Mayo Clinic Health Decisions Guide Early Breast Cancer: What s best for me? v.10

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mayo Clinic Health Decisions Guide Early Breast Cancer: What s best for me? v.10"

Transcription

1 Screen # EBC_001 Section: Welcome Screen name: Welcome Screen Type: VISUAL/GRAPHICS AUDIO PROGRAMMING NOTES Graphical User Feedback Multiple choice: Please tell us why you are here? I have discovered a lump and I m looking for information about breast cancer. I was recently diagnosed with breast cancer and have to make decisions about treatment. I have already decided what treatment to have but I m interested in more information. I have a friend or family member with breast cancer. I am curious about breast cancer. (Text) A diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the most devastating experiences a woman can face. Each year more than 180,000 women receive this diagnosis and face difficult decisions about treatment. Initially, fear, shock, and anger can be so powerful as to feel disabling. You may feel isolated and overwhelmed. And nearly everyone asks the same question. Why me? We don t yet know the cause of cancer. Something apparently triggers a cell to begin dividing without control or order, threatening nearby healthy tissue. Genetic factors play a role in 5-10% of breast cancer cases. Eating a lot of fat, consistently being more than 20% over your ideal weight, and having an inactive lifestyle may put some people at higher risk. But there are no definitive answers yet. Two things are certain: 1. Your condition is NOT contagious. 2. You are NOT to blame for this disease. Primary Navigation: 1. Welcome 2. Basic Anatomy 3. About My Condition 4. Treatment Options 5. Meet the Mayo Doctor 6. Meet Other Women 7. Things to Consider Link to More About Health Decisions Images of women being comforted by family Neither are you alone. This is an important time to reach out for help. Here s why. Although the single most important factor in surviving cancer is the nature of your particular condition, some studies suggest that both your attitude and active participation in treatment decisions play key roles in your overall quality of life. And may even influence the ultimate outcome of your illness. People who maintain strong connections to family, friends, and faith seem to be at less risk than those who are more isolated. Toby A. Smith, writer page 1

2 Screen # EBC_001 Section: Welcome Screen name: Welcome Screen Type: VISUAL/GRAPHICS AUDIO PROGRAMMING NOTES (Text) Aside from family members, there is a rich network of agencies and resources to provide the information you ll need to make decisions about your health care. This web site is one of them. We ve gathered information from many sources and organized it to provide complete yet understandable information on the decisions you now face. It will take about an hour to go through all of it. Although it is NOT essential to read everything in one sitting, it IS important to review ALL the information before making a treatment decision. That way you will be fully informed and know what to expect. Images of diverse women s faces sprinkled throughout welcome area The information presented in Early Breast Cancer: What s Best for Me? is designed specifically for women with early invasive breast cancer. Please note that if you have non-invasive breast cancer or advanced breast cancer (Stage III or Stage IV) you will not find all the information you need in this section. You ll find information on treatment options for early breast cancer, including the tradeoffs involved in each treatment so you can begin to weigh the pros and cons of each choice. You can hear directly from women who ve made different treatment choices as well as hear from a practicing oncologist at the Mayo Clinic. We also offer a list of questions to ask yourself that may assist you in this very important decision making process. Links to information on other kinds of breast cancer: yo/0004/htm/abmt.htm yo/0004/htm/abmt_sb.htm Toby A. Smith, writer page 2

3 Screen # EBC_001 Section: Welcome Screen name: Welcome Screen Type: VISUAL/GRAPHICS AUDIO PROGRAMMING NOTES (text) Of course, it would be easier if all the medical information clearly pointed to a single answer. Unfortunately, there is still a lot to learn about breast cancer. Results from different medical studies sometimes provide conflicting information and medical knowledge is always increasing. The result is there is usually no one right answer. So, instead of looking for the right answer, focus on this question: What s best for me? Images of diverse women s faces sprinkled throughout welcome area Take some time. Most cancers are slow growing. Taking a few extra days up to a few weeks to carefully weigh your options is not likely to alter the outcome. On the other hand, thorough consideration of your values, lifestyle, and personal priorities will make all the difference in how happy you ultimately are with the choices you make. And even if you decide you are more comfortable asking your doctor to decide on treatment, the knowledge you will have acquired may help make the process a little less scary. Remember that, in many ways, a diagnosis of EARLY breast cancer is actually good news. Because the disease has been found early, you have more choice in treatment options and your long-term outlook is much improved. Next: Basic Anatomy Toby A. Smith, writer page 3

4 Screen # EBC_100 Section: Basic Anatomy Screen name: Basic Anatomy Screen Type: (Text) Your breast is built so you can produce milk to feed babies. Graphic build of breast: Breast alone Add label and image of lobes structure Add label and lobules structure Add label and ducts structure. Add label to areola. Add label to stroma. Each breast has between 15 and 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe is made up of many smaller structures called lobules which end in tiny bulbs that can produce milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are all linked by a network of thin tubes called ducts. The ducts carry milk from the bulbs where it is produced toward the dark area of skin in the center of the breast called the areola where it becomes available to a hungry infant. The spaces around the lobules and ducts are filled with fatty tissue and ligaments referred to as stroma. The amount of fat in your breasts is largely what determines how big they are. The actual milk producing structures are nearly the same in all women. Although there are no muscles inside the breast, there are muscles underneath your breasts, separating them from your ribs. The cells that make up your breasts are fed by two separate systems of vessels. Toby A. Smith, writer page 4

5 Screen # EBC_100 Section: Basic Anatomy Screen name: Basic Anatomy Screen Type: Add label and blood vessels structure (Text) Add label and lymph vessels structure Oxygen, nutrients, and other life-sustaining nourishment are delivered to breast tissues by the blood in your arteries and capillaries. A second system of vessels carries lymph, a colorless fluid. These vessels remove lymph fluid that has been filtered by the bloodstream, draining it into lymph nodes under the arm. Lymph fluid may also carry away diseasecausing agents as well as tumor cells from the breast. Next: About My Condition Toby A. Smith, writer page 5

6 Screen # EBC_200 Section: About My Condition Screen name: About My Condition Screen Type: (text) There are many different diagnoses associated with breast cancer. The common thread is they all involve the growth of abnormal cells. The information on this web site is designed primarily for women who have received a diagnosis of early invasive (also called infiltrating) breast cancer which accounts for about 85% of all cases. About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician GRAPHIC: Non-invasive, non-infiltrating, in situ all mean the same thing. If you have received a diagnosis of or are looking for information about either non-invasive breast cancer or advanced breast cancer (Stage III or Stage IV), you will need information beyond what is available in this section. We encourage you to read through the information we have collected but please consult your physician for complete information about your treatment options. Next: Invasive Breast Cancer Toby A. Smith, writer page 6

7 Screen # EBC_201 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Invasive Breast Cancer Screen Type: (On screen Text) Carcinoma refers to abnormal cells that invade surrounding healthy tissue and can spread to other parts of the body. (text) Invasive (also called infiltrating) breast cancers (and sometimes called adeno-carcinoma) are malignant cancers which means they tend to get progressively worse, eventually threatening your life. There are two common types of invasive breast cancer. The first is invasive ductal carcinoma. This type of cancer accounts for about 70 percent of all breast cancers. About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician Animation of IDC showing abnormal patch of cells growing, breaking through duct wall into stroma. Show cells breaking off and traveling through lymph system. It begins with abnormal cell growth in a milk duct which then breaks through the duct wall, invading the breast s stroma or fatty tissue. Individual cancer cells can break off and spread or metastasize to other parts of your body through either the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Link to Anatomy Toby A. Smith, writer page 7

8 Screen # EBC_201 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Invasive Breast Cancer Screen Type: (Text) A second kind of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma accounts for another percent of invasive breast cancers. Animation of ILC showing abnormal patch of cells growing, breaking through lobule into stroma. Show cells breaking off and traveling through lymph system. This cancer starts in the milk-producing lobules before spreading into the breast s stroma or fatty tissue. Like invasive ductal cancer, invasive lobular cancer can also spread to other parts of your body by way of the lymphatic system and bloodstream. Next: Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) Toby A. Smith, writer page 8

