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1 !""#.",/,"0*-12&'&3*4*'1 5''+&#6&#*'(&,7",89**1 List action items and dates (where possible) under each of the headings. Complete one sheet for each month. Month Education Goals Education Activities Habitat Team Action Item Date Action Item Date Action Item Date

2 Volunteers Public Relations and Planting and Maintenance Partnerships Action Item Date Action Item Date Action Item Date

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7 QL8LGSL Source Grants Donations Fundraisers C+(3*17",89**1 Amount!",.#'*P*/5* geeeeeeeeeee LTKLGL ();; Position Cost/hour Total hours Total Cost B5C,",.# geeeeeee O5.<)(*+=&55-*.')+2R)(.<*)-' Item Unit Cost # of Items Total Cost Printing Postage Snacks/Celebrations B5C,",.# geeeeeee

8 L2&/)(*1+)-&55-*.')+2R)(.<*)-' Item Unit Cost # of items Total Cost Printing Postage Field Trips Books B5C,",.# geeeeeee #),*()(&55-*.')+2R)(.<*)-' Item Unit Cost # of items Total Cost Tools Plants Soil Amendments Hoses/water equipment Signage B5C,",.# geeeeeee UVVVVVVV UVVVVVVV W4>4GXLY UVVVVVVV

9 @.)AR.A,.<' Name 6"44+';-&1;"'/#&'7",89**1 Role (teacher, volunteer, parent, etc.) Phone >.)2.<'0*5(<&/(&<. 8:"]<###*.7,:*1**,</0_eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee #1?1;(.+?*--(0.=<1&5A..(9! -"/,:#Qeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! B*."/.##Qeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! V,:*'eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

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13 @<)*+*+=Z&551<( Role Type of Training Who they Report To How Often Contact is S*P<*]0".#./7P<<"/"&D'")*+,!!"5',:*<,*! ('"P<7*#<,"&#*.7*':<D,*.1! M\D#.</,:*75,<*./7D'"+*75'*&"',:*<'.<0/1*/,! M\D#.</,<1*+"11<,1*/,! M\D#.</]:",:*Q'*D"',,"&"'N5*,<"/! M\D#.</:"],:<D"<,<"/&<,</,",:*"P*'.##D'")*+,! M\D#.</C*/*&<,,",:*+"115/<,Q! S*P<*]+:""#05<7*#</*./7D"#<+<*&"'P"#5/,**'! V,:*'

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19 Week Date Contact Phone Alternate/phone [&(*.'(1,.K.<;1<A.2h#<,</7*,.<#_].,*'</0^]**7</0^*,+i! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee LA.<=.+/BX1+()/('

20 Gardening Questions Name Phone Alternate Phone Wildlife Questions Reporting Vandalism Equipment Problems Other ( ) 5./*)-&AA.<LD.+('Z4/(*D*(*.';1<(0.#),*()( Type of Event Date Time Audience Nature NIght July 9 th 7:00-8:00 p.m Students and families./&<*(bzl\&*5a.+(r)*+(.+)+/.g1(.'! O7*/,<&Q:"]P"#5/,**'./7&.1<#<*]<##:.P*.++*,"*+5'*7,""#./7*N5<D1*/,! 8:.,*N5<D1*/,f1.</,*/./+*75,<*/**7,"C*D*'&"'1*7! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee *=+)(&<.' VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV ].B>.)2.< K<*+/*5)-

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22 LA.<=.+/BX1+()/(' Name Phone Alternate Phone Gardening Questions OSU Master Gardeners Wildlife Questions John Jones (4-H Wildlife Steward) Reporting Vandalism Equipment Problems Other ( ) 5./*)-&AA.<LD.+('Z4/(*D*(*.';1<(0.#),*()( Type of Event Date Time Audience./&<*(BZL\&*5A.+(R)*+(.+)+/.! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee *=+)(&<.' VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV ].B>.)2.< K<*+/*5)-

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24 GARDEN SUPPLIES (Shovels, rakes, gloves, etc) Item Number Date Obtained Value Location Notes

25 SCIENCE AND TEACHING SUPPIES Item Number Date Obtained Value Location Notes BOOKS AND RESOURCES Item Author Date Obtained Value Location Notes

26 @&4B#*EF+;B4*'1&'(G'H*'1",I7",89**1! GARDEN SUPPLIES (Shovels, rakes, gloves, etc) Item Number Date Value Location Notes Obtained Shovels Garden storage shed Work Gloves Garden storage shed 3 youth sizes Hoe Garden storage shed 100 ft hose Garden storage shed SCIENCE AND TEACHING SUPPIES Item Number Date Value Location Notes Obtained Binoculars Science Room Tape measures Science Room 2-ft. tapes Soil test kits Science room Water test kits Science room BOOKS AND RESOURCES Item Author Date Value Location Notes Obtained Trees to Know (3 sets) OSU Science Room Native Plant Flash Cards (6 sets) OSU Ms. Smith s room

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36 :&'(&#;4/,*H*'1;"'/#&'7",89**1 6:*+9,:"*<,*1Q"5'B+:""#<7*/,<&<*../.+,<"/<,*1D'<"'<,Q./7,:"*,:</0+"1D#*,*7 Priority (yes or no) Completed Action Item 4-H Sustainable Schools sign posted Site is well maintained Fencing Hold an Open House and invite the entire school community and neighbors Place paths to direct foot traffic around the habitat G)(&<)-&<D.*--)+/. Priority Completed Action Item Install Landscape lighting Inform the school office staff about site plans and encourage them to monitor visitors Inform the school custodian and grounds staff about the project site and encourage they support Inform local neighbors about the project site and solicit their support for keeping an eye on the site during non-school hours Involve students in the landscape design and consider current student uses of the site Encourage volunteers working at the site during the summer months to come at different days ad times of the week Remove any bushes, trees or other structures that provide a place for vandals to hide Invite a local police officer to visit your school site and make recommendations for deterring vandalism

37 4/(*D*(B&551<( Priority Completed Action Item Encourage additional teachers and groups to use the site for activities and education Offer regularly scheduled habitat tours Organize regularly scheduled work days or clean up days Invite high school groups, scout groups and others to use the site for community service projects 4//.''X1+(<1- Priority Completed Action Item Include specific references to the project in the school code of conduct Make sure everyone knows that vandalism is a crime and that crimes are reported to the police, criminal are prosecuted and restitution is demanded Include loss and theft due to vandalism in your project budget 4/(*1+K-)+H+X)'.8)+2)-*'AO//&<' G2 6"/,.+,,:*D'"D*'.5,:"'<,<*h]:"/**7,"C*+"/,.+,*7</,:*+.*"&P./7.#<1i I2 B+:""#D'"+*75'*&"''*D"',</06'<1* 32 6#*./YDO11*7<.,*#Qh]:"]<##C*'*D"/<C#*&"'+#*./</05D./7]:*/i?2 6"5/*#./7M75+.,*B,57*/,hD#./&"'+"5/*#</0./7*75+.,<"/,57*/,ic]:"]<##C* '*D"/<C#*./7:"]]<##,:<C*.++"1D#<:*7h]<##.,57*/,,*.1P<<,+#.'""1^"1*,:</0 D",*7</,:*+:""#/*]#*,,*'^*,+2i >2 B5,.</.C<#<,Q!*.1-**,,"'*,:</97*<0/

38 !""#.",J*H*#"B;'3K"+,7;#(#;.*<&,(*' 4-H SUSTAINABLE SCHOOLS 7;#(#;.*G(*'1;.;-&1;"')*-",( Look for signs of wildlife. This may include footprints, bite marks in leafs, or trails in the soil. Closely study these signs of wildlife and then draw a picture of what you see. Use as much detail as you can.

39 DATE NUMBER OBSERVED WILDLIFE NAME OBSERVED NOTES

40 4- H School Gardens Site Checklist Administrative Considerations School Principal input was considered School District suggestions/input was considered Custodial/School Maintenance Staff Is the area a clearly defined space Can maintenance staff get in and around the site to perform other maintenance duties Are there any special zoning or district regulations that need to be considered If the site is close to the building, are there any building codes that need to be considered Logistical Considerations Is the area close to outdoor faucets for watering If the site is large and will require preparation using large equipment is the site accessible for the large equipment needed to develop the site Is there a place nearby to store tools and supplies Human Use Consideration Have students given input into the location of the Habitat Education Site Is the site currently used for anything else such as a shortcut by students to get the playground Can the site be made accessible for disabled students and community members Educational Considerations Is the site easily accessible for students and teachers to visit the site during the school day Can the site be observed from inside the classroom Is there nearby space for students to sit for reflection Is there enough space for a large class activity What are the viewing areas that exist Vandalism Considerations Is the site in clear view for neighbors and others to keep surveillance during non- school hours Habitat Considerations Will the site require much preparation before planting and does your school have the resources and manpower to do the preparation Is the amount of light and water appropriate for the habitat you wish to create or maintain

