Greenhouse Gas Inventory Valencia Community College May 7 th 2010

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1 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Valencia Community College May 7 th 2010 Prepared by: 1

2 Principal Authors: EcoAsset Solutions, LLC David A. Palange Angela C. Gilbert Contributing Authors: EcoAsset Solutions, LLC Emily R. Zupo Review Editors: Valencia Community College Dr. Winsome Bennett Helene Loiselle 2

3 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Valencia Community College Campuses Figure 3.1 CO 2 e by Campus from Valencia Community College Electricity Consumption ( ) Figure 3.2 Natural Gas Consumption by Valencia Community College Campus ( ) Figure 3.3 CO 2 e from Natural Gas Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.4 Fuel Consumption of Valencia Community College Vehicle Fleet ( ) Figure 3.5 CO 2 e for Valencia Community College Vehicle Fleet ( ) Figure 3.6 Student Enrollment at Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.7 Full Time Employees at Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.8 CO 2 e from Valencia Community College Commuting ( ) Figure 3.9 Solid Waste by Valencia Community College Campus ( ) Figure 3.10 CO 2 e from Solid Waste at Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.11 CO 2 e from Refrigerant Use at Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.12 CO 2 e from Fertilizer Use at Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.13 Percent Total CO 2 e by Source Category at Valencia Community College (2006) Figure 3.14 Percent Total CO 2 e by Valencia Community College Campus (2006) Figure 3.15 Percent Total CO 2 e by Source Category at Valencia Community College (2007) Figure 3.16 Percent Total CO 2 e by Valencia Community College Campus (2007) Figure 3.17 Percent Total CO 2 e by Source Category at Valencia Community College (2008) Figure 3.18 Percent Total CO 2 e by Valencia Community College Campus (2008) Figure 3.19 Absolute CO 2 e from Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.20 Change in CO 2 e by Source Category at Valencia Community College ( ) 3

4 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Greenhouse Gas Sources for Valencia Community College Table 2.2 Greenhouse Gas Protocols and Methodologies for Valencia Community College Table 3.1 Electricity Utility Providers for Valencia Community College by Campus Table 3.2 Valencia Community College Electricity Consumption by Campus ( ) Table 3.3 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Electricity Consumption (2006) Table 3.4 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Electricity Consumption (2007) Table 3.5 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Electricity Consumption (2008) Table 3.6 CO 2 e from Electricity Consumption ( ) Table 3.7 Natural Gas Consumption by Campus and Year ( ) Table 3.8 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Natural Gas ( ) Table 3.9 CO 2 e from Natural Gas Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.10 Highway Vehicle Fleet of Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.11 CO 2 from Valencia Community College Vehicles by Campus ( ) Table 3.12 CH 4 and N 2 O from Valencia Community College Highway Vehicles ( ) Table 3.13 CH 4 and N 2 O from Valencia Community College Non-Highway Vehicles ( ) Table 3.14 CO 2 e from Valencia Community College Vehicles by Year and Campus ( ) Table 3.15 Average Commuting Data for Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.16 Percentage of Miles by Transportation Source for Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.17 Annual Personal Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College Students ( ) Table 3.18 Annual Personal Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College Employees ( ) Table 3.19 Annual Bus Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College Students ( ) Table 3.20 Annual Bus Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College Employees ( ) Table 3.21 Commuting Gasoline Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.22 Commuting Diesel Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.23 CO 2 e from Employee and Student Commuting at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.24 Valencia Community College Solid Waste by Type ( ) Table 3.25 Emission Factors from Landfilling Table 3.26 CO 2 e from Solid Waste at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.27 Total CO 2 e from Valencia Community College Solid Waste 4

5 ( ) Table 3.28 Refrigerant Use by Activity for Valencia Community College Campuses ( ) Table 3.29 Fugitive by Refrigerant and Equipment Type at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.30 CO 2 e per Refrigerant Type at Valencia Community College (2006) Table 3.31 CO 2 e per Refrigerant Type at Valencia Community College (2007) Table 3.32 CO 2 e per Refrigerant Type at Valencia Community College (2008) Table 3.33 Mass of Nitrogen by Fertilizer Type ( ) Table 3.34 Direct N 2 0 from Fertilizer Use at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.35 Indirect N 2 O emissions by Fertilizer Type (2006) Table 3.36 Fertilizer CO 2 e emissions for Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.37 CO 2 e from Fertilizer Use at Valencia Community College ( ) Table 3.38 Total CO 2 e by Source at Valencia Community College (2006) Table 3.39 Total CO 2 e by Valencia Community College Campus (2006) Table 3.40 Total CO 2 e by Source at Valencia Community College (2007) Table 3.41 Total CO 2 e by Valencia Community College Campus (2007) Table 3.42 Total CO 2 e by Source at Valencia Community College (2008) Table 3.43 Total CO 2 e by Valencia Community College Campus (2008) Table 3.44 Absolute CO 2 e from Valencia Community College by Scope ( ) LIST OF EQUATIONS Equation 3.1 Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity Equation 3.2 Greenhouse Gas Calculation for Natural Gas Equation 3.3 CO 2 Calculation for Vehicle Fleets Equation 3.4 CO 2 e from Refrigerants Calculation Equation 3.5 Direct N 2 O from Nitrogen Fertilizer Equation 3.6 Indirect N 2 O from Nitrogen Fertilizer 5

6 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACUPCC CO 2 e DOE EPA GHG GIS GWP ICLEI IPCC kwh LGOP MMBTU MSW MWh Ton Tonne American College and University President s Climate Commitment Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (measured in metric tons) United States Department of Energy United States Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas Geographic Information System Global Warming Potentials International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives/ Local Governments for Sustainability Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Kilowatt-Hour Local Government Operations Protocol One Million British Thermal Units (thousand thousand Btu) Municipal Solid Waste Megawatt-Hour Short Ton Metric Ton Greenhouse Gases: CH 4 Methane CO 2 Carbon Dioxide HFCs Hydrofluorocarbons N 2 O Nitrous Oxide PFCs Perfluorocarbons SF 6 Sulfur Hexafluoride 6

7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to acknowledge all the following individuals for contributing their time and effort to this study: Valencia Community College Dr. Winsome Bennett Helene Loiselle Paul Matson John Letterman Lee Pahl Dee Brown Jacqueline Lasch University of South Florida Scott Hoos 7

8 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES... 3 LIST OF TABLES... 4 LIST OF EQUATIONS... 5 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS... 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... 7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Study Area Greenhouse Gas Basics METHODOLOGY Baseline Year Determination and Comparative Years Boundary definition Greenhouse Gas Sources Greenhouse Gