1 Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon. Differentiation of core and mantle. Isotope tracing: sequence of events.
2 Internal structure known from seismology. Radial distribution of seismic wave velocity and density. Spherically symmetric reference model (PREM)
4 Composition of Earth? Crust and mantle: mostly silicates Core: Fe Ni Distribution of elements in Earth
5 Abundance of elements in solar system is quite similar (except for H, He) Abundance measured in Sun s photosphere and in meteorites.
7 Where do the elements come from? How did Universe evolve? Expanding universe Olbers paradox: Why is the sky dark at night? Hubble s expanding universe Gamow s Big bang: only H and He were formed in Big bang Penzias & Wilson: Cosmic background radiation Short history of the Universe
8 Olbers paradox: why is the sky dark at night? Assume universe is and density of stars and galaxies is uniform Energy received from distant star ~ r -2 Number of stars between r and r +dr ~ 4 π r 2 dr Energy received from universe of radius r ~ r If universe is, energy received is
9 Hubble s expanding universe Universe finite or infinite? Is Universe in steady state? Einstein s general relativity framework for cosmology. Steady state solutions. Friedmann-Lemaitre dynamic universe. Hubble discovers that spectrum of distant stars is shifted toward the red, i.e. toward lower frequencies. Doppler shift frequency ω obs = ω source /(1+v/c) (v velocity away from source) Interpretation: Doppler shift. Stars are moving away. The further they are, the faster they are moving away!
11 Age and radius of the Universe Hubble constant = v / r (velocity / distance) Assuming v constant, star at distance r has traveled away from us at velocity v for time r/v = 1/H If H = 50 (km/s)/mparsec (1 parsec = 3 LY = 3 x x km = km) Age = 1/H ~ 20 Gyr Velocity of light c = limit Radius of Universe when c is reached R = H c (Overestimated if expansion slows down)
12 Hubble constant and age of the Universe Note: It was very difficult to determine distance. In 1920, the Hubble constant was over-estimated and the age of the Universe was thought to be 2 Gyr (i.e. < age of Earth). Present estimate is 13.5Gyr
13 Alpher, Bethe, Gamow: α β γ Gamow suggested that synthesis of elements from elementary particles occurred following the Big Bang. Using nuclear physics, Gamow et al. predicted that only H and He could have been synthesized and that the Universe is made of 76 % H and 24 % He This is roughly what is observed. Question: Where do the other elements come from? They are synthesized by nuclear reactions in stars. (Bethe cycle). Other consequence: when electromagnetic radiation and matter decouple: atoms become stable. Cosmic background radiation (radiation from decoupling time) must fill the Universe.
14 4 Fundamental forces in physics. Gravity Weak (holds neutron together) Note that free neutron is not tbl > + + stable n -> p + e + ν e Electromagnetic (holds atoms together) Strong (holds nuclei) When temperature and energy density in Universe decrease, nuclei become stable. Then as Universe gets colder atoms become stable and electromagnetic radiation does not interact with matter any more. Remnant electromagnetic radiation from time of decoupling is cosmic c background radiation at
15 Elements abundance The term nucleosynthesis refers to the formation of heavier elements, atomic nuclei with many protons and neutrons, from the fusion of lighter elements. The Big Bang theory predicts that the early universe was a very hot place. One second after the Big Bang, the temperature of the universe was roughly 10 billion degrees and was filled with a sea of neutrons, protons, electrons, antielectrons (positrons), photons and neutrinos. As the universe cooled, the neutrons either decayed into protons and electrons or combined with protons to make deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen). During the first three minutes of the universe, most of the deuterium combined to make helium. Trace amounts of lithium were also produced at this time. This process of light element formation in the early universe is called Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The predicted abundance of deuterium, helium and lithium depends on the density of ordinary matter in the early universe, as shown in the figure at left. These results indicate that the yield of helium is relatively insensitive to the abundance of ordinary matter, above a certain threshold. We generically expect about 24% of the ordinary matter in the universe to be helium produced in the Big Bang. This is in very good agreement with observations and is another major triumph for the Big Bang theory.
17 Blackbody radiation Stefan s law Total Power radiated ~ σ T 4 ( W m -2 K -4 ) Distribution ib ti of energy / frequency (wavelength) of radiation depends on temperature. By determining power spectrum of radiation, we can determine temperature.