9 Screen # EBC_202D Section: About My Condition Screen name: DCIS Screen Type: (On screen text) In situ: a Latin phrase meaning limited to one location. Graphic of DCIS (text) Not all abnormal cells infiltrate or invade surrounding tissue. You may have received a diagnosis of DCIS which stands for ductal carcinoma in situ (also called intraductal carcinoma). With DCIS, abnormal cells are confined to the lining of a milk duct and have not yet broken through the duct wall into surrounding tissue. Because cells have not spread either within the breast or to lymph nodes or other parts of your body, DCIS is technically considered non-invasive. Your doctor may also use words like pre-cancerous or premalignant. Physicians generally recommend treatment for DCIS because these cells may change over time and become invasive cancers. Next: Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS) About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician Link to anatomy Toby A. Smith, writer page 9

10 Screen # EBC_202L Section: About My Condition Screen name: LCIS Screen Type: Graphic of LCIS (text) Abnormal cells do not always infiltrate or invade surrounding tissue. You may have received a diagnosis of LCIS, an abbreviation for lobular carcinoma in situ. In LCIS, abnormal cells are confined to the lining of a milk lobule and have not yet spread to surrounding tissue, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body. LCIS is considered an indicator for increased risk of developing breast cancer. Talk with your physician about your treatment options. Next: Microcalcifications About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician Toby A. Smith, writer page 10

11 Screen # EBC_203 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Microcalcifications Screen Type: Mammography image showing microcalcifications (text) Microcalcifications are tiny deposit of calcium spotted by mammography that can appear in ducts, lobules, lymph and blood vessels, fat or skin. Most women have one or more areas of calcifications and the vast majority of these are harmless. A small percentage of calcium deposits, when seen in particular patterns, may indicate an area of rapidly dividing cells and can therefore signal the possibility of cancer. From 25 to 50% of cancers found by mammography are first noticed as clusters of microcalcifications. The remaining cancers appear as lumps. About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician Whenever calcifications appear worrisome or suspicious to the radiologist, additional mammograms and/or a biopsy may be recommended to either establish or eliminate a diagnosis of cancer. Next: Stages of Cancer For more information about microcalcifications: URL TBD: OLD URL: skphys/qa htm Toby A. Smith, writer page 11

12 Screen # EBC_204 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Stages of Cancer Screen Type: (Text) Not all breast cancers are alike. Your physician will conduct a series of tests to find out more about your specific condition. One part of this process is called staging. It's used to determine the size and location of your cancer and to see if it has spread within your breast, to your lymph nodes, or to other parts of your body. This is also a useful process for you because it provides information you will need to make intelligent treatment decisions. About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician Image of doctor examining woman It is important to remember that there are two kinds of staging. The first is clinical staging. This occurs when you first receive your diagnosis, before treatment begins. It is highly reliable. Image of technician with microscope The second type of staging, pathological staging, can only occur after surgery when actual tissue samples from your cancer can be studied under a microscope. This pathology report may not be available for up to a week after your surgery but it provides the most reliable information. Sometimes when doctors get more precise information from the pathological staging, it changes the way they previously classified a cancer. Toby A. Smith, writer page 12

13 Screen # EBC_204 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Stages of Cancer Screen Type: (Text) Doctors use Roman numerals between 0-IV to describe stages, 0 being the least threatening, IV being the most threatening. Early breast cancer involves a designation of 0, I, or II. Graphic of Stage 0 Graphic of Stage I Graphic of Stage IIA Stage 0 is very early breast cancer and has not spread either within your breast or to other parts of your body. Ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ, breast cancer in situ, and noninvasive cancer are all terms referring to Stage 0 breast cancers. Stage I refers to breast cancer that is no larger than an inch in size (less than 2 centimeters) and has not spread outside the breast. Stage II is subdivided into IIA and IIB. Stage IIA is used to define cancers that meet either of the following criteria: 1. The cancer is smaller than an inch (up to two centimeters) but has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm 2. The cancer is between 1-2 inches (2-5 centimeters) but has not spread to the lymph nodes under the arm. Graphic of Stage IIB Stage IIB applies to cancers meeting either of the following criteria: The cancer is between 1-2 inches and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm. The cancer is larger than 2 inches (5 centimeters) but has not spread to the lymph nodes under the arm. Toby A. Smith, writer page 13

14 Screen # EBC_204 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Stages of Cancer Screen Type: Graphic of Stage IIIA (Text) Stage III breast cancers are subdivided into two classifications: In Stage IIIA, the doctor may find either: 1. A cancer smaller than two inches that has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm and to other lymph nodes beyond. 2. A cancer larger than two inches that has spread to lymph nodes under the arm. Links to information on other kinds of breast cancer: yo/0004/htm/abmt.htm yo/0004/htm/abmt_sb.htm Graphic of Stage IIIB Graphic of Stage IV In Stage IIIB cancers, the doctor may find either: A cancer that has spread to tissues near the breast (skin, chest wall, ribs or muscles in the chest). A cancer that has spread to lymph nodes inside the chest wall along the breast bone. In Stage IV, the cancer has either spread to other parts of the body (most often the lungs, liver, bones, or brain) or the tumor has spread locally to the skin and lymph nodes inside the neck, near the collarbone. Next: Grades of Cancer Toby A. Smith, writer page 14

15 Screen # EBC_205 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Grades of Cancer Screen Type: Images of four grades of cancer cells (text) In addition to categorizing your cancer by its stage, doctors will also attempt to determine its grade. The objective here is to determine the probable growth rate of the tumor and the likelihood of it spreading. Grading is done by looking at actual cancer cells under a microscope and therefore can not be done unless you ve had a biopsy or until you have surgery. Pathologists study how abnormal the cancer cells appear when compared with normal cells. Like staging, grading is also described using Roman numerals from I - IV. The higher the grade, the more aggressive the cancer and the greater the risk. Most breast cancers tend to be higher grades. Grading gives physicians important information about your prognosis and helps them figure out what treatment options to recommend. Next: Questions to Ask Your Physician About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician Toby A. Smith, writer page 15

16 Screen # EBC_206 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Questions to Ask Your Physician Screen Type: (Text) To make thoughtful treatment decisions, you will need general information as well as specific information about your own personal condition. General information is available from many agencies. The specific information is only available from your doctor. It is wise to use the time your physician can spend with you to concentrate on specific information about your case. Here are some suggested questions to ask to begin collecting the information you need. You may want to print out this list and take it with you. About My Condition Invasive Breast Cancer DCIS LCIS Microcalcifications Stages of Cancer Grades of Cancer Ask Your Physician On screen text: Hormone receptive cancers grow best in the presence of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone. 1. What type of cancer do I have? 2. How fast is my cancer growing? 3. How large is my cancer, where is it located, and how does that impact my treatment options? 4. How many tumors do I have and what size are they? 5. What stage and grade of cancer do I have? 6. Has the cancer spread to my lymph nodes? 7. Does my cancer have hormone receptors? 8. How does my age and whether I am pre-menopausal or post-menopausal affect my treatment options? 9. Should I get a second opinion? If you have had a biopsy, you may want to ask for an explanation of the findings of the pathology report. Link to hormone receptor information Toby A. Smith, writer page 16

17 Screen # EBC_206 Section: About My Condition Screen name: Questions to Ask Your Physician Screen Type: Image of woman and partner listening to doctor (text) Another idea is to ask your doctor for a copy of the consultation so you have a written summary of what the two of you have discussed. Consider taking someone you trust with you to each appointment so you have a second set of ears. Or ask your doctor if it s okay to tape record the consultation. Many people find it hard to take in all the information when they are also dealing with powerful emotions. Next: Treatment Options Toby A. Smith, writer page 17

18 Screen # EBC_300 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Treatment Options Screen Type: (text) When you have invasive breast cancer, you must have some form of surgery if you plan to fight the disease. Choosing which type of surgical treatment is one of the most difficult decisions you need to make. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Graphic image explaining lumpectomy You have two options. Both appear to be equally effective in treating early breast cancer. In most cases, your health care providers will tell you the choice is yours. 1. You can have a lumpectomy (also called breast sparing or breast conservation surgery, abbreviated as BCS) which is always combined with radiation treatment. A lumpectomy involves removal of the cancer along with some surrounding healthy tissue to increase the likelihood of removing all the cancer cells. Radiation usually begins several weeks following surgery. Graphic image explaining mastectomy 2. You can choose mastectomy in which the entire breast is removed. In both cases, underarm lymph nodes will be removed and examined to check for the possible spread of your cancer. Link to sentinel node pop-up window #1 Toby A. Smith, writer page 18

19 Screen # EBC_300 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Treatment Options Screen Type: Image of woman talking with doctor (Text) In some situations, a mastectomy appears to be a better choice than a lumpectomy followed by radiation: You are in the first or second trimester of pregnancy where radiation creates an unacceptable risk to your unborn child. You have two or more tumors in separate areas of the breast. You have widespread or malignant-appearing microcalcifications You have previously had radiation treatment to the breast region. There are also situations in which mastectomy may be preferable to lumpectomy: If you have a large tumor relative to the overall size of your breast, you may not have enough healthy tissue left after lumpectomy to achieve an acceptable cosmetic result. If you have a history of connective tissue disease (such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis) If you have large breasts where lumpectomy might not achieve an acceptable cosmetic result or where radiation may cause significant indentation, thickening, or distortion of the tissue. If the tumor is located beneath the nipple. Next: Lumpectomy and Radiation Toby A. Smith, writer page 19

20 Screen # EBC_301A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation Screen Type: (text) Lumpectomy and Radiation When you choose a lumpectomy, you are choosing a two stage process. The first stage is the surgery to remove the cancer and axillary (under the arm) lymph nodes. The second stage is radiation treatment. A lumpectomy without radiation is not currently recommended because the tendency for cancer to recur is higher. Next: Lumpectomy: Phase One/The Surgery Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation The Surgery Radiation Tradeoffs Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Toby A. Smith, writer page 20

21 Screen # EBC_301A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-The Surgery Screen Type: Animation showing surgical lumpectomy Lumpectomy: Phase One/The Surgery Breast sparing surgery usually takes less than two hours and requires a hospital stay of 1-3 days. Sometimes it is done as outpatient surgery. In the operating room, your surgeon makes an incision in the breast large enough to allow for the removal of both the tumor and a margin of healthy tissue surrounding the cancer. This size of the margin is approximately one centimeter or less than half an inch. The margin is taken to help ensure that all the cancer cells are removed. The surgeon will make a second incision under the arm to remove lymph nodes. These nodes, along with the tissue samples from your cancer, will be examined under a microscope to see whether the disease may have spread to other parts of your body. This information is extremely important in figuring out what additional treatments, if any, will be recommended. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation The Surgery Radiation Tradeoffs Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Toby A. Smith, writer page 21

22 Screen # EBC_301A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-The Surgery Screen Type: (text) Removal of lymph nodes is very individualized. Some are more easily removed. In some women, they are more deeply embedded in nerves and muscles. The number of lymph nodes removed depends on the location of your cancer, your individual body anatomy, and the surgical procedure itself. Some doctors will use a technique during surgery to identify the sentinel node as a way to determine how many lymph nodes should be removed. Ask your surgeon whether he or she will attempt to identify the sentinel node as part of your surgery. Click here for more information about identifying the sentinel node. Link to Sentinel Node Window #1 Graphic showing location of lymph nodes Doctors pay close attention to the number and location of nodes that contain cancer cells as well as the amount of cancer they contain. This information offers an indication of how likely it is that cancer has spread to other parts of your body. If cancer cells are found in 1-3 nodes (also called positive nodes), that is more encouraging. Cancer cells detected in more than three nodes means a greater likelihood that cancer may have already spread. In this situation, doctors would likely recommend additional or adjuvant treatments like hormonal therapy or chemotherapy. Toby A. Smith, writer page 22

23 Screen # EBC_301A-Window Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Window #1-Sentinel Node Screen Type: Animation of Sentinel node location Identifying the Sentinel Node In many hospitals, doctors first inject a harmless dye into the breast to identify what they call the sentinel node. This is the first node the dye reaches as it begins to travel away from the breast and is therefore considered representative of the other nodes. The thinking goes like this: if the sentinel node is the first node the dye reaches, it s likely the first node the cancer would spread to. This opens a pop up window with this information about sentinel nodes and animation Technician with microscope Once the sentinel node is identified it is removed and examined under a microscope. If no cancer cells are present, the likelihood is that other lymph nodes are also clean. The benefit of identifying the sentinel node is that it limits the total number of lymph nodes which have to be removed along with the potential associated side effects of lymphedema. End of pop up window Toby A. Smith, writer page 23

24 Screen # EBC_301A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-The Surgery Screen Type: Graphic of drain (text) After the surgeon completes the node removal, a rubber drain the thickness of a thin drinking straw is gently sewn into place to draw off fluids and keep swelling down. The end is attached to a suction device similar to the kind used to irrigate ears. You will be instructed in how to monitor the amount of drainage and care for this drain until it is removed about 10 days after your surgery. Some women find this aspect of surgery bothersome but it should not be painful. Excessive pain after lumpectomy is usually not a major factor. Most women experience more discomfort from the lymph node removal than from the tumor removal. You may experience a feeling of tightness or numbness, particularly under the arm. Some of this numbness gradually fades as nerve cells regenerate. Some women, however, experience numbness the rest of their lives, though this is not dangerous. Toby A. Smith, writer page 24

25 Screen # EBC_301A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-The Surgery Screen Type: Post surgical patient resting (text) Fatigue is to be expected following the surgery. In addition to the emotionally draining experience of facing cancer surgery, it is physically taxing as well. It s a good idea to plan a lighter schedule, with the possibility of daily naps, for the weeks following your surgery. Next: Lumpectomy: Phase Two/Radiation Toby A. Smith, writer page 25

26 Screen # EBC_301B Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-Radiation Screen Type: image of radioactive tubes image of woman with radiation machine (text) Lumpectomy: Phase Two/Radiation After you have had several weeks to heal from your surgery, you will begin the second stage of your treatment radiation. Radiation is administered in two ways: from an x-ray machine or from tiny tubes of radioactive material implanted in your breast. Both treatments are equally effective but the implantation method is much less common. It requires minor surgery and a brief hospital stay and involves some isolation in order to protect others from exposure to the radiation. Radiation administered from a machine is much more common. The customary schedule for radiation treatments is every weekday for six weeks. Occasionally a booster treatment of an additional five visits is also recommended at the end. Each treatment is painless and takes just a few minutes. In many treatment centers, you can set up an appointment at the same time each day so the treatment becomes part of your daily routine. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation The Surgery Radiation Tradeoffs Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Toby A. Smith, writer page 26

27 Screen # EBC_301B Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-Radiation Screen Type: Image of tattoo marks Image of permanent marker being used (text) Before you start treatment, the radiation oncologist carefully maps your breast so that the machine will be able to deliver radiation to the precise location of your cancer. This mapping takes about an hour. It involves placing ink marks on your skin to provide a reference point for the technician who administers the radiation. Sometimes these marks take the form of small permanent tattoos which look like freckles. Marks may be made with a permanent marker instead of a tattoo. But even permanent ink can wash or wear off over time and if the marks can not be clearly seen, you will have to repeat the mapping process at one or more points during your treatment. Radiation is a cumulative process and its side effects tend to become more of an issue as time passes. Fatigue is the most common complaint. It s a good idea to plan for this possibility so that you can rest whenever you feel the need. Sometimes putting your feet up for minutes is enough. Image of breast suffering skin irritation Other side effects include skin irritation, including itchiness, redness, shininess, soreness, peeling, blistering, swelling, and decreased or hyper sensation. Many of these symptoms may feel similar to those you ve experienced with a sunburn. These symptoms go away after treatment ends. Toby A. Smith, writer page 27

28 Screen # EBC_301B Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-Radiation Screen Type: (text) A small percentage of women experience more serious problems like swelling in the arm, broken ribs, or lung problems. Image of breast showing permanent change Some changes to the breast may be permanent after radiation. These include changes in skin color, feelings of heaviness in the breast, changes in the texture of the breast, even size changes. Next: Lumpectomy Tradeoffs Toby A. Smith, writer page 28

29 Screen # EBC_301C Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-Tradeoffs Screen Type: Graphic chart summarizing tradeoffs of lumpectomy with radiation (Text) Lumpectomy: Pros The primary advantage of lumpectomy is that it conserves your breast. Many women find that after healing their breasts have a near normal appearance. And for many, this is of great psychological value. Lumpectomy: Cons Cancer can recur. The long term prognosis for recurrence of cancer in women choosing lumpectomy with radiation versus mastectomy is virtually the same. However women choosing a lumpectomy and radiation do have a slightly greater chance of developing a cancer caused by the radiation itself. This risk depends on two factors: first, the amount of radiation and second, the age at the time of exposure. The younger the woman and the higher the dose, the greater the risk. With increasing age, the risk declines. For women over the age of 40 years, the risk seems to be negligible. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation The Surgery Radiation Tradeoffs Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Two less successful post surgical lumpectomy pictures Lumpectomy with radiation may produce unsatisfactory cosmetic results in women with large tumors because a larger volume of the breast must be removed. Toby A. Smith, writer page 29

30 Screen # EBC_301C Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Lumpectomy and Radiation-Tradeoffs Screen Type: (text) The regularity of radiation treatments may be inconvenient for some women, particularly those who live far from the treatment center. Some women find the side effects of radiation bothersome. For the first weeks or months following radiation treatment, when there is swelling and fluid accumulation, mammography may be somewhat less reliable in detecting breast cancers. Once the breast heals, mammograms become more reliable again. Another potential side effect of breast cancer treatment is lymphedema, an abnormal build up of fluid in the limb or breast and chest wall. The exact reason for development of lymphedema is not clear, but may be related to the surgery with removal of lymph nodes, or irritation from radiation to the area. This complication does not occur often but can develop soon after treatment or many years later. When lymphedema does occur, prompt treatment is important. Though not life threatening, lymphedema can limit arm and hand function, be uncomfortable, and also increase risk for local infection in the limb. Link to Basic Anatomy Link to Window #2 on Lymphedema Click here for more information about Lymphedema. Next: Mastectomy Toby A. Smith, writer page 30

31 Screen # EBC_301C-Window #2 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Window #2-Lymphedema Screen Type: Image of lymphedema patient More About Lymphedema If you develop lymphedema, you should ask to see an edema therapist, often a physical or occupational therapist who has received special training. There are many treatment options available to help reduce the swelling. Special exercises are part of any lymphedema program. Often a pressure sleeve is used, but it works best after the fluid is reduced, because its job is to keep fluid from returning. A pop up window with this information about lymphedema and graphic images Image of woman having blood pressure taken or shot administered Image of woman gardening with gloves Fortunately, there are some simple measures you can take to reduce the risk of lymphedema. Nearly all fall under the general recommendation to take special care with that arm. Carry heavy packages and handbags with the other arm. Avoid sunburns, burns, or cuts to the affected arm. Have blood drawn, shots administered, and blood pressure taken on the other arm. Wear gloves when gardening or using skin irritants. Use long oven mitts when baking Avoid temperature extremes such as hot tubs, hot soaks, and hot dishwater. Think before over-using your arm in activities like raking, wallpapering, and heavy cleaning Keep you hands and arms well lubricated. Avoid tight jewelry or clothing (like elastic cuffs). Take care in manicuring your fingers to avoid injury. When a cut or other injury occurs, treat it promptly and apply anti-bacterial medication. Continue your exercises as instructed by your health care provider. Don t forget to wear your sleeve, especially when it Toby A. Smith, writer page 31

32 is hot and humid. When a cut or injury occurs, consult your doctor immediately if you see any signs of infection (redness of the arm). End of the pop up window Toby A. Smith, writer page 32

33 Screen # EBC_302 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Mastectomy Screen Type: Animation of modified radical mastectomy (text) Mastectomy: Introduction Mastectomy is a term used for several different procedures: A modified radical mastectomy is the most common procedure used to treat invasive breast cancer. It involves removing the entire breast, including the skin, areola, and nipple, as well as most of the lymph nodes under the arm. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy The Surgery Tradeoffs Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Graphic of radical mastectomy In contrast, a radical mastectomy removes the breast, chest muscles, all the lymph nodes under the arm, and some additional fat and skin. For many years this was the standard treatment for women with breast cancer. Today it is used only in cases of advanced cancer which has already spread to chest muscles. Toby A. Smith, writer page 33

34 Screen # EBC_302 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Treatment Options-Mastectomy Screen Type: (text) Another procedure you may have heard about is prophylactic mastectomy, the removal of most normal breast tissue before the development of cancer in women at high risk for breast cancer. When there is a significant family history of the disease (a mother, sisters, and/or daughters already diagnosed), some women may elect to have this procedure. Links about prophylactic mastectomy: line/htm/hw htm /htm/breastop.htm The advantage is that this procedure significantly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer. However, if a woman chooses to have surgical breast reconstruction, it is a major procedure and there are lasting effects on body appearance. Gene testing to identify those who have an abnormal breast cancer gene ( BRCA1 and BRCA2) associated with inherited breast cancer is now available. If there is a strong history of breast cancer in your family (and/or a history of other cancers like ovarian, colon, or prostate), you may want to talk with your physician about a referral to a genetic counselor to discuss gene testing. Remember that having a family history does not necessarily mean you have inherited a defective gene. And 85% of breast cancers occur in women with no prior family history. Link for more information about gene testing; /htm/brca.htm TBA: a second Mayo link on sisters making different choices about gene testing. Next: Mastectomy The Surgery Toby A. Smith, writer page 34

35 Screen # EBC_302A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Mastectomy-The Surgery Screen Type: (text) Modified Radical Mastectomy: The Surgery The treatment information in this section focuses on the modified radical mastectomy since that is the most common type of mastectomy performed. This type of surgery, without reconstruction, takes 1-4 hours and usually involves a 2-5 day hospital stay. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy The Surgery Tradeoffs Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Animation of Modified radical mastectomy A single incision across half the chest usually allows the surgeon to remove both the breast and lymph nodes. Some doctors will use a technique to identify the sentinel node during surgery as a way to determine how many lymph nodes should be removed. Ask your surgeon whether he or she will attempt to identify the sentinel node as part of your surgery. Click here for more information about identifying the sentinel node. Link to Window #1 on Identifying the sentinel node The lymph nodes and tissue samples from your cancer are examined under a microscope to see whether the disease may have spread to other parts of your body. This information is extremely important in figuring out what additional treatments, if any, will be recommended. Toby A. Smith, writer page 35

36 Screen # EBC_302A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Mastectomy-The Surgery Screen Type: Graphic of drain (text) After the surgeon completes the node removal a rubber drain about the width of a thin drinking straw is gently sewn into place to draw off fluids and help keep swelling down. The end of the drain is attached to a suction device like the kind used to irrigate ears. You will be instructed in the care of this drain and how to monitor the drainage until it is removed about 10 days after your surgery. Although some women find this bothersome it should not be painful. Most women with breast cancer do not experience excessive pain following mastectomy. More complain about a sensation of numbness under the arm. This occurs because nerves are often cut as part of the lymph node removal. Some of this numbness slowly fades as nerve cells regenerate. Some numbness and swelling of the arm may be permanent. Toby A. Smith, writer page 36