41 4-H School Gardens: Inventorying Your Education Site for Wildlife Complete the following inventory of your habitat site to build a basic understanding of your site. The first step in creating your wildlife habitat site is to inventory what resources already exist. Here are some tools to collect in preparation for your inventory: Base map(s) of the site Tape measures Clip boards Paper Pencils String Collecting containers Thermometers Field guides and keys GEOLOGY AND SOILS Describe the general features of the soil and the lay of the land. Describe the color, texture and moisture content of the soil. HYDROLOGY AND DRAINAGE Where are the wet spots on your site? Which of the following water sources are available on your site

42 Bird Bath Seasonal Year Round Pond Seasonal Year Round River Seasonal Year Round Spring Seasonal Year Round Stream Seasonal Year Round Other Seasonal Year Round Describe the depth and dimensions of this water What aquatic flora and fauna exists Describe the movement (if any) of this water. Observe contours of the site and water flow during times of rain. Where does the water drain or settle? Where is the closest water bib or spigots to your site? CLIMATE Make a quick map of the sunny and shady areas, according to times of the day

43 Morning Midday Afternoon Describe the wind conditions throughout the year Average Temperatures Fall Temperature Highs Lows Winter Temperature Highs Lows Spring Temperature Highs Lows Summer Temperature Highs Lows Where are the rain shadows if any? Identify any microclimates on your site. TOPOGRAPHY OGRAPHY Locate the high point of your site Locate the low point of your site What is the approximate degree of slope? Where are the wind tunnels?

44 VEGETATION Plant Inventory for Food and Shelter Please take an inventory of the plants and their common names. Additionally, if the plant is a potential food source for wildlife, please check the box and note the food type (for example: berries, nectar, edible leaves). Check your local school district for guidelines on what can and cannot be planted. Number Shrub Name Keep or Move? Meets school district guidelines* Potential Food Source Or Food Type Number Annual and Perennial Names Keep or Move? Meets school district guidelines* Potential Food Source Or Food Type Dense Shrub approximate square feet Ground Cover approximate square feet Meadow approximate square feet Prarie approximate square feet Scrub approximate square feet Tree Inventory for Food and Shelter Please take an inventory of your site: listing the number of trees (how many) and their common names. Additionally, if the tree is a potential food source for wildlife, please check the box and note the food type (for example: acorns, fruits, nuts, etc.).

45 Check your local school district for guidelines on what can and cannot be planted and any height limitations. Number Mature Tree Names Keep or Move? Meets school district guidelines* Potential Food Source Or Food Type Number Small Tree Names Keep or Move? Meets school district guidelines* Potential Food Source Or Food Type Number of Trees with (please note types of wildlife attracted) Nest/Den Cavities Nest Boxes Feeders WILDLIFE Wildlife Shelters List additional types of shelter places. Bursh pile Dens in ground Log pile

46 Rock pile Other Inventory of Feeders List the number of feeders, feeder type and the food provided Number Feeder Type Food Provided Inventory of Water for Wildlife List sources of water for wildlife. Don t forget to include seasonal water sources. Water Source Seasonal/Year Round Wildlife Wildlife Conflicts with People Which types of wildlife in your habitat site might pose a problem or conflict with people (i.e. bee allergies, fears, etc.) Wildlife Conflict with People HUMAN NEEDS Identify on your map the following existing human structures included in your habitat site or bordering your habitat site: Driveways Sidewalks Parking lot Fence Playground/sports field Where is the closest electrical outlet?

47 Weston Miller- OSU Extension Service Faculty Address: 200 Warner-Milne Rd. Oregon City, OR Phone: Fax: Web: Base Maps of a Site A. Why map? Make your mistakes on paper through thoughtful and protracted planning rather than thoughtless and protracted labor. B. Building Plans or site maps including utilities, wells, septic, etc. C. Google Earth measurement tool. D. Creating a quick site map 1. measure average distance of your pace 2. Walk off measurements and sketch the area E. Creating a reasonably accurate site map using triangulation 1. Get some butcher paper or velum, drafters tape, an engineer s ruler, a geometry compass, some pencils, and some colored pencils and/or pens. 2. Determine the scale that you want to use to represent the site (1 :10 or 1 :20 are common scales). Try to get your entire area of interest to fit on the piece of paper that you will use. 3. Find two relatively immovable points (corner of house, utility pole, permanent tree, etc.) that are in the area of interest and determine where on the piece of paper to best place them so that you can map the entire site. 4. Plot these points relative to each other using the scale that you have chosen. 5. Measure the distance on the ground from each of the two fixed points to a third point that you want to show on the map. 6. Using an engineer s rule (and the right scale) and a geometry compass, measure the distance from each fixed point to the new point; make an arc for each length. The point where the two arcs cross is the relative location of the new point. Make a mark for this point on the map and lightly label it. 7. Continue mapping all of the major points of detail that you want to show. Note that each new point that is mapped can now serve as one of the fixed points to determine the location of additional objects on the map. 8. It is easiest to do this job with at least 2-3 people using several measuring tapes and a recorder. 9. Make a rough sketch that shows the locations of major points of interest as a draft and then trace over it for a final draft. 10. Include as much or as little detail as you want to make a functional map of the site. 11. Create a key that shows the major types of objects on the map including ground cover materials, major plant types, irrigation fixtures, utilities, paths, etc, etc. 12. Put a direction arrow to show north (and south) and solar south.

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51 Beret Halverson- OSU Extension Service Address: 200 Warner-Milne Rd. Oregon City, OR Phone: Fax: Web: Planning What to Plant in a Food Garden WHAT SHOULD WE PLANT PLANT NEEDS CREATING A MAP/AREA LAYOUT DO: DO: DO: Younger Learners: Make a list of vegetables they want to plant. Explore what will and will not work depending on the weather/season. Older Learners: Look at seed catalogs-notice varieties in each vegetable species. Look at planting charts to understand what information is given and why. Younger Learners: -Draw pictures of different plants growing above and below ground. -Use a large classroom calendar or a month by month calendar to mark dates or general dates for planting as a group. Older Learners: -Develop a planting calendar on a spreadsheet, picking out the plants from a planting chart. Use a garden planning software to plan the garden. Younger Learners: -Consider using a 4 by 4 area or a 1 by 1 area per student. Introduce garden planning by using a one foot square. -Make 1 by 1 squares with paper towel and glue seeds into the squares based on spacing. Older students can use more complex planting charts to look at Older Learners: -Measure the length and width of a garden bed and draw it to scale on a piece of graph paper. Use dots to mark on the map how far apart plants should be spaced. -Use a scale map in a site design and have students move around to scale objects on that map in order to understand their relativity.

52 REFLECT: -What should we plant? -What criteria should guide our choices in picking plants? -How and by whom will the veggies be used? -When should we plant? -How long do things take to grow? - What is the relationship between type of vegetable and time of year it can be planted? - Discuss which plants grow faster than others -How and by whom will the veggies be used -What are the reasons for planting vegetables? -How do we know if something will grow here? Apply: Younger Learners Consider and identify differences between plants. Older Learners Consider and identify criteria for choosing which vegetables to grow. REFLECT: -When Plants grow do they all look the same? -PLANTS (place, light, air, nutrients, thirsty, soil) -What happens when plants are placed too close together? -Why do some plants take up more space than others? (growth patterns) -How big will this plant grow? -How big will these plant roots grow? -Can one plant enhance the growth of another? -Can one plant cause another to stop growing or grow poorly? -How do plants interact with insects? -What happens if I plant this plant in the same place next year? Apply: Younger Learners Consider and identify basic plant needs and differences. Older Learners Explain the interaction of plant requirements and relationships that are necessary to think about when planning a garden. How are these interactions and relationships integrated into the garden plan? REFLECT: -Why do you think some seeds need more space than others to grow? -Discuss the relative mature sizes of vegetables. Compare plants heights and lengths to common objects. -Measure mature plants you can find growing to see how big they get. -Discuss flying in an airplane and differences in the amount of land you can see verses the details you can see and how this changes as you get higher. (first taking off is like a large scale map) Higher altitudes is like a small scale map Apply: Younger Learners Identify why spacing plants is important. Older Learners Articulate and demonstrate the concept of scale.

