1 SAMPLE MANUSCRIPT in APA format (5 th ed.) According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th ed.), the pages of a manuscript should be arranged as follows: A. Title Page page 1 [See Sections 1.06, 5.15] B. Abstract page 2 [See Sections 1.07, 5.16] C. Text begin on page 3 [See Section 5.17] 1. Introduction [See Section 1.08] 2. Method [See Section 1.09] a. Participants b. Apparatus (or Materials) c. Procedure 3. Results [See Section 1.10] 4. Discussion [See Section 1.11] D. References start on separate page [See Sections 1.13, , Ch. 4] E. Appendices start each on separate page [See Sections 1.14, , 5.19] F. Author note start on separate page [See sections 1.15, 3.89, 5.20] G. Footnotes list together, starting on separate page [See Sections 3.87, 5.20] H. Tables start each on separate page [See Sections , 5.21] I. Figure Captions list together, starting on separate page [See Sections 3.84, 5.22] J. Figures place each on separate page [See sections , 5.22]
2 The first page of every manuscript is the title page (see pp of the APA Publication Manual). The title page is removed if the author does not want reviewers to know who wrote the article: a blind review. Typing Instructions Double space the entire manuscript. Use 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins on all four sides. Effects of Defendant 1 Running head: SENTENCE LENGTH INFLUENCED BY JURY DISCUSSION Page headers Purpose: To identify manuscript without author s name. Appears on every page. First two or three words of title. Title Page Page number The title page is 1. Only the number is written. Effects of Defendant Attractiveness and Jury Discussion on Length of Sentence Susan B. Crosby State University of New York College at Oswego Running head Purpose: To provide an abbreviated version of the title. It appears on the top of the right-hand journal pages to remind the reader which article they are reading. Include the words Running Head followed by a colon. Maximum 50 letters, spaces, and punctuation, excluding the words Running head. Avoid use of commas. Use all capital letters. Place near the top of the page. Flush left. Title Purpose: To review the main idea of the paper. Give names of independent and dependent variables words. First letter of each main word is capitalized. Center each line of the title. Author s name Use your name. Center. Author s affiliation Give the name of your school. Center.
3 NEW PAGE The second page of every manuscript contains the abstract (see pp of the APA Publication Manual). Effects of Defendant 2 Abstract Ten groups of six participant-jurors each viewed a videotape of a trial in which either an attractive or unattractive female defendant was convicted of vehicular manslaughter. Before any group discussion about the case, each participant-juror recommended a sentence for the defendant (from 1 to 25 years). After group discussion, each participant-juror again recommended a sentence. Prior to group discussion, the unattractive defendant received a longer sentence than the attractive defendant, but after group discussion, attractive and unattractive defendants were sentenced equally. These results support problem-solving theory, but contradicted information-integration theory. Abstract The abstract is always the second page. Center the word Abstract. Only the first letter is capitalized. Do NOT italicize or underline the word Abstract. Do NOT indent first word of the abstract. Use one paragraph only. No more than 120 words. Purpose: 1. Review problem under investigation with a single sentence (may be omitted if abstract is long). 2. Review methodology (participants, apparatus/materials, procedures). 3. Review results, conclusions, and implications. 4. Write concisely. Make sure the reader knows WHAT YOU DID and WHAT YOU GOT. Empirical study: words Review/theoretical article: words NEW PAGE The introduction is begun on the third page of every manuscript (see pp of the APA Publication Manual).
