2 Distributed File System a) A distributed file system is a file system that resides on different machines, but offers an integrated view of data stored on remote disks. b) Examples of distributed file systems a) NFS b) AFS c) Coda d) Plan9 e) xfs
3 Network File System (NFS) Developed originally at Sun Microsystems for UNIX workstations. It is a model to integrate different file systems. Based on the idea that each file server provides a standardized view of its local file system. NFS runs on heterogeneous groups of computers.
4 NFS Architecture (1) NFS uses a remote access model: clients are unaware of file locations. Servers export a set of operations on files. The remote access model. The upload/download model.
5 NFS Architecture (2) The basic NFS architecture for UNIX systems.
6 NFS Architecture (3) NFS is independent from local file system organization. It integrates file systems used in UNIX, Linux, Windows, and other operating systems. The model offered is similar to UNIX-like file systems based on files as sequences of bytes.
7 File System Model Operation v3 v4 Description Create No Create a regular file Create No Create a nonregular file Link Create a hard link to a file Symlink No Create a symbolic link to a file Mkdir No Create a subdirectory in a given directory Mknod No Create a special file Rename Change the name of a file Rmdir No Remove an empty subdirectory from a directory Open No Open a file Close No Close a file Lookup Look up a file by means of a file name Readdir Read the entries in a directory Readlink Read the path name stored in a symbolic link Getattr Read the attribute values for a file Setattr Set one or more attribute values for a file Read Read the data contained in a file Write Write data to a file An incomplete list of file system operations supported by NFS.
8 Communication (1) a) In NFS all communications between servers and clients are implemented using Remote Procedure Call (RPC). b) The used protocol is the Open Network Computing RPC. c) Before version 4, NFS used stateless servers. d) The clients were in charge to maintain the status of current operations on a remote file system.
9 Communication (2) In version 4, NFS introduced compound operations to improve the reduce the number of RPC calls and improve communication performance. This is appropriate for wide-area file systems. Compound operations are not handled as transactions. If one operation in a compound procedure fails successive operations are not executed.
10 Communication (3) (a) Reading data from a file in NFS version 3. (b) Reading data using a compound procedure in version 4.
11 Communication (4) In version 4, NFS servers maintain the status of some operations. This model was introduced to handle with widearea network operations such as file locking cache consistency protocols callback procedures.
12 Naming (1) File sharing is based on mounting operations. Mounting (part of) a remote file system in NFS.
13 Naming (2) An NFS server can mount directories exported from other servers, but these cannot be exported to clients. Mounting nested directories from multiple servers in NFS.
14 Automounting (1) When a file system should be mounted on a client? An automatic procedure is implemented by an automounter for NFS that mount home directories of users when they log into the client and mount other file system on demand (when files are accessed).
15 Automounting (2) A simple automounter for NFS.
16 Automounting (3) To avoid to call the automounter whenever a file is read, directories can be mounted on a special subdirectory and using a symbolic link to each mounted directory. Using symbolic links with automounting.
17 File Attributes (1) NFS file attributes are divided between two groups: 12 mandatory (supported by every implementation) and 43 recommended attributes. Attribute TYPE SIZE CHANGE FSID The type of the file (regular, directory, symbolic link) The length of the file in bytes Description Indicator for a client to see if and/or when the file has changed Server-unique identifier of the file's file system Some general mandatory file attributes in NFS.
18 File Attributes (2) Attribute ACL FILEHANDLE FILEID FS_LOCATIONS OWNER TIME_ACCESS TIME_MODIFY TIME_CREATE Description an access control list associated with the file The server-provided file handle of this file A file-system unique identifier for this file Locations in the network where this file system may be found The character-string name of the file's owner Time when the file data were last accessed Time when the file data were last modified Time when the file was created Some general recommended file attributes.
19 Semantics of File Sharing (1) According to the UNIX semantics in a sequential system that allows to share files a read after a write, returns the value just written after two successive writes a read operation returns the value stored by the last write. In a distributed system, UNIX semantics can be assured if there is only one file server and clients do not cache files.
20 Semantics of File Sharing (2) In a distributed system with caching, obsolete values may be returned. On a single machine, when a read follows a write, the value returned by the read is the value just written.