37 Screen # EBC_302A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Mastectomy-The Surgery Screen Type: In most cases of early breast cancer, radiation treatment is not indicated after mastectomy. However, radiation may be recommended if: your tumor is larger than two inches (5 cm) and you have positive lymph nodes cancer cells are found in many lymph nodes, or your tumor is close to the rib case or chest wall muscles which increases the likelihood that cancer cells may have spread to other parts of your body. Next: Mastectomy--Tradeoffs Toby A. Smith, writer page 37

38 Screen # EBC_302B Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Mastectomy-Tradeoffs Screen Type: (text) Mastectomy: Pros The primary advantage of choosing a mastectomy over a lumpectomy is that mastectomy is a one step cancer treatment. Once you heal from the surgery, you will need to be closely monitored. But while some women may consider additional treatment options, in most cases, these are not required. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy The Surgery Tradeoffs Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Graphic chart summarizing tradeoffs of mastectomy Mastectomy: Cons Even though the breast is gone, cancer can still recur in the scar or chest wall. Although there is somewhat less risk of recurrence following a mastectomy when compared with lumpectomy, there are no guarantees. Because a mastectomy removes the entire breast, it may involve a grieving process. You lose a part of your body. And the surgery leaves a daily physical reminder of your disease. This can be difficult. Sometimes the absence of the breast raises issues around sexual self-image though usually these pass with time and support from your loved ones. Toby A. Smith, writer page 38

39 Screen # EBC_302B Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Mastectomy-Tradeoffs Screen Type: (text) Some women, particularly those with large breasts, experience a feeling of being lopsided. Most get accustomed to the feeling over time. For others, the issue may be resolved by breast reconstruction. Others experience tenderness around the scar or permanent numbness under the arm. Another potential side effect of mastectomy is lymphedema, a buildup of fluid in the arm next to the removed breast. Lymphedema is related to the removal of lymph nodes. Click here for more information about Lymphedema. Next: Breast Reconstruction Link to Window #2 on Lymphedema Toby A. Smith, writer page 39

40 Screen # EBC_303 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Breast Reconstruction Screen Type: (text) While you are gathering information to determine treatment options, you will no doubt want to consider how to deal with your appearance after mastectomy. There are several techniques and choices to explore: 1. Breast reconstruction with tissue expanders 2. Breast reconstruction with implants 3. Breast reconstruction with flaps 4. Prosthesis (external artificial breast) 5. Do nothing. Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure designed to restore a more naturally shaped breast after mastectomy. It is complicated surgery and can be more painful and require a longer recovery than the initial cancer surgery. At the same time, some women find this surgery easier to tolerate than a mastectomy because they perceive it leading toward something they want. Perhaps the most important thing to understand about reconstruction is that it does not restore the normal breast sensation you are accustomed to. Consider the information presented on reconstruction here as an overview only. You will want to gather more information from a plastic surgeon before making a decision. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Tissue Expanders Implants Flaps Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Toby A. Smith, writer page 40

41 Screen # EBC_303 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Breast Reconstruction Screen Type: Images of women with reconstructed breasts, showing variety in race, size, results (text) Reconstruction is sometimes done at the same time as a mastectomy but it can also be done months or even years later. Some plastic surgeons believe the results are better when a patient has healed thoroughly from the mastectomy before beginning reconstruction. But for some women, waking up from a mastectomy with a reconstructed breast is very important. One consideration in combining reconstruction with mastectomy is that reconstruction can interfere in some kinds of chemotherapy treatments. If you are a candidate for chemotherapy, you may want to delay reconstruction. Reconstruction may require multiple surgical procedures. For example, if you decide you want to add a nipple or if you choose to alter the shape or size so the reconstructed breast more closely matches the natural breast. Next: Breast Reconstruction Tissue Expanders Toby A. Smith, writer page 41

42 Screen # EBC_303A Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Breast Reconstruction: Tissue Expander Screen Type: Image of tissue expander add Simulation label In tissue expansion, a balloon in surgically placed under the chest muscle with a small valve that remains outside the skin. During a series of weekly office visits over the next 2-3 months, this balloon is gradually filled with saline (salt water) by injections into the valve. The filling is done gradually to give the skin covering the balloon a chance to stretch between visits. When the tissue expansion is complete, the temporary expander is replaced with a permanent implant. Tissue expansion is often used in women with larger breasts where an implant alone is not able to match the size of the normal breast. Next: Breast Reconstruction Implants Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Tissue Expanders Implants Flaps Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Toby A. Smith, writer page 42

43 Screen # EBC_303B Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Breast Reconstruction-Implants Screen Type: Image of saline filled implant and silicone gel implant (text) An implant is a breast shaped device that is secured inside your body, held in place by your chest muscles. It is the technique most often performed in smaller breasted women. There are two kinds of implants. Implants filled with saline are the ones commonly used now. Use of implants filled with silicone gel have been limited by the Food and Drug Administration because of reports those implants have caused health problems. An implant requires additional surgery unless you elect to have it put in at the time of the mastectomy. It also requires a series of doctor visits after surgery. Implants may cause pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness or infection. And they do age over time requiring replacement. There is also a long-term possibility of rupture, deflation, and shifting. Next: Breast Reconstruction Flaps Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Tissue Expanders Implants Flaps Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Toby A. Smith, writer page 43

44 Screen # EBC_303C Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Breast Reconstruction-Flaps Screen Type: Animation showing three sources of flap, then showing tunneling from abdomen to breast location (text) The most complex reconstruction procedure with the longest recovery time is a flap. During this surgery, a section of tissue taken from one part of your body (usually the back or abdomen, sometimes the buttocks) is used to fashion a new breast. It requires multiple incisions and the surgical wounds can be large. The flap, along with its blood supply, is usually moved to its new location by tunneling it under the skin. An advantage is that this breast is made from your own body tissue. At the same time, because it is human tissue, it requires adequate blood supply. If blood supply to the flap is poor, the transplant may not survive. Next: Prosthetics Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Tissue Expanders Implants Flaps Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Toby A. Smith, writer page 44

45 Screen # EBC_304 Section: Treatment Options Screen name: Prosthetics Screen Type: (text) Instead of reconstruction, you may decide a prosthesis is a better solution. A prosthesis is shaped like a breast but remains outside your body. They are usually made from nylon, rubber, silicone, or Dacron fiberfill and slip into your bra. Treatment Options: Lumpectomy and Radiation Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction Prosthetics Additional Therapies Follow up Images of prosthetics, different shapes and sizes There are a range of generic shapes and sizes available to use temporarily immediately following your surgery. But you will also receive information on getting a more customized, permanent prosthesis for long-term use. Check carefully with your insurance company to see what kind of coverage you have. Sometimes a prosthesis prescription from your doctor helps with insurance coverage. Some companies cover either prosthesis or reconstruction but not both. Your final option after mastectomy is to do nothing. No reconstruction and no prosthesis. Many women are content with this choice. Next: Additional Therapies Toby A. Smith, writer page 45

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor.

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor. Breast Cancer Introduction Cancer of the breast is the most common form of cancer that affects women but is no longer the leading cause of cancer deaths. About 1 out of 8 women are diagnosed with breast

More information

Surgery Choices. National Cancer Institute. For Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer. National Institutes of Health

Surgery Choices. National Cancer Institute. For Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer. National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Surgery Choices For Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health The National Cancer Institute is grateful for our

More information

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary The risk of breast cancer among Asian Americans living in the U.S. is relatively low compared to caucasian women. However, there is concern that the risk of breast

More information

Early-stage Breast Cancer Treatment: A Patient and Doctor Dialogue

Early-stage Breast Cancer Treatment: A Patient and Doctor Dialogue page 1 Early-stage Breast Cancer Treatment: A Patient and Doctor Dialogue Q: What is breast cancer, and what type do I have? A: Cancer is a disease in which cells become abnormal and form more cells in

More information

Guide to Understanding Breast Cancer

Guide to Understanding Breast Cancer An estimated 220,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, and one in eight will be diagnosed during their lifetime. While breast cancer is a serious disease, most patients

More information

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too.