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56 An Educator s Guide to Vegetable Gardening EM 9032 September 2011 Weston Miller, Beret Halverson, and Gail Langellotto Gardening is a powerful way to teach many important topics including basic food-growing skills, health and nutrition, environmental science, and more. Gardens provide opportunities for hands-on learning in a variety of subjects across a range of grade levels (see sidebar, page 2), but it can be intimidating to plan, install, and maintain an educational garden. This publication provides a basic introduction to growing produce in an outdoor garden and includes information on recommended plants and a garden calendar. For more detailed information on any aspect of outdoor gardening, contact your local Oregon State University (OSU) Extension Master Gardener Program ( A Full-Circle Approach to Educational Gardens Using a holistic, full-circle approach in an educational garden allows you to demonstrate ecological processes that foster healthy soil, healthy plants, and healthy people (figure 1). For example, vegetable scraps from the cafeteria or grass clippings from the school lawn can be decomposed into compost. This compost provides essential nutrients to growing plants. Plants incorporate the nutrients in their tissues, and we receive these nutrients when we harvest, prepare, and eat garden produce. Gardening in this way can help students understand how soil, plants, and people are connected. Compost food scraps. Harvest, prepare, and eat produce. Clean garden beds, and compost debris. Full-circle approach to gardening Care for growing plants. Figure 1. A full-circle approach to gardening. Add compost to garden soil. Plant seeds or transplants. Contents A Full-Circle Approach to Educational Gardens...1 Seasonal Gardening in Oregon...2 Choosing a Garden Site...6 Making a Garden Plan...7 Garden Tools...8 Garden Soil Garden Tasks Appendix A (plants to grow from seed) Appendix B (plants to grow from transplants) Appendix C (gardening calendar) Appendix D (recommended varieties) General References and Resources OSU Extension References and Resources Weston Miller, community and urban horticulturist, Metro Area Extension; Beret Halverson, horticulture program assistant, Metro Area Extension; and Gail Langellotto, statewide coordinator, Oregon State University Extension Master Gardener Program; all of Oregon State University.

57 Gardening is hands-on learning. With careful lesson planning, it is possible to use an educational garden to teach concepts from a variety of subjects. Math: A simple activity might include calculating the area of a rectangular garden bed. More complex operations might include measuring the rate of change in stem height. Social studies: Students can trace the geographic and cultural origins of foods such as corn (Central America), apples (western Asia), and potatoes (southern Peru). Language arts: Introduce gardenrelated vocabulary words in a language arts class, or have students write essays about observations or experiences in a garden. Science: Gardens are useful for teaching an array of concepts including the scientific method (e.g., form and test hypotheses about factors that promote plant growth), basic botany (e.g., plant anatomy and physiology), and environmental science (e.g., composting and the nitrogen cycle). Health: Gardening is a particularly appropriate vehicle to teach nutrition and health. Several studies have shown that garden-based curricula encourage increased fruit and vegetable consumption in young children. NLook for this symbol throughout the publication. It highlights tips for using garden tasks to supplement classroom lessons. Briefly, a full-circle approach to gardening includes the following steps: Clean the garden by removing previous crops and weeds. Compost these materials. Add finished compost to garden soil. Plant seeds or transplants. Maintain growing plants by watering and weeding as needed. Harvest mature plants. Wash, prepare, and eat the produce. Compost leftover food scraps. Repeat the cycle. See Garden Tasks (page 14) for more information on each of these steps. Educators can work with students at any point in the full-circle process to teach key concepts in just about any subject. Ideally, students will work through the entire crop cycle (i.e., from compost to compost) so they experience each step. The cycle can be as short as 4 to 6 weeks for a fast-growing crop (e.g., radishes) or 4 to 6 months or longer for crops that require more time to mature (e.g., carrots, beets, broccoli, garlic, and onions). If you have limited time with students, you may want to stagger planting times so crops are at different growth stages (e.g., seedling, vegetative growth, and fruiting structures) in different garden beds. In this way, you can demonstrate all or most parts of a crop cycle. Seasonal Gardening in Oregon In Oregon, outdoor gardens can be used year round to grow vegetables. However, many vegetables require some sort of protection from winter temperatures. Access to a greenhouse, hoop house, raised-bed cloche, or cold frame makes it easier to garden year round and get the garden started in spring. In colder areas, such as central Oregon, a cold frame or greenhouse is required to grow vegetables year round. 2 An Educator s Guide to Vegetable Gardening