18 Radiation and the expansion of the Universe Electromagnetic radiation in expanding universe. Energy inversely proportional to wavelength (E=hν=hc/λ) Wavelength of radiation increases in expanding universe. Energy density decreases (Total energy conserved) Temperature decreases: Present temperature ~3K
19 Summary CMB radiation i The existence of the CMB radiation was first predicted by George Gamow in 1948, and by Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman in It was first observed inadvertently in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. The radiation was acting as a source of excess noise in a radio receiver they were building. Coincidentally, researchers at nearby Princeton University, led by Robert Dicke and including Dave Wilkinson of the WMAP science team, were devising an experiment to find the CMB. When they heard about the Bell Labs result they immediately realized that the CMB had been found. The result was a pair of papers in the Physical Review: one by Penzias and Wilson detailing the observations, and one by Dicke, Peebles, Roll, and Wilkinson giving the cosmological interpretation. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel prize in physics for their discovery. Today, the CMB radiation is very cold, only above absolute zero, thus this radiation shines primarily in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and is invisible to the naked eye. However, it fills the universe and can be detected everywhere we look. In fact, if we could see microwaves, the entire sky would glow with a brightness that was astonishingly uniform in every direction. The temperature is uniform to better than one part in a thousand! This uniformity is one compelling reason to interpret the radiation as remnant heat from the Big Bang; it would be very difficult to imagine a local source of radiation that was this uniform.
20 Evolution of early universe (first 3 minutes) Universe expands: it gets less dense and colder Particles become stable (p+ p < >γ) (e+ e < >γ) (p++ e < >n + ν) Free neutrons are unstable Nuclei form: neutrons fixed and stable in nuclei At 3000K, atoms become stable. No more interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter (atoms) Radiation cools down in expanding universe
21 Element abundance in solar system Note peak of Fe
23 Star formation and evolution Gravitational collapse yields energy (~3GM 2 /5R) When pressure and temperature increase in the collapsing star, there is enough energy to start nuclear fusion reactions which yield more energy Balance between pressure and gravity maintains the interior of the star in (non-equilibrium) steady-state. At the end of the life of star, fuel is burned, star collapses, with several possible scenarios depending on mass of star: it will collapse and end as white dwarf, neutron star, black hole, or explode as nova or super nova) Nova explosion allows elements heavier than Fe to be removed from reactions and preserved.
24 Origin of elements: Stardust. Elements other than H and He do not come from Big Bang. (Sun is a second generation star!) Nucleosynthesis in stars. (reactions H + H -> D (H 2 ) D+H > He 3 He 3 + He 3 -> He 4 + H + H etc. liberate energy) Note the peak of Fe It corresponds to minimum energy /nucleon Synthesizing elements heavier than Fe requires that energy is provided Available in stars, but if heavy elements are not removed, they will react to return to minimum i energy 2 ways to remove heavy elements. Reaction in star atmosphere and expulsion in space. Explosion of the star (Nova, Super nova)
26 Hypotheses Solar system formation Constraints Sun = 99% of mass Planets = 99 % of angular momentum Bode s law Distribution of Elements Recent cosmochemical data (isotopes, etc.) Planets extracted from sun by passing star (Jeans-Jeffreys) Sun formed then captured planets from cloud Sun and planets formed together (Laplace)
30 Clues to the Formation of the Solar System Inner planets are small and dense Outer planets are large and have low density Satellites of the outer planets are made mostly of ices Cratered surfaces are everywhere in the Solar System Saturn has such a low density that it can't be solid anywhere Formation of the Earth by accretion: Initial solar nebula consists of mixtures of grains (rock) and ices. The initial ratio is about 90% ices and 10% grains The sun is on so there is a temperature gradient in this mixture:
34 Take home message?
36 Anisotropy in CMB very weak The data brings into high resolution the seeds that generated the cosmic structure we see today. These patterns are tiny temperature differences within an extraordinarily evenly dispersed microwave light bathing the Universe, which now averages a frigid 2.73 degrees above absolute zero temperature. WMAP resolves slight temperature fluctuations, which vary by only millionths of a degree.