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Male Breast Cancer Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Many people do not know that men can get breast

More information

What You Need to Know Before Treatment About: Breast Cancer

What You Need to Know Before Treatment About: Breast Cancer What You Need to Know Before Treatment About: Breast Cancer Publication MDCH-1234 Revised: September 2008 Authority: Public Act 368 of 1978, as amended by Public Act 195 of 1986 and Public Act 15 of 1989.

More information

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) DIAGNOSIS: DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) This factsheet gives information on an early form of breast cancer called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). It explains what it is, how your breast is made

More information

Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis

Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and

More information

If you have questions about DCIS, call the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund s DCIS hotline at 202-223-4000 or write us at info@stopcancerfund.

If you have questions about DCIS, call the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund s DCIS hotline at 202-223-4000 or write us at info@stopcancerfund. This free booklet was developed and produced by the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund CFC # 11967 If you have questions about DCIS, call the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund s DCIS hotline at 202-223-4000

More information

Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer: Questions and Answers

Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer: Questions and Answers CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Adjuvant Therapy for Breast

More information

Breast Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

Breast Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Breast Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Introduction Breast cancer is a common condition that affects millions of women every year. It usually shows up as a lump that can be felt and/or seen on

More information

Breast Cancer. CSC Cancer Experience Registry Member, breast cancer

Breast Cancer. CSC Cancer Experience Registry Member, breast cancer ESSENTIALS Breast Cancer Take things one step at a time. Try not to be overwhelmed by the tidal wave of technical information coming your way. Finally you know your body best; you have to be your own advocate.

More information

Understanding Your Surgical Options For Breast Cancer

Understanding Your Surgical Options For Breast Cancer RADIATION THERAPY SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT CANCER INFORMATION Understanding Your Surgical Options For Breast Cancer In this booklet you will learn about: Role of surgery in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment

More information

Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report

Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report Your Guide to the Breast Cancer Pathology Report Developed for you by Breastcancer.org is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing education and information on breast health and breast cancer. The

More information

dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER

dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER dedicated to curing BREAST CANCER When you are diagnosed with breast cancer, you need a team of specialists who will share their knowledge of breast disease and the latest treatments available. At Cancer

More information

Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond. Adriana Corben, M.D.

Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond. Adriana Corben, M.D. Breast Cancer: from bedside and grossing room to diagnoses and beyond Adriana Corben, M.D. About breast anatomy Breasts are special organs that develop in women during puberty when female hormones are

More information

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount

More information

Breast Cancer and Treatment

Breast Cancer and Treatment PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Breast cancer affects nearly 200,000 women each year in the United States. The risk of developing breast cancer over a lifetime is 1 in 8, or 12%. Breast cancer

More information

BREAST CANCER WHAT ARE MY SURGICAL OPTIONS?

BREAST CANCER WHAT ARE MY SURGICAL OPTIONS? BREAST CANCER WHAT ARE MY SURGICAL OPTIONS? Contents: The aims of surgery Know your surgical options Breast reconstruction Questions to ask your surgeon The aims of surgery Every woman is different and

More information

Patient Information. What you need to know about. Breast Cancer

Patient Information. What you need to know about. Breast Cancer Patient Information What you need to know about Breast Cancer This brochure is a part of a Patient Information Series supported by Baxter. This information is not meant to be a substitute for the advice

More information

Florida Breast Health Specialists Breast Cancer Information and Facts

Florida Breast Health Specialists Breast Cancer Information and Facts Definition Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. There are two main types of breast cancer: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to

More information

Breast Cancer. Your right to know. Illinois Department of Public Health

Breast Cancer. Your right to know. Illinois Department of Public Health Breast Cancer Your right to know Illinois Department of Public Health The information contained in this brochure regarding recommendations for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast disease

More information

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast Cancer Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast cancer in the UK Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Around 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer It most commonly affects women over

More information

National Cancer Institute. What You Need TM. To Know About. Breast Cancer. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health

National Cancer Institute. What You Need TM. To Know About. Breast Cancer. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute What You Need TM To Know About Breast Cancer U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Services This is only one of

More information

Patient Guide to Breast Cancer Surgery and Treatment

Patient Guide to Breast Cancer Surgery and Treatment Patient Guide to Breast Cancer Surgery and Treatment Coree H. Flight attendant and mother of 3. Diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in 2009. An educational guide prepared by Genomic Health This Is Your

More information

Areola: The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple.

Areola: The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple. Glossary of Terms Adenocarcinoma: Cancer arising in gland-forming tissue; the medical term meaning related to a gland is adeno ; breast lobules and ducts are types of glands. Adjuvant: Treatment given

More information

HAVE YOU BEEN NEWLY DIAGNOSED with DCIS?

HAVE YOU BEEN NEWLY DIAGNOSED with DCIS? HAVE YOU BEEN NEWLY DIAGNOSED with DCIS? Jen D. Mother and volunteer. Diagnosed with DCIS breast cancer in 2012. An educational guide prepared by Genomic Health This guide is designed to educate women

More information

About breast cancer i

About breast cancer i About breast cancer i About us Breast Cancer Network Australia (BCNA) is the peak organisation for all people affected by breast cancer in Australia. We provide a range of free resources, including the

More information

What is DCIS? Contents. The breasts

What is DCIS? Contents. The breasts This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding ductal carinoma in situ (DCIS). You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 6. Contents The breasts What is

More information

Breast screening results and assesment

Breast screening results and assesment Breast screening results and assesment This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding breast screening. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 9. Contents

More information

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis

Breast Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Breast Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount

More information

Breast Cancer Toolkit. Marion DePuit, MSN, Faith Community Nurse. Leslie Brown, BA, Community Advocate 9/2014. Understanding Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Toolkit. Marion DePuit, MSN, Faith Community Nurse. Leslie Brown, BA, Community Advocate 9/2014. Understanding Breast Cancer GENERAL: Breast Cancer Toolkit Marion DePuit, MSN, Faith Community Nurse Leslie Brown, BA, Community Advocate 9/2014 Understanding Breast Cancer (Adapted from the American Cancer Society and Breast Cancer.org)

More information

patient resource guide: Breast Cancer

patient resource guide: Breast Cancer patient resource guide: Breast Cancer Welcome We know how frightening and overwhelming it is to hear the words, You have breast cancer. But please know that you do not have to go through this experience

More information

Information for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: Breast Cancer or Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast

Information for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: Breast Cancer or Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast Information for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: Breast Cancer or Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast Why is radiation therapy used to treat breast cancer or DCIS? Breast cancer or DCIS

More information

BREAST CANCER PATHOLOGY

BREAST CANCER PATHOLOGY BREAST CANCER PATHOLOGY FACT SHEET Version 4, Aug 2013 This fact sheet was produced by Breast Cancer Network Australia with input from The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia I m a nurse and know

More information

Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer Media Contact: Gerri Gomez Howard Cell: 303-748-3933 gerri@gomezhowardgroup.com Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer What is ovarian cancer? Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in tissues

More information

X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary

X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary Introduction Breast cancer is a common condition that affects one out of every 11 women. Your doctor has recommended

More information

Developed by the Cancer Detection Section California Department of Public Health January, 2010 Cancer Detection Programs: Every Woman Counts

Developed by the Cancer Detection Section California Department of Public Health January, 2010 Cancer Detection Programs: Every Woman Counts a Woman s Guide to Breast Cancer Treatment Developed by the Cancer Detection Section California Department of Public Health January, 2010 Cancer Detection Programs: Every Woman Counts table of contents

More information

Breast Reconstruction Options. Department of Plastic Surgery #290 Santa Clara Homestead Campus