58 This section describes general garden activities for each season. See Appendices A, B, and C (pages 18 to 25) for suggested planting times for various crops, and consult the OSU Extension Monthly Garden Calendar for reminders of key gardening chores. Plan your educational garden and gardenbased activities around the school year and crop cycles. Winter (December February) Make plans for the garden. NIf your class has kept a garden journal, have students review their notes and discuss gardening successes and challenges. Together, students can choose which vegetables they want to plant when spring arrives. Take soil samples, and have a laboratory perform a complete nutrient analysis of the garden soil. NAlternatively, middle and high school students can perform a simple ph test in the classroom. Students can analyze the test results in terms of how soil ph influences nutrient availability (see Soil Nutrients and ph, page 11). Besides planning, there are a few gardening tasks you can do during winter. Hot compost piles need to be turned throughout the year, and all compost piles should be protected from heavy winter rains. If your school has an industrial arts or woodworking class, you may be able to collaborate to build a cold frame or hotbed. If you have access to a south-facing window with good sun exposure, you can plant windowsill gardens of greens (e.g., lettuce, arugula, and mustards) or herbs (e.g., parsley, cilantro, and rosemary). You can also start seeds of kale, broccoli, cabbage, or cauliflower. You may be able to plant peas outdoors in late winter if the soil is workable (i.e., the soil does not stick to garden tools and crumbles easily when you grab a handful) AND Learn More: Seasonal Gardening How to Build Your Own Raised-Bed Cloche. OSU Extension publication EC OSU Extension Monthly Garden Calendar consistently holds a temperature of at least 40 F. Winter is also a good time to plant many fruit trees and fruiting shrubs. Spring (March May) Plant cool-season crops and the first warmseason annuals. NHave students use a soil thermometer and graph daily or weekly changes in soil temperatures. Use students results as a guide to help you know when to plant various crops (see When to plant, page 14). Some cool-season crops (e.g., onions, kale, lettuce, and spinach) can be transplanted when the soil is consistently above 40 F. Potatoes can also be planted in spring. Seeds of carrots, beets, cilantro, and greens can be sown directly outdoors (direct-seeded) when the soil temperature is consistently above 50 F. Some warm-season vegetables (e.g., beans and sweet corn) can be planted when the soil is consistently above 60 F. Wait until the soil is consistently above 70 F to transplant tomatoes, squash, melons, peppers, and eggplants. In areas with short growing seasons, start seeds indoors or continue to tend indoor seedlings that were planted in winter. Use a cold frame to harden off tender tissues of young seedlings before transplanting them into an outdoor garden (see Transplants, page 14). Access to a hoop house or greenhouse can significantly increase the variety and amount of vegetables you can grow in a spring garden. An Educator s Guide to Vegetable Gardening 3

59 Figure 2. Although raised beds (left) are a great way to garden where soil is less than optimal, it is less expensive and just as effective to garden in soil that is mounded into raised rows (right). Photo on left by Gail Langellotto, Oregon State University. Photo on right by Nancy Kirks, reproduced by permission. Prepare garden soil for spring planting. Incorporate 1 inch or more of organic materials and other amendments; use the results of a soil analysis as a guide. If the garden is planned for a site with poorly drained or cold soil, consider building raised beds or mounding the ground to form raised garden rows (figure 2). Begin monitoring for pests. Slugs, aphids, and other pests may feed on tender seedlings. Cabbageworms and cabbage maggots may appear in cole crops (e.g., broccoli, cabbage, and kale). Carrot rust flies may emerge, mate, and lay eggs on carrots and parsnips. Adult cucumber beetles are active in early spring, and their larvae feed on peas, snap beans, and other crops as the season progresses. When soil warms to 50 F and higher, wireworms may appear and feed on beans, potatoes, sugar beets, and other crops. Identify pests before acting to manage them. Many insects, including ladybugs, lacewings, and predaceous bugs, are beneficial and help keep plant-feeding pests under control. Spring is a great time to plant alyssum and buckwheat, both of which attract beneficial insects to the garden. NLadybugs and lacewings are easy to identify as eggs, larvae, and adults. Teach students to identify these beneficial insects, and discuss insect life cycles. Pest management in educational gardens should be focused on cultural, physical, and biological controls: Cultural: Practice proper garden sanitation, choose resistant varieties, and encourage healthy, vigorous plants. Physical: Use row covers, collars, and other barriers. Biological: Attract and conserve beneficial insects. Chemical controls should be considered only as a last resort. All Oregon school districts are subject to the regulations of Oregon Senate Bill 637, which requires school districts to have an integrated pest management (IPM) plan and a designated IPM coordinator and to use the services of a licensed pesticide applicator for all pesticide applications on school property. For more information, contact your district IPM coordinator or the OSU Extension IPM in Schools Program. Learn More: School IPM OSU Extension IPM in Schools Program Schools-Main_Page.html 4 An Educator s Guide to Vegetable Gardening

