGN MARKET SERVICE DEVELOPMENT 44 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

45 New perspectives with integrated PSS development Customer activities are part of the value creation process CUSTOMER Company takes upon responsibility in the value chain and new roles are defined Knowledge and competencies aimed at customer s activities Creating new relationships and different networks of stakeholders Great opportunities for Factor X improvements through PSS 45 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

46 Integrated product/service design Sustainable design...it s not a choice of whether, it s a choice of how Service design Sustainable design 46 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

47 Thank you for listening! Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section of Engineering Design and Product Development

48 Tim McAloone, Professor, PhD Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Department of Mechanical Engineering Section for Engineering Design and Product Development Building 426, Produktionstorvet, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark Telephone (+45) Homepage Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section of Engineering Design and Product Development

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