40 The Origin i of the Cosmic Microwave Background One of the basic predictions of the Big Bang theory is that the universe is expanding. This expansion indicates the universe was smaller, denser and hotter in the distant past. When the visible universe was half its present size, the density of matter was eight times higher and the cosmic microwave background was twice as hot. When the visible universe was one hundredth of its present size, the cosmic microwave background was a hundred times hotter (273 degrees above absolute zero, the temperature at which water freezes to form ice on the Earth's surface). In addition to this cosmic microwave background radiation, the early universe was filled with hot hydrogen gas with a density of about 1000 atoms per cubic centimeter. When the visible universe was only one hundred millionth its present size, its temperature was 273 million degrees above absolute zero and the density of matter was comparable to the density of air at the Earth's surface. At these high temperatures, the hydrogen was completely ionized into free protons and electrons. Since the universe was so very hot through most of its early history, there were no atoms in the early universe, only free electrons and nuclei. (Nuclei are made of neutrons and protons). The cosmic microwave background photons easily scatter off of electrons. Thus, photons wandered through the early universe, just as optical light wanders through a dense fog. This process of multiple scattering produces what is called a thermal or blackbody spectrum of photons. According to the Big Bang theory, the frequency spectrum of the CMB should have this blackbody form. This was indeed measured with tremendous accuracy by the FIRAS experiment on NASA's COBE satellite.
41 Nucleosynthesis The term nucleosynthesis refers to the formation of heavier elements, atomic nuclei with many protons and neutrons, from the fusion of lighter elements. The Big Bang theory predicts that the early universe was a very hot place. One second after the Big Bang, the temperature of the universe was roughly 10 billion degrees and was filled with a sea of neutrons, protons, electrons, anti-electrons (positrons), photons and neutrinos. As the universe cooled, the neutrons either decayed into protons and electrons or combined with protons to make deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen). During the first three minutes of the universe, most of the deuterium combined to make helium. Trace amounts of lithium were also produced at this time. This process of light element formation in the early universe is called Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The quantity of light elements predicted for a given universe density serves as a double check on density observationsthe predicted abundance of deuterium, helium and lithium depends on the density of ordinary matter in the early universe, as shown in the figure at left. These results indicate that the yield of helium is relatively insensitive to the abundance of ordinary matter, above a certain threshold. We generically expect about 24% of the ordinary matter in the universe to be helium produced in the Big Bang. This is in very good agreement with observations and is another major triumph for the Big Bang theory. However, the Big Bang model can be tested further. In order for the predicted yields of the other light elements to come out in agreement with observations, the overall density of the ordinary matter must be roughly 4% of the critical density. The WMAP satellite should be able to directly measure the ordinary matter density and compare the observed value to the predictions i of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. This will be an important and stringent test of the model. If the results agree, it will be a further evidence in support of the Big Bang theory. If the results are in conflict, it will either point to 1) errors in the data, 2) an incomplete understanding of the process of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, 3) a misunderstanding of the mechanisms that produce fluctuations in the microwave background radiation, or 4) a more fundamental problem with the Big Bang theory. Nucleosynthesis in Stars Elements heavier than lithium are all synthesized in stars. During the late stages of stellar evolution, massive stars burn helium to carbon, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. Elements heavier than iron are produced in two ways: in the outer envelopes of super-giant stars and in the explosion of a supernovae. All carbon-based life on Earth is literally composed of stardust.