60 Summer (June August) Water, weed, harvest, and perform general garden maintenance. If you can arrange for the garden to be watered and weeded in summer, many warmseason crops (e.g., tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkins, eggplants, and squash) can be enjoyed when students return to school in fall. Fertilize about 1 to 2 months after planting by working compost or fertilizer into the soil alongside vegetables (side-dressing). Thin new plantings of lettuce, chard, and other leafy vegetables by harvesting young leaves, and then use these leaves in a salad. Harvest strawberries and summer squash frequently to encourage production into fall. As you harvest various crops, consider planting winter cover crops in vacant spaces (see Planting Cover Crops, page 17). Midsummer is a good time to plant crops that will be ready to harvest in fall and winter (e.g., beets, bush beans, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli, lettuce, kale, peas, turnips, parsley, and parsnips). Continue to monitor for pests, and focus management efforts on cultural, physical, and biological controls. After the ground has warmed in late spring, consider planting sunflowers and yarrow. When these plants bloom in summer, they attract many beneficial insects that help naturally control garden pests. Again, chemical controls should be considered only as a last resort and in cooperation with your school IPM coordinator. Fall (September November) Harvest many crops including broccoli, melons, peppers, winter squash, pumpkins, and potatoes; clean up the garden, and prepare for spring planting. If green tomatoes remain on the vine, pick them before the first frost, and ripen them indoors. Other tender vegetables (e.g., cucumbers, summer squash, and corn) should also be harvested before the first frost. Learn More: Garden Basics Garden debris that remains after harvest can be composted. Don t compost diseased plants or weeds that have gone to flower or seed unless you are hot composting (i.e., compost temperatures are maintained between 120 F and 150 F). Composting these materials in cooler piles can promote diseases and weeds in next year s garden. Growing Your Own. OSU Extension publication EM Contains advice on composting, container gardens, fall/winter gardens, fertilizing, insect pests, plant diseases, planting guidelines, raised beds, site selection, slugs, soil improvement, tilling, warmseason crops, watering, and weeds. Includes regional tips for various parts of Oregon. Apply mulch to root crops (e.g., carrots, parsnips, and beets). The mulch will protect plants from extreme temperature fluctuations, allowing you to harvest and enjoy root vegetables at their best, when winter arrives. Perennial crops (e.g., rhubarb and asparagus) can also be mulched in fall. These plants often provide the first garden harvests in spring. If you plan to grow a winter garden, place a portable cold frame over rows of winter vegetables before the first frost. Garlic and scallion bulbs can be planted in fall. These will be ready for harvest the following summer. As seasonal rains arrive in western Oregon, be on the lookout for slugs and snails. Consider appropriate, least-toxic controls if these pests are a problem. One of the most important fall chores is to prepare the garden for spring planting by evenly spreading a thick layer of compost (2 to 4 inches) over planting areas and a layer of mulch (4 to 6 inches) over garden paths. The mulch will suppress winter and spring weeds, prevent soil compaction, and add organic matter to the soil as it degrades during winter. Instead of applying mulch, you can plant a dense winter cover crop. Seed cover crops in fall, while soil temperatures are warm enough for good germination and when there is enough sun for plants to become well established before winter (see Planting Cover Crops, page 17). An Educator s Guide to Vegetable Gardening 5

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