4 NEW PAGE The introduction is begun on the third page of every manuscript (see pp of the APA Publication Manual). Effects of Defendant 3 Effects of Defendant Attractiveness and Jury Discussion on Length of Sentence Forensic Psychology deals with the application of psychology to legal issues and court cases (Deitz, 2000). One area in forensic psychology is the investigation of factors other than the evidence and testimony presented during a trial that can influence jury decisions. These extra legal factors include the defendant s race, gender, and socioeconomic status (Saks & Hastie, 1978). Another one of these factors is the attractiveness of the defendant: more attractive defendants generally receive more lenient sentence recommendations. Landy and Aronson (1969) had subject-jurors read a case of an alcohol-related driving accident prior to their recommending a sentence length for the defendant (from 1 to 25 years). The attractive defendant was presented as an insurance assessor with a stable employment record. He was known as a good worker with no criminal record and was a widower intending to spend Christmas Eve with his daughter and son-in-law. The unattractive defendant was a recently hired janitor with a criminal record. He was not known by his fellow employees, he was a divorcee with three children, and he intended to spend Christmas Eve with his girlfriend. Even Introduction Repeat the title. Center the title. Do NOT repeat the author s name or affiliation. The introduction is NOT labeled. Indent the first word of every paragraph ½. Purpose 1: Introduction of the problem Begin by identifying the research issue. Purpose 2: Development of the background Review the pertinent literature For each article you review, be sure that the reader knows: 1. What variables were manipulated 2. What variables were measured. 3. The results and conclusions. The review should be concise, but sometime it is necessary to give a more complete review (the sample provided gives a fair amount of detail). Use the author-date method of citation (author s or authors last name(s) and date of publication for citation). There is no need to repeat the year if you are referring to the same publication in the same paragraph. though the same evidence was presented to convict both defendants, the subject-jurors recommended a shorter sentence for the more attractive defendant.
5 Effects of Defendant 4 In another study of an auto-accident case, jurors recommended a shorter sentence for the more attractive defendant than for the less attractive one (Kaplan & Kemerick, 1974). Moreover, in studies in which attractiveness is defined in terms of physical characteristics alone, results have been The ampersand (&) is used when the reference appears within parentheses. similar. For example, Efran (1974) attached a photograph of a physically attractive or unattractive male or female college student to a booklet describing a case of student cheating. Participant-juror ratings of the defendant on a 6-point scale indicated a desire to punish the unattractive defendant more severely than the attractive defendant. Gerbasi, Zuckerman, and Hess (1977) pointed out that these, as well as other participant-juror studies (e.g., Nemeth & Sosis, 1973; Sigall & Ostrove, 1975), are lacking in one critical respect: participant-jurors were presented with a case and were asked to render sentence without discussing the case with fellow jurors, which is always the case following a real trial. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine if attractiveness of the defendant influences the length of sentence recommendations when group discussion precedes a sentencing decision. It was hypothesized that before group discussion participant-jurors would recommend a more lenient sentence for an attractive defendant than for an unattractive defendant, but that after group discussion the attractive and unattractive defendants would receive equally harsh sentence recommendations. This prediction was based on research that If there are three to five authors, mention all authors the first time. After that use the first author and et al., as in Gerbasi et al. (1977) pointed out If there are six or more authors, use the first author and et al. the first and subsequent times. Purpose 3: Statement of purpose and rationale Be very explicit: The purpose of It was hypothesized that The literature reviewed is the basis for the predictions. Researchers frequently base their predictions on theories. Limit the use of I or we in all sections of the manuscript (APA style rules just recently began to allow the use of the first person). There is no formal limit to the length of the introduction, but the typical range is between two and five type-written doublespaced pages.
6 Effects of Defendant 5 has shown that group discussion leads to problem solutions that are superior to the solutions of individual participant s (e.g., Shaw, 1932). So, if the extralegal variable of defendant attractiveness does indeed result in jurors making inappropriate sentence recommendations when they act as individuals, group discussion should result in rejection of attractiveness (a superior solution) as a sentencing criterion. In other words, attractiveness of the defendant should be less likely to influence the length of a juror s sentence recommendation if the recommendation follows group discussion. Method Participants A total of 60 students (30 male and 30 female) who were enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a northeastern university participated in this Method The method section follows the introduction on the same page if space permits. Heading levels The rules for headings change when the article reports more than one experiment (see APA Publication Manual, pp , ). The word Method is centered and is NOT underlined or italicized. The Participants, Materials, and Procedure headings are NOT centered or indented, but are italicized. the text begins on the next line and is indented ½. Participants Who participated. How many participated. How they were selected. Identify important participant characteristics (e.g., gender, age, ethnicity). experiment for course credit. They were ethnically diverse freshman or sophomores who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.70, SD = 1.90). Materials The questionnaire, a two-page typed booklet, contained a cover page with the title of the case, and a second page labeled Years of Sentence on which were listed numbers 1 to 25. A rectangular table with six chairs and a large screen (1 x 1 m) were set up in the experimental room for viewing the videotape of the trial. The two videotaped versions of the trial (each 12-min long) were Materials Provide a complete description of the materials you used. Psychologists use the metric system. Therefore, all measurements are given in m, mm, or cm, NOT in inches or feet. Abbreviations for metric units are given in the APA Publication Manual (pp ). Purpose (Method section): To provide in great detail the characteristics of the participants, the apparatus and/or materials used, and the procedure (what experiences the participants had from the beginning to the end of the study). There should be enough detail in the method section to permit someone else to replicate the study. (See pp of the APA Publication Manual.)