Breast Reconstruction Options. Department of Plastic Surgery #290 Santa Clara Homestead Campus Breast Reconstruction Options Department of Plastic Surgery #290 Santa Clara Homestead Campus Importance of Breast Reconstruction As successes in treating breast cancer have grown, more women have been

More information

Surgery for breast cancer in men

Surgery for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding breast cancer in men. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 9. Contents

More information

Understanding Your Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE

Understanding Your Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE Understanding Your Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE Introduction This guide is designed to help you clarify and understand the decisions that need to be made about your care for the

More information

Questions and answers on breast cancer A guide for women and their physicians

Questions and answers on breast cancer A guide for women and their physicians Canadian Breast Cancer Initiative Questions and answers on breast cancer A guide for women and their physicians 2nd edition Based on The Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment

More information

Breast Reconstruction Frequently Asked Questions

Breast Reconstruction Frequently Asked Questions Breast Reconstruction Frequently Asked Questions GENERAL Do I need to have breast reconstruction? It is never medically necessary to have breast reconstruction. This is considered an elective procedure,

More information

Breast Augmentation. If you are dissatisfied with your breast size, augmentation surgery is a choice to consider. Breast augmentation can:

Breast Augmentation. If you are dissatisfied with your breast size, augmentation surgery is a choice to consider. Breast augmentation can: Breast Augmentation What is Breast Augmentation? Also known as augmentation mammaplasty, breast augmentation involves using implants to fulfill your desire for fuller breasts or to restore breast volume

More information

NHS breast screening Helping you decide

NHS breast screening Helping you decide NHS breast screening Helping you decide What is breast cancer? 2 What is breast screening? 3 Breast screening results 6 Making a choice the possible benefits 9 and risks of breast screening What are the

More information

Understanding your pathology report

Understanding your pathology report Understanding your pathology report 2 Contents Contents Introduction 3 What is a pathology report? 3 Waiting for your results 4 What s in a pathology report? 4 Information about your breast cancer 5 What

More information

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options.

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options. Multiple Myeloma Introduction Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. Each year, thousands of people find out that they have multiple myeloma. This reference summary will help

More information

OBJECTIVES By the end of this segment, the community participant will be able to:

OBJECTIVES By the end of this segment, the community participant will be able to: Cancer 101: Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Linda U. Krebs, RN, PhD, AOCN, FAAN OCEAN Native Navigators and the Cancer Continuum (NNACC) (NCMHD R24MD002811) Cancer 101: Diagnosis & Staging (Watanabe-Galloway

More information

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment Cancer begins in our cells. Cells are the building blocks of our tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.

More information

Breast Cancer. Treatment Guidelines for Patients

Breast Cancer. Treatment Guidelines for Patients Breast Cancer Treatment Guidelines for Patients Version IX/ July 2007 Current ACS-NCCN Treatment Guidelines for Patients Advanced Cancer and Palliative Care Treatment Guidelines for Patients (English and

More information

GENERAL QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTOR OR NURSE. 3. Can you refer me to a breast cancer support group or counselor?

GENERAL QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTOR OR NURSE. 3. Can you refer me to a breast cancer support group or counselor? GENERAL QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTOR OR NURSE 1. You can bring members of your family or a friend to talk to the doctor or nurse directly. 2. Where can I find more information about breast cancer? 3. Can

More information

Breast Cancer. Treatment Guidelines for Patients

Breast Cancer. Treatment Guidelines for Patients Breast Cancer Treatment Guidelines for Patients Version VIII/ September 2006 Current ACS/NCCN Treatment Guidelines for Patients Advanced Cancer and Palliative Care Treatment Guidelines for Patients (English

More information

Breast Cancer. The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer.

Breast Cancer. The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer. Breast Cancer What Does the Pathology Report Say Normal Cells The Pathology report gives an outline on direction of treatment. It tells multiple stories to help us understand the patient s cancer. Non-Invasive

More information

About breast cancer. Arabic English

About breast cancer. Arabic English About breast cancer Arabic English In this booklet 3 About the breast 5 What is cancer? 5 What is breast cancer? 7 What causes breast cancer? 13 What do these words mean? 16 More information In Australia,

More information

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes Information for patients Introduction This leaflet is for people who have had surgery for

More information

Michael A. Boss, M.D. FMH Plastic, Reconstructive und Aesthetic Surgery

Michael A. Boss, M.D. FMH Plastic, Reconstructive und Aesthetic Surgery Michael A. Boss, M.D. FMH Plastic, Reconstructive und Aesthetic Surgery Boss Aesthetic Center Schauplatzgasse 23 CH-3011 Bern Switzerland +41 31 311 7691 www.aesthetic-center.com B r e a s t A u g m e

More information

Information provided in these web pages was last updated on November 2, 2009 BREAST CANCER

Information provided in these web pages was last updated on November 2, 2009 BREAST CANCER BREAST CANCER BACKGROUND Facts about breast cancer Breast cancer affects both men and women, though it occurs rarely in men. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women with the exception

More information

ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Understanding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and deciding about treatment Understanding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and deciding about treatment Developed by National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre

More information

Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: What You Need to Know

Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: What You Need to Know Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: What You Need to Know The information in this pamphlet is for patients, family members and caregivers. What is radiation treatment? Radiation treatment uses high energy

More information

Understanding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and deciding about treatment

Understanding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and deciding about treatment Understanding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and deciding about treatment Developed by National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre Funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing Understanding

More information

Breast Cancer Awareness Month

Breast Cancer Awareness Month Aon Kenya Insurance Brokers Ltd Aon Hewitt Healthcare Division Breast Cancer Awareness Month Issue 12 October 2015 In this Issue 2 Cancer Statistics in Kenya 3 What is Breast Cancer? 4 Symptoms of Breast

More information

Breast Implants: Local Complications and Adverse Outcomes

Breast Implants: Local Complications and Adverse Outcomes Breast Implants: Local Complications and Adverse Outcomes This booklet highlights the most common problems associated with silicone gel-filled and saline-filled breast implants: those that occur in the

More information

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer.

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer. Renal cell cancer Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which

More information

Breast Cancer Surgery

Breast Cancer Surgery Breast Cancer Surgery PROOF Index page Introduction... 2 Breast Anatomy... 3 Breast surgery... 4 Breast conserving surgery.. 4 Mastectomy... 5 Axillary node dissection... 6 Breast reconstructive surgery...

More information

Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma

Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma Rotation Specific Goals & Objectives: University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital/ Sunnybrook Breast/Melanoma Medical Expert: Breast Rotation Specific Competencies/Objectives 1.0 Medical History

More information

Breast Cancer Screening

Breast Cancer Screening Breast Cancer Screening The American Cancer Society and Congregational Health Ministry Team October Module To access this module via the Web, visit www.cancer.org and type in congregational health ministry

More information

Breast cancer. A guide for journalists on breast cancer and its treatment

Breast cancer. A guide for journalists on breast cancer and its treatment Breast cancer A guide for journalists on breast cancer and its treatment Contents Contents 2 3 Section 1: Breast Cancer 4 i. What is breast cancer? 4 ii. Types of breast cancer 4 iii. Causes and risk factors

More information

Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast Cancer Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment Most women with breast cancer will have surgery. The two common types of surgery are breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy. Breast Conserving Surgery A lumpectomy removes only

More information

Mammography. What is Mammography?

Mammography. What is Mammography? Scan for mobile link. Mammography Mammography is a specific type of breast imaging that uses low-dose x-rays to detect cancer early before women experience symptoms when it is most treatable. Tell your

More information

Radiotherapy to the chest wall

Radiotherapy to the chest wall Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall Information for patients Introduction This leaflet is for people who have had surgery for breast cancer

More information

A practical guide to understanding cancer

A practical guide to understanding cancer A practical guide to understanding cancer 'I was so lucky that it was picked up at the screening. If I had to wait until I noticed something, then who knows how things would be different.' Wendy, diagnosed

More information

Exercise After Breast Surgery. Post Mastectomy Therapy

Exercise After Breast Surgery. Post Mastectomy Therapy Exercise After Breast Surgery Post Mastectomy Therapy Dear Patient, Breast cancer is a journey and you have made it this far successfully. This booklet will help you continue your journey to recovery.