21 Semantics of File Sharing (3) Although NFS in theory uses the remote access model, most implementation use local caches, so they in practice use the upload/download model. NSF implements the session semantics: changes to an open file are initially visible only to the process that modified the file. When the file is closed all the changes are visible to other processes (or machines). What happens when two processes caches and modify a file?
22 Semantics of File Sharing (4) Method UNIX semantics Session semantics Immutable files Transaction Comment Every operation on a file is instantly visible to all processes No changes are visible to other processes until the file is closed No updates are possible; simplifies sharing and replication All changes occur atomically Four ways of dealing with the shared files in a distributed system.
23 File Locking in NFS (1) NFS version 4 use a file locking method.
24 File Locking in NFS (1) NFS version 4 use a file locking method. Read locks are not mutually exclusive. Write lock is exclusive. Operation Lock Lockt Locku Renew Description Creates a lock for a range of bytes Test whether a conflicting lock has been granted Remove a lock from a range of bytes Renew the leas on a specified lock NFS version 4 operations related to file locking.
25 File Locking in NFS (2) NFS implements an implicit way to lock a file: share reservation Current file denial state NONE READ WRITE BOTH Request access READ WRITE Succeed Succeed Fail Succeed Succeed Fail Fail Fail BOTH Succeed Fail (a) Fail Fail Requested file denial state NONE READ WRITE BOTH Current access state READ WRITE BOTH Succeed Succeed Succeed Fail Succeed Fail Succeed Fail Fail Fail Fail Fail (b) The result of an open operation on an already opened by another client with share reservations in NFS. (a) When the client requests shared access given the current denial state. (b) When the client requests a denial state given the current file access state.
26 NFS Client Caching (1) NFS version 4 provides Client-side caching including a Memory cache and a Disk cache. File data, attributes, handles, and directories can be cached.
27 NFS Client Caching (2) Caching of file data uses the session semantics: modification of cached data must be flushed to the server when a client closes the file. Data can be retained in the cache, but if the file will be re-opened they must be revalidated. NFS uses open delegation to delegate some rights to a client that opened a file. The client can take some decisions without asking the server. Some other decisions remain to the server.
28 NFS Client Caching (3) An NFS may need to recall a delegation when another client on a different machine asks for access rights to a file. The callback mechanism is used to recall file delegation.
29 NFS Client Caching (4) Attribute values, file handles, and directories can be cached, but modifications to those values must be sent to the server. Cache entries are automatically invalidated after a certain amount of time. This oblige clients to revalidate them before to use them again. NFS v4 provides a support for file system replication through a list of locations of a file system.
30 NFS Fault Tolerance As NFS v4 provides stateful servers (e.g., file locking, open delegation), fault tolerance and recovery mechanisms need to be designed to handle with RPC failures. RPC may use TCP or UDP protocols. RPC may incurs in duplicate requests when an RPC reply is lost; so the server can carry out the request more than one time.
31 Duplicate-Request Cache Each RPC request from a client carries a unique transaction id (XID) and it is cached by the server with the reply. Three situations for handling retransmissions. (a) The request is still in progress (b) The reply has just been returned (c) The reply has been some time ago, but was lost.
32 NFS Security Security in NFS is mainly based on secure channels and file access control. The NFS security architecture.
33 Secure RPCs Secure RPC in NFS version 4 is based on RPCSRC_GSS.
34 Values of the ACL attribute Read_data Write_data Execute List_directory Add_file Add_subdirectory Delete Delete_child Read_acl Write_acl Operation Append_data Read_attributes Write_attributes Read_named_attrs Write_named_attrs Write_owner Synchronize Access Control Description Permission to read the data contained in a file Permission to to modify a file's data Permission to to append data to a file Permission to to execute a file Permission to to list the contents of a directory Permission to to add a new file t5o a directory Permission to to create a subdirectory to a directory Permission to to delete a file Permission to to delete a file or directory within a directory Permission to to read the ACL Permission to to write the ACL The ability to read the other basic attributes of a file Permission to to change the other basic attributes of a file Permission to to read the named attributes of a file Permission to to write the named attributes of a file Permission to to change the owner Permission to to access a file locally at the server with synchronous reads and writes The classification of operations recognized by NFS with respect to access control.
35 The NFS User Types Type of user Owner Group Everyone Interactive Network Dialup Batch Anonymous Authenticated Service The owner of a file Any user of a process Description The group of users associated with a file Any process accessing the file from an interactive terminal Any process accessing the file via the network Any process accessing the file through a dialup connection to the server Any process accessing the file as part of a batch job Anyone accessing the file without authentication Any authenticated user of a process Any system-defined service process The various kinds of users and processes distinguished by NFS with respect to access control.
36 Overview of Coda (1) Coda is based on the Andrew File System (AFS). Goals: naming and location transparency and high availability. The overall organization of AFS.
37 Overview of Coda (2) In each Virtue client is running a Venus process that plays the same role of an NFS client. Venus role is also to allows the client to continue to work even if the file server access is not possible. Communication is based on reliable RPC.
38 Overview of Coda (3) The internal organization of a Virtue workstation.
39 Overview of Coda (4) Coda implements a UNIX-like file system with similar operations of NFS. Coda provides a global shared name space maintained by Vice servers Clients access the global name space through a special subdirectory ( /afs ). When accessed, a part of the shared name space is mounted locally.
40 Naming in Coda (1) Namining in Coda is similar to that of UNIX. File are grouped in volumes - disk partitions that correspond to file systems associated to a user and stored in a Vice server. Differently form NFS, in Coda shared file have the same name. Coda uses Logical volumes and Replicated Volume Identifiers (RVI).
41 Naming in Coda (2) Clients in Coda have access to a single shared name space.
42 File Identifiers File ids are composed of two parts: RVID + vnode The implementation and resolution of a Coda file identifier.
43 Transactional Semantics Coda implements a form of weak transactional semantics by interpreting a session as a transaction. Different types of sessions are defined and different system calls are associated to a session type. File-associated data File identifier Access rights Last modification time File length File contents Read? Modified? No No The metadata read and modified for a store session type in Coda.
44 Server Replication Coda allows replicated file servers called Volume Storage Group (VSG). For each client an Accessible VSG is provided and a replicated-write protocol is used for consistency. Two clients with different AVSG for the same replicated file.
45 Access Control Access control lists are associated with directories not with files. Operation Read Write Lookup Insert Delete Administer Description Read any file in the directory Modify any file in the directory Look up the status of any file Add a new file to the directory Delete an existing file Modify the ACL of the directory Classification of file and directory operations recognized by Coda with respect to access control.
46 Plan 9: Resources Unified to Files All resources are accessed using a file-like syntax on a pool of servers. General organization of Plan 9
47 Communication For communications Plan 9 uses the 9P protocol and network interfaces are represented as directories. File ctl data listen local remote status Description Used to write protocol-specific control commands Used to read and write data Used to accept incoming connection setup requests Provides information on the caller's side of the connection Provides information on the other side of the connection Provides diagnostic information on the current status of the connection Files associated with a single TCP connection in Plan 9.
48 Naming A client can mount multiple name spaces at the same mount point composing a union directory. The mounting order is maintained in file search. A union directory in Plan 9.
49 Overview of xfs. The xfs file system is based on a serverless model. The entire file system is distributed across machines including clients. Each machine can run a storage server, a metadata server and a client process. A typical distribution of xfs processes across multiple machines.
50 Communication in xfs RPC was substituted with active messages in xfs. RPC performance was not the best and fully decentralization is hard to manage with RPC. In an active message, when a message arrives, an handler is automatically invoked for execution.
51 Overview of SFS The Secure File System uses keys for file system security. Clients cannot access a file without having a secret key. The organization of SFS.
52 Summary Issue Design goals Access model NFS Access transparency Remote Coda High availability Up/Download Remote Plan 9 Uniformity xfs Serverless system Log-based SFS Scalable security Remote Communication RPC RPC Special Active msgs RPC Client process Thin/Fat Fat Thin Fat Medium Server groups No No No Mount granularity Directory File system File system File system Directory Name space Per client Global Per process Global Global File ID scope File server Global Server Global File system Sharing sem. Session Transactional UNIX UNIX N/S Cache consist. write-back write-back write-through write-back write-back Replication Minimal ROWA None Striping None Fault tolerance Reliable comm. Replication and caching Reliable comm. Striping Reliable comm. Recovery Client-based Reintegration N/S Checkpoint & write logs N/S Secure channels Access control Existing mechanisms Many operations Needham- Schroeder Directory operations Needham- Schroeder UNIX based No pathnames UNIX based Self-cert. NFS BASED A comparison between NFS, Coda, Plan 9, xfs. N/S indicates that nothing has been specified.
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