7 Effects of Defendant 6 identical except for the high versus low attractiveness of the defendant. The attractive and unattractive defendants were both acted by the same 25-year old professional actress and model. In the highly attractive condition, she was physically appealing, well-groomed, and neatly dressed. In the unattractive condition, she was unkempt and sloppily attired. She was also made to look physically unappealing (stained teeth, poor complexion, etc.) through the assistance of the theatrical make-up staff. The defendant was charged with vehicular manslaughter because, while intoxicated, she ran a red light and Apparatus Either the apparatus OR materials heading is used. The apparatus heading is used if you are primarily describing equipment. The materials heading is used if you are describing word lists, reading material, etc. Manufacturer s name and the model number of any apparatus commercially available must be reported. Report all physical characteristics ( e.g., measurements, color, intensity of lights or tones) of self-made apparatus. The details provided must permit the reader to duplicate the apparatus. killed a man who was crossing the street. For a complete description of the case, see Landy and Aronson (1969). Procedure Six participants were randomly assigned to each jury group, with the restriction that there be three males and three females in each. Of the 10 jury groups included in the experiment, five were randomly assigned to see the videotape depicting the high attractive defendant (Group HI-A), and five were randomly assigned to see the low attractive defendant (Group LO-A). The groups were run on 10 consecutive days at 9:00 a.m. Procedure Review what was done to the participants from the beginning to end of the study. Instructions are included verbatim only if they are an experimental manipulation. Otherwise, they are paraphrased. The design of the experiment and how participants were assigned to each group are mentioned in this section. Group abbreviations: It is easier for readers if meaningful initials or numerals are used for group names rather than meaningless letters or numbers. Upon entering the experimental room, the female experimenter asked the six participants to seat themselves at a table. She informed them that after watching a videotape of a trial, they would be asked to recommend a
8 Effects of Defendant 7 after watching a videotape of a trial, they would be asked to recommend a sentence for the defendant. The experimenter then played the appropriate videotape. One-half of the participants were shown the tape with the attractive defendant, whereas the other half were shown the tape with the unattractive defendant. Immediately after the presentation, the questionnaire booklet was given to each participant. The experimenter instructed them to circle a number (from 1 to 25) on the second page of the booklet to indicate the sentence length they thought was appropriate for the defendant. Participants were given as much time as they needed, but were instructed not say anything to the other participants. The booklets were then collected, and the experimenter asked the six participants to discuss the case freely as if they were a real jury. They were told to notify the experimenter (who was waiting in the next room) when, as a group, they felt they had fully discussed the case. Once the experimenter was notified, she re-entered the room and handed all participant-jurors another copy of the questionnaire. She again Avoid sexist language: use they rather than he or she, except when a male or female is explicitly referred to. Rules for Using Numbers (See APA Publication Manual, pp ) General Rule: Numbers 10 or above are expressed as numerals. Nine or below are written as words. The rules for when to write a number as a word or as a numeral are probably the hardest to learn because there are many exceptions to this rule. It is wise to always refer back to the APA Publication Manual. Some exceptions to the general rule: 1. Measurements are always numerals. 2. Statistical functions are always numerals. 3. Groups of numbers with one value above 10 are always numerals. 4. Numbers that indicate a specific place in a series: Figure 1, Group 4, Trial 6 are numerals. 5. If a sentence begins with a number, it is always a word. asked them to fill it out individually, after considering all aspects of the case brought out in the group discussion. The experimenter specifically told participants not to feel bound by the response they gave to the questionnaire prior to the opportunity for group discussion.
9 Effects of Defendant 8 At the end of the experiment participants were thanked for their participation and were instructed not to discuss the case with anyone else. They were also informed that within two weeks they could contact the Document any variations in procedures. experimenter to receive a detailed explanation of the research project. An additional group of six participants was excused partway through the experiment due to a malfunction of the videotape monitor. Results A preliminary analysis comparing sentences given by male (M = 7.40, SD = 1.30) versus female (M = 7.05, SD = 1.15) participant-jurors indicated no significant difference, t(58) = 1.73, p >.10. Therefore, the gender variable was not included in the main analysis. Results of a 2 x 2 mixed design analysis of variance (high versus low attractive defendant x no discussion versus discussion) showed a significant main effect for attractiveness, F(1, 58) = 10.88, p <.01. Sentence recommendations for the low-attractive defendant (M = 9.35, SD = 1.27) were longer than for the high-attractive defendant (M = 5.05, SD = 1.35). Results also indicated a main effect for group discussion versus no group discussion, such that sentence length prior to group discussion (M = 8.40, SD = 1.56) was higher than sentence length after group discussion (M = 6.00, SD = 1.32), F(1, 58) = 12.22, p <.001. Results Center heading. Purpose: To summarize the results and the statistical analyses (see APA Publication Manual, pp ). Results can be summarized through figures, tables, or in the text, but can only be presented once. Statistical Results Purpose: To present all results even nonsignifcant ones. When reporting means, always include associated measures of variability (e.g., SD, variance). The letter that represents the type of test used is italicized only if it is not a Greek letter. Note, the symbol for chi square, χ2, is NOT italicized. Put spaces between numbers and symbols as you would words. The number in the parentheses represents the degrees of freedom (df value). Do NOT type the letters df. When reporting the results of an analysis of variance there are two df values. The p is always italicized. Do not confuse the < and > sign. Give a verbal description of the results, end the statement with a comma, and follow the statement with statistical evidence. (The phrase before the comma is a complete sentence.)
10 Effects of Defendant 9 These main effects were qualified by a significant interaction effect, F(1, 58) = 7.46, p <.01; therefore, tests of simple main effects were done. As shown in Figure 1, sentence recommendations for the low-attractive defendant were longer than for the high-attractive defendant only when they were made prior to group discussion, F(1, 58) = 17.54, p <.001. After group discussion, however, defendant attractiveness had no effect on sentence-length recommendations, F < 1. Discussion The finding that, before group discussion, participant-jurors sentenced the unattractive defendant more harshly than the attractive defendant replicates the findings of earlier research (e.g., Efran, 1974; Kaplan & Kemerick, 1974; Landy & Aronson, 1969; Sigall & Ostrove, 1975). After group discussion, however, high versus low defendant attractiveness no longer influenced the length of the participant-jurors sentence decisions. These results support the experimental hypothesis that group discussion of the case would tend to eliminate the influence of defendant attractiveness Do NOT interpret the results in the Results section. Refer to specific tables and figures in the text (e.g., Figure 1 indicates ), so the reader will know when to refer to them. The figures are placed at the end of the manuscript, but will be inserted in the text when printed. When a specific figure and its number are referred to, Figure is capitalized, and a numeral is used. If the results are summarized in a table, the words Table 1 must be mentioned in the text, so the reader will know to look for the table. Provide a brief description of the results seen on the figure. If the F value is less than 1, simply report F < 1 and omit the df and p values. Discussion Purpose: To review whether the results supported or did not support your hypotheses, whether they are consistent with the published literature, and the conclusions and implications of the results. (See APA Publication Manual, pp ) Center heading. Tie in the results of the present experiment with those reported in the literature. Discussion sections frequently begin with a review of the major results. The results are tied in with the hypotheses stated in the introduction. on individual sentence decisions. Since no data were collected that reflect the content of the group discussions, future research should either monitor group discussion to determine attractiveness was discussed, or should assess the impact of directing deliberations toward or away from a discussion of defendant attractiveness.
11 Effects of Defendant 10 One prediction was not completely verified: that after group discussion the attractive defendant would receive a sentence as harsh as that received by the unattractive defendant. The results show that sentence values assigned to the attractive and unattractive defendant were equally lenient after group discussion. Apparently, the unattractive defendant had received unduly harsh sentence recommendations when there was no group discussion. The effect group discussion had on the sentencing of attractive and unattractive defendants may not generalize to other types of defendant characterizations. For example, Myers and Kaplan (1976) found that for defendants involved in a high- versus low-guilt case, group discussion Authors frequently indicate if they believe the results can be generalized. increased rather than decreased the length of the sentence decisions. Perhaps group discussion influences the effect the high- versus low-guilt variable had on sentencing differently from the way it influences the effects of the high- versus low-attraction variable. Alternatively, procedural differences may have caused the difference in results. Myers and Kaplan had participants read booklets containing the summary of the case, whereas in the present experiment participants saw a videotape of the trial. Research reported by Williams, Farmer, Lee, Cundick, Howel, and Rooker (1975), however, indicates that mode of trial presentation may not be an important variable. Williams et al. found no difference in punishment (dollar amounts Reminder: Use et al if the citation has been previously given and there are three or more authors.
12 Effects of Defendant 11 assigned in a land condemnation case) among groups seeing the trial live versus in color video, black and white video, audio only, or transcript only. Another procedural difference was that participant-jurors in the Myers and Kaplan study read both high- and low-guilt cases (a withinsubject design), whereas in the present experiment participant-jurors saw either the high- or low-attractive defendant tape (a between-subject design). Additional research must be conducted to determine if the type of design used can account for the opposite effects group discussion had in the two sentencing experiments. The opposite effects of group discussion obtained in the present study and Myers and Kaplan s (1976) study also raised an interesting theoretical question. Myers and Kaplan explained their results in terms of Anderson s (1974) information-integration theory, which predicts that group discussion Discuss problems you encountered when carrying out the research and suggestions for improving the research effort. Elaborate on contradictory results. should increase the difference in the length of the sentence between highand low-guilt cases as compared with the sentence length prior to group discussion. Since information-integration theory does not differentiate between the guilt and attractiveness variables, it makes predictions opposite to the results obtained in the present experiment. It may be that this theory needs to be modified.
13 Effects of Defendant 12 The practical implication of the results of the present experiment is that those who were concerned that attraction of the defendant may influence jury decisions should question the validity of the conclusions of earlier research. The current study supports the idea that defendant attractiveness only has an effect on juror sentence recommendations in the absence of jury Discussion sections frequently end with a review of the implications of the results. discussions of the case. Because real juries always discuss cases presented to them, the extralegal attractiveness variable may not influence jury decisions about a defendant. Future investigations of the effects of attractiveness on jury decisions should allow for case discussions. Otherwise the research setting will not be representative of the real legal environment.
14 NEW PAGE The reference section always begins on a new page. The exact format used varies among periodicals, books, chapters in books, etc., and you should look up the style in the APA Publication Manual (4.16). There are many picky rules for citing references Effects of Defendant 13 References Anderson, N. J. (1974). Cognitive algebra: Integration theory applied to social attribution. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press. Deitz, S. (2000, April 18 last update). Lawpsych: Forensic psychology and psychiatry WebRing [Online]. Available: [August 1, 2000]. Efran, M. G. (1974). The effect of physical appearance on the judgment of guilt, interpersonal attraction, and severity of recommended punishment in a simulated jury task. Journal of Research in Personality, 8, Gerbasi, K. C., Zuckerman, M., & Reis, H. T. (1977). Justice needs a new blind-fold: A review of mock jury research. Psychological Bulletin, 84, Izzett, R. R., & Leginski, W. (1974). Group discussion and the influence of defendant characteristics in a simulated-jury setting. Journal of Social Psychology, 93, Kaplan, M. G., & Kemerick, G. D. (1974). Juror judgment as informational integration: Combining evidential and nonevidential References Purpose: To provide the complete reference for every citation mentioned in the manuscript. Center heading. References are NOT numbered. All references are in alphabetical order. Rules for journal articles: The last name appears first, followed by the initials. The first line of each reference is flush left and the subsequent lines are indented ½ inch. The ampersand (&) is used if there is more than one author. There is a comma before the &. The year appears in parentheses and is followed by a period. The first letter of the first word is the only one capitalized in the title, and the title is followed by a period. The name of the journal article is NOT abbreviated. The journal title is italicized and the first letter of each main word is capitalized. The volume number and pages follow the journal title. All numbers are separated by commas. Do NOT use the words volume or pages. Only the volume number is italicized. End with a period. information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30,
15 Effects of Defendant 14 Landy, D., & Aronson, E. (1969). The influence of the character of the criminal and his victim on the decisions of simulated jurors. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, Myers, D. G., & Kaplan, M. F. (1976). Group-induced polarization in simulated juries. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2, Nemeth, C., & Sosis, R. H. (1973). A simulated jury study: Characteristics of the defendant and the jurors. Journal of Social Psychology, 90, Saks, M. J., & Hastie, R. (1978). Social psychology in court. New York: VanNostrand Reinhold. Titles of books are italicized. Only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. Shaw, J. I. (1972). Reactions to victims and defendants in varying degrees of attractiveness. Psychonomic Science, 27, Sigall, H., & Ostrove, N. (1975). Beautiful but dangerous: Effects of offender attractiveness and the nature of the crime on juridic The first word following a colon in the title of an article is capitalized. judgement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, Williams, G. R., Farmer, L. C., Lee, R. E., Cundick, B. P., Howell, R. J., & Rooker, K. (1975). Juror perceptions of trial testimony as a function of the method of presentation: A comparison of live, color video, black-and-white video, audio, and transcript presentations. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2,
16 Effects of Defendant 15 Author Note This sample manuscript reported data published by Izzett and Leginski (1974). The Author Note follows Appendices, if present, or the References (see APA Publication Manual pp. 29, , 300).
17 Effects of Defendant 16 Table 1 Mean Sentence in Years for Low and High-attractive Defendant With and Without Discussion Attractiveness Low High No Discussion Discussion Tables (See APA Publication Manual, pp ) Each table is placed on a separate page. Place the page header and page number on the top of each table. Table number and title are placed on the top of the table. Table 1 is NOT italicized. Table 1 is NOT indented or centered. The first letter of each main word in the table title is capitalized. The table title is italicized. This table is not part of the sample manuscript. It is provided only to show how tables are presented. Remember, results can be summarized through figures, tables, or in the text, but may only be presented once.
18 Effects of Defendant 17 Figure Caption Figure 1. Mean sentence in years as a function of defendant s attractiveness (low vs. high) and amount of discussion ( no discussion denoted by the filled bar; with discussion denoted by the open bar). Figure Captions The page is titled Figure Caption and the title is centered. Figure 1 is italicized. Nothing is indented on the figure caption page. All figure captions are placed on the same page, with figures clearly numbered. REMNDERS: 1. Write clearly and concisely. 2. All pages of a manuscript are double-spaced. NEVER SINGLE SPACE. 3. Check the APA Publication Manual for additional rules. 4. Plan on writing many drafts before the final one. 5. Proofread your final version and correct spelling, typing, and grammatical errors (this is very simple if you have typed the the paper on a word processor). 6. Make sure you have not missed a section. 7. Be sure that the sections are in the correct order.
19 14 Figures (See APA Publication Manual, pp ) Each figure is drawn on a separate page and is placed after the Figure Caption page. Page is not titled or numbered. Mean Sentence (yrs) Low Attractiveness High No Discussion Discussion The vertical axis should be about twothirds the length of the horizontal axis. If either axis does not begin at zero, a double slash mark must be made to indicate the discontinuity. All axes must be labeled. The legend that identifies the group names appears within the axes on the figure. Do NOT put the figure caption (same as figure title) on the figure. It is placed on a separate page at the end of the report. Figures are drawn in black (NO colors are allowed).
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