More information

Breast Health Starts Here

Breast Health Starts Here Breast Health Starts Here k Breast Health Knowledge and self-awareness are powerful tools. Understanding and utilizing these tools starts with Lake Charles Memorial s Breast Health Program. Developing

More information

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available.

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available. Lung Cancer Introduction Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of men and women. Over 165,000 people die of lung cancer every year in the United States. Most cases of lung cancer are related to cigarette

More information

This is a summary of what we ll be talking about today.

This is a summary of what we ll be talking about today. Slide 1 Breast Cancer American Cancer Society Reviewed October 2015 Slide 2 What we ll be talking about How common is breast cancer? What is breast cancer? What causes it? What are the risk factors? Can

More information

Colon and Rectal Cancer

Colon and Rectal Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer What is colon or rectal cancer? Colon or rectal cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in your large intestine, which is also called the large bowel. The colon is the last 5 feet

More information

Understanding. Pancreatic Cancer

Understanding. Pancreatic Cancer Understanding Pancreatic Cancer Understanding Pancreatic Cancer The Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that is about 6 inches long. It s located deep in your belly between your stomach and backbone. Your

More information

BRCA Genes and Inherited Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Patient information leaflet

BRCA Genes and Inherited Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Patient information leaflet BRCA Genes and Inherited Breast and Ovarian Cancer Patient information leaflet This booklet has been written for people who have a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer that could

More information

BREAST CANCER AWARENESS FOR WOMEN AND MEN by Samar Ali A. Kader. Two years ago, I was working as a bedside nurse. One of my colleagues felt

BREAST CANCER AWARENESS FOR WOMEN AND MEN by Samar Ali A. Kader. Two years ago, I was working as a bedside nurse. One of my colleagues felt Ali A. Kader, S. (2010). Breast cancer awareness for women and men. UCQ Nursing Journal of Academic Writing, Winter 2010, 70 76. BREAST CANCER AWARENESS FOR WOMEN AND MEN by Samar Ali A. Kader Two years

More information

Dr. Justin B. Maxhimer, M.D. Boulder Plastic Surgery: 303-443-2277. IV Seasons Skin Care: 303-938-1666 www.boulderplasticsurgery.

Dr. Justin B. Maxhimer, M.D. Boulder Plastic Surgery: 303-443-2277. IV Seasons Skin Care: 303-938-1666 www.boulderplasticsurgery. Dr. Hans R. Kuisle, M.D., F.A.C.S Dr. Winfield Hartley, M.D., F.A.C.S Dr. Justin B. Maxhimer, M.D. 2525 4 th Street, Suite 200, Boulder, CO 80304 Boulder Plastic Surgery: 303-443-2277 IV Seasons Skin Care:

More information

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them.

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them. Brain Cancer Introduction Brain tumors are not rare. Thousands of people are diagnosed every year with tumors of the brain and the rest of the nervous system. The diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors

More information

Breast Reconstruction Surgery

Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Centre of Hope Breast Cancer Navigator 204-788-8080 Toll-free in Manitoba1-888-660-4866 Types of mastectomies Steps of breast reconstruction Breast reconstruction

More information

What If I Have a Spot on My Lung? Do I Have Cancer? Patient Education Guide

What If I Have a Spot on My Lung? Do I Have Cancer? Patient Education Guide What If I Have a Spot on My Lung? Do I Have Cancer? Patient Education Guide A M E R I C A N C O L L E G E O F C H E S T P H Y S I C I A N S Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers. About 170,000

More information

Indicators and Treatment for Breast Disease Unit 9. Bonnie A. Barnes, BA, R.T., (R)(M)(CT)(f) Xuan Ho, Ph.D., R.T. (R)

Indicators and Treatment for Breast Disease Unit 9. Bonnie A. Barnes, BA, R.T., (R)(M)(CT)(f) Xuan Ho, Ph.D., R.T. (R) Indicators and Treatment for Breast Disease Unit 9 Bonnie A. Barnes, BA, R.T., (R)(M)(CT)(f) Xuan Ho, Ph.D., R.T. (R) Indicators and Treatment for Breast Disease Clinical Breast Changes Risk Factors Associated

More information

When it comes to treating breast cancer, doing less does more October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month

When it comes to treating breast cancer, doing less does more October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month For Immediate Release Oct. 8, 2012 When it comes to treating breast cancer, doing less does more October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month SEATTLE Oncologists and researchers are discovering that when it

More information

Edinburgh Breast Unit

Edinburgh Breast Unit Edinburgh Breast Unit Treatment: Questions and Answers about Breast Cancer in South East Scotland* These questions and answers will provide an overview of the standard approaches for treating breast cancer

More information

Invasive lobular breast cancer

Invasive lobular breast cancer Invasive lobular breast cancer This booklet is about invasive lobular breast cancer. It describes what invasive lobular breast cancer is, the symptoms, how it s diagnosed and possible treatments. Diagnosed

More information

Inflammatory breast cancer

Inflammatory breast cancer april 2007 information about Inflammatory breast cancer What is inflammatory breast cancer? Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and rapidly growing form of breast cancer. Unlike other breast cancers which

More information

Wisconsin Cancer Data Bulletin Wisconsin Department of Health Services Division of Public Health Office of Health Informatics

Wisconsin Cancer Data Bulletin Wisconsin Department of Health Services Division of Public Health Office of Health Informatics Wisconsin Cancer Data Bulletin Wisconsin Department of Health Services Division of Public Health Office of Health Informatics In Situ Breast Cancer in Wisconsin INTRODUCTION This bulletin provides information

More information

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the breast Information for patients

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the breast Information for patients Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the breast Information for patients page 2 Introduction This leaflet is for people who have had surgery for breast cancer

More information

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder.

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found

More information

A WOMAN S GUIDE TO BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND

A WOMAN S GUIDE TO BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND A WOMAN S GUIDE TO BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT Developed by the California Department of Health Services Breast Cancer Early Detection Program TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction... 1 2Breast Biopsy...

More information

Breast Cancer Surgery at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center

Breast Cancer Surgery at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center Breast Cancer Surgery at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center Staff of the following programs provided information for this handbook: Comprehensive Cancer Center Breast Care Center Patient

More information

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available.

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available. Thymus Cancer Introduction Thymus cancer is a rare cancer. It starts in the small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. The thymus makes white blood cells that protect the body against

More information

Mammograms & Breast Health. An Information Guide for Women U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Mammograms & Breast Health. An Information Guide for Women U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mammograms & Breast Health An Information Guide for Women This booklet was developed by the Centers for Disease Control

More information

Patient information. Bilateral Breast Augmentation. Surgical Directorate - Breast Services PIF 097 V4

Patient information. Bilateral Breast Augmentation. Surgical Directorate - Breast Services PIF 097 V4 Patient information Bilateral Breast Augmentation Surgical Directorate - Breast Services PIF 097 V4 This information leaflet should be read along with Breast Implants: Information for women considering

More information

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1 Mesothelioma Introduction Mesothelioma is a type of cancer. It starts in the tissue that lines your lungs, stomach, heart, and other organs. This tissue is called mesothelium. Most people who get this

More information

Breast cancer treatments

Breast cancer treatments Breast cancer treatments i About us Breast Cancer Network Australia (BCNA) is the peak organisation for all people affected by breast cancer in Australia. We provide a range of free resources, including

More information

Department of Surgery

Department of Surgery Thoracic Surgery After Your Lung Surgery Patient Education Discharge Information You have just had lung surgery. The following are definitions of terms you may hear in connection with your surgery: THORACOTOMY

More information