42 Additional information for reading The Big Bang theory predicts that the early universe was a very hot place and that as it expands, the gas within it cools. Thus the universe should be filled with radiation that is literally the remnant heat left over from the Big Bang, called the cosmic microwave background radiation, or CMB. Noble winners Penzias and Wilson with the 1965 CMB detector.the existence of the CMB radiation was first predicted by George Gamow in 1948, and by Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman in It was first observed inadvertently in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. The radiation was acting as a source of excess noise in a radio receiver they were building. Coincidentally, researchers at nearby Princeton University, led by Robert Dicke and including Dave Wilkinson of the WMAP science team, were devising an experiment to find the CMB. When they heard about the Bell Labs result they immediately realized that the CMB had been found. The result was a pair of papers in the Physical Review: one by Penzias and Wilson detailing the observations, and one by Dicke, Peebles, Roll, and Wilkinson giving the cosmological interpretation. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel prize in physics for their discovery. Uniform color oval representing the temperature variation across the sky of the CMB.Today, the CMB radiation is very cold, only above absolute zero, thus this radiation shines primarily in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and is invisible to the naked eye. However, it fills the universe and can be detected everywhere we look. In fact, if we could see microwaves, the entire sky would glow with a brightness that was astonishingly uniform in every direction. The picture at left shows a false color depiction of the temperature (brightness) of the CMB over the full sky (projected onto an oval, similar to a map of the Earth). The temperature is uniform to better than one part in a thousand! This uniformity is one compelling reason to interpret the radiation as remnant heat from the Big Bang; it would be very difficult to imagine a local source of radiation that was this uniform. In fact, many scientists have tried to devise alternative explanations for the source of this radiation but none have succeeded. Since light travels at a finite speed, astronomers observing distant objects are looking into the past. Most of the stars that are visible to the naked eye in the night sky are 10 to 100 light years away. Thus, we see them as they were 10 to 100 years ago. We observe Andromeda, the nearest big galaxy, as it was three million years ago. Astronomers observing distant galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope can see them as they were only a few billion years after the Big Bang. (Most cosmologists believe that the universe is between 12 and 14 billion years old.) One of the basic predictions of the Big Bang theory is that the universe is expanding. This expansion indicates the universe was smaller, denser and hotter in the distant past. When the visible universe was half its present size, the density of matter was eight times higher and the cosmic microwave background was twice as hot. When the visible universe was one hundredth of its present size, the cosmic microwave background was a hundred times hotter (273 degrees above absolute zero or 32 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature at which water freezes to form ice on the Earth's surface). In addition to this cosmic microwave background radiation, the early universe was filled with hot hydrogen gas with a density of about 1000 atoms per cubic centimeter. When the visible universe was only one hundred millionth its present size, its temperature was 273 million degrees above absolute zero and the density of matter was comparable to the density of air at the Earth's surface. At these high temperatures, the hydrogen was completely ionized into free protons and electrons. Since the universe was so very hot through most of its early history, there were no atoms in the early universe, only free electrons and nuclei. (Nuclei are made of neutrons and protons). The cosmic microwave background photons easily scatter off of electrons. Thus, photons wandered through the early universe, just as optical light wanders through a dense fog. This process of multiple scattering produces what is called a thermal or blackbody spectrum of photons. According to the Big Bang theory, the frequency spectrum of the CMB should have this blackbody form. This was indeed measured with tremendous accuracy by the FIRAS experiment on NASA's COBE satellite. FIRAS SpectrumThis figure shows the prediction of the Big Bang theory for the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation compared to the observed energy spectrum. The FIRAS experiment measured the spectrum at 34 equally spaced points along the blackbody curve. The error bars on the data points are so small that they can not be seen under the predicted curve in the figure! There is no alternative theory yet proposed that predicts this energy spectrum. The accurate measurement of its shape was another important test of the Big Bang theory. Surface of Last Scattering Eventually, the universe cooled sufficiently that protons and electrons could combine to form neutral hydrogen. This was thought to occur roughly 400,000 years after the Big Bang when the universe was about one eleven hundredth its present size. Cosmic microwave background photons interact very weakly with neutral hydrogen. CMB Surface of Last Scattering compared to looking up at a cloud surface.the behavior of CMB photons moving through the early universe is analogous to the propagation of optical light through the Earth's atmosphere. Water droplets in a cloud are very effective at scattering light, while optical light moves freely through clear air. Thus, on a cloudy day, we can look through the air out towards the clouds, but can not see through the opaque pq clouds. Cosmologists studying the cosmic microwave background radiation can look through much of the universe back to when it was opaque: a view back to 400,000 years after the Big Bang. This wall of light is called the surface of last scattering since it was the last time most of the CMB photons directly scattered off of matter. When we make maps of the temperature of the CMB, we are mapping this surface of last scattering. As shown above, one of the most striking features about the cosmic microwave background is its uniformity. Only with very sensitive instruments, such as COBE and WMAP, can cosmologists detect fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background temperature. By studying these fluctuations, cosmologists can learn about the origin of galaxies and large scale structures of galaxies and they can measure the basic parameters of the Big Bang theory.
52 Steps in the accretion process Step 1: accretion of cm sized particles Step 2: Physical Collision on km scale Step 3: Gravitational accretion on km scale Step 4: Molten protoplanet from the heat of accretion Final step is differentiation of the earth: Light objects float; heavy objects sink. Iron-Nickel Core (magnetic field) and oxygen-silicon crust In the outer part of the solar system, the same 4 step process of accretion occurred but it was accretion of ices (cometisemals) instead of grains.
53 Planetary accretion: energy aspects(1). When planet starts to form. Nucleus collides with other bodies (planetisimals). Collisions give energy. Kinetic energy is converted into heat. How much energy is available. Assume that accretion brings together particles from infinite distance. Gravitational itti potential tilenergy converted tdto kinetic energy which hihis converted to heat. Energy avalailable: self potential energy of a sphere E = 3 G M 2 / 5R Energy / unit mass = 3 G M / 5 R (This is a big number!!!) (G gravitational ~ N m 2 /kg 2 (m 3 /s 2 /kg), R radius, M mass of Earth)
54 Planetary accretion: energy aspects (2). When planet becomes hot, it radiates energy. Black body radiation Total Ttlenergy radiated ditd = (4 π R 2 σ T 4 ) But impacts cause dense cloud of dust How much energy can be radiated depends on how long it takes for the planet to accrete. What happens when core forms?
55 Things to note about the formation of planets via accretion There is a lot of heat dissipated in the final accretion process resulting in initially molten objects Any molten object of size greater than about 500 km has sufficient gravity to cause gravitational separation of light and heavy elements thus producing a differentiated body The accretion process is inefficient, there is lots of left over debris. In the inner part of the solar system, the leftover rocky debris cratered the surfaces of fthe newly formed planets. In the outer part of the solar system, much of the leftover rocky debris was ejected from the solar system due to the large masses of the planets which formed there. Some of this material was ejected into a large "Comet Cloud" which has a distance of about 100,000 AU from the Sun and some of the leftover debris ( beyond Pluto) could not be ejected (as it was far away from Uranus and Neptune) and hence remained there. This material is known as the Kuiper Belt and it was recently discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope
Topic 3 Primordial nucleosynthesis Evidence for the Big Bang! Back in the 1920s it was generally thought that the Universe was infinite! However a number of experimental observations started to question
Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me. My telescope Has dashed your hope; Your tenets are refuted. Let me be terse:
Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science Once Upon A Big Bang Learning Objectives: 1. Explain how the universe was created using the Big Bang theory. 2. Understand how the existence of Cosmic Background
Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching
Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal
I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives
The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe
1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the
The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,
Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big Bang Our goals for learning What were conditions like in the early universe? What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? What were
The Universe The Universe is everything. All us, the room, the U.S. the earth, the solar system, all the other stars in the Milky way galaxy, all the other galaxies... everything. How big and how old is
Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the
OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number
Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago Prof. Dr. Harold Geller firstname.lastname@example.org http://physics.gmu.edu/~hgeller/ Department of Physics and Astronomy George Mason University Unity in the
Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction
WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM?? In the very beginning, both space and time were created in the Big Bang. It happened 13.7 billion years ago. Afterwards, the universe was a very hot, expanding soup
Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology A. J. Wagner North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108 Fargo, October 20, 2015 Overview A history of our view of the universe The Big
Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!
Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of
Nuclear fusion in stars Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars The origin of structure in the Universe Until the time of formation of protogalaxies,
Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar
The Early Universe Lecture 27-1 Back to the Big Bang The total energy of the universe consists of both radiation and matter. As the Universe cooled, it went from being radiation dominated to being matter
23. The Beginning of Time Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known. Agenda Announce: Solar Altitude Lab (#2) due today Read Ch. 24 for Thursday Observation make-up next week Project Presentations
Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:
Lecture Outlines Chapter 27 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 27 The Early Universe Units of Chapter 27 27.1 Back to the Big Bang 27.2 The Evolution of the Universe More on Fundamental
Build Your Own Universe You will need: At least 10,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000 x Down quarks At least 10,000,000,000,000,000,
credit: NASA L2: The building-up of the chemical elements UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann What ordinary stuff is made of What ordinary stuff is made of Build up of metallicity 2 What are
Name: _Answer key Pretest: _2_/ 58 Posttest: _58_/ 58 Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Vocab/Matching: Match the definition on the left with the term on the right by placing the letter of the term
Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized
The Big Bang Theory David Terr, Ph.D 4/10/13 The Big Bang theory is the currently accepted theory of the origin of the universe. According to this theory, the observable universe was formed approximately
CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system
The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all
The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.
UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system
Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.
Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain
Chapter 27: The Early Universe The plan: 1. A brief survey of the entire history of the big bang universe. 2. A more detailed discussion of each phase, or epoch, from the Planck era through particle production,
The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation
The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density
1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,
1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space
WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System Aurorae in the Solar System Sponsoring Projects Galileo Europa Mission Jupiter System Data Analysis Program ACRIMSAT Supporting Projects Ulysses Project Outer Planets
Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope WEEK FIVE: THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD + LIMITATIONS OF HUBBLE, COLLABORATIONS, AND THE FUTURE OF ASTRONOMY Date: October 14, 2013 Instructor: Robert
Enter your answers on the form provided. Be sure to write your name and student ID number on the first blank at the bottom of the form. Please mark the version (B) in the Key ID space at the top of the
Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System 8.1 The Search for Origins What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? What theory best explains the features of our solar system? What properties
Image taken by NASA Asteroids About 6,000 asteroids have been discovered; several hundred more are found each year. There are likely hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from Earth.
Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages
Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,
Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Announce: Mercury Transit Part 2 of Projects due next Thursday Ch. 8 Formation of the Solar System Philip on The Physics of Star Trek Radiometric Dating Lab
Article 1 Big Bang - the birth of our universe. The universe we can observe is finite. It has a beginning in space and time, before which the concept of space and time has no meaning, because spacetime
Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the
Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities
The Universe Inside of You: Where do the atoms in your body come from? Matthew Mumpower University of Notre Dame Thursday June 27th 2013 Nucleosynthesis nu cle o syn the sis The formation of new atomic
2 WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG? David Christian explains how the Big Bang theory developed during the 20th century. This three-part lecture focuses on how the evidence for the expansion of the Universe
Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Solution? ~1998 astronomers
THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?
Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You
Formation of the Solar System Any theory of formation of the Solar System must explain all of the basic facts that we have learned so far. 1 The Solar System The Sun contains 99.9% of the mass. The Solar
Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve
Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted
Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and
Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room What is the difference between dark ENERGY and dark MATTER? Is Earth unique,
California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,
ctivity: Multiwavelength background: lmost everything that we know about distant objects in the Universe comes from studying the light that is emitted or reflected by them. The entire range of energies
The Scale of the Universe Some Introductory Material and Pretty Pictures The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. A scientific theory is regarded
In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The
DESCRIPTION Host Tom Selleck conducts a stellar tour of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto--the outer planets of Earth's solar system. Information from the Voyager space probes plus computer models
Perspective and Scale Size in Our Solar System Notes Clue Session in Mary Gates RM 242 Mon 6:30 8:00 Read Lang Chpt. 1 Moodle Assignment due Thursdays at 6pm (first one due 1/17) Written Assignments due
Cosmology Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why? Because the prevailing scientific view about the Universe in the early 1900 s was: The Universe is infinite
The Second Planet in Our Solar System Venus By Dorothy.Yang Lucy.Xiao venus Basic information about Venus.length of year.length of day.temperature.density.chemical composition of the atmosphere.chemical
Lecture 14 Introduction to the Sun ALMA discovers planets forming in a protoplanetary disc. Open Q: what physics do we learn about the Sun? 1. Energy - nuclear energy - magnetic energy 2. Radiation - continuum
From the SelectedWorks of James T Struck 2015 Void Cosmology-Better Explains What Happens First, Background Radiation, Voids in Space, Hydrogen Concentrations James T Struck Available at: http://works.bepress.com/james_struck/63/
Lecture 8: Radiation Spectrum The information contained in the light we receive is unaffected by distance The information remains intact so long as the light doesn t run into something along the way Since
Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)
Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Messages Interactions of Light and Matter The interactions determine everything we see, including what we observe in the Universe. What is light?
4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 1020L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets are born from the clouds of gas and dust
Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood
The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered
Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics
Big bang, red shift and doppler effect 73 minutes 73 marks Page of 26 Q. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected.
Astronomy 330 Outline! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe This class (Lecture 4): Origin of Elements Next Class: End of the Universe Presentation Synopsis due Thur. Music:
Astronomy 114 Summary of Important Concepts #1 1 1 Kepler s Third Law Kepler discovered that the size of a planet s orbit (the semi-major axis of the ellipse) is simply related to sidereal period of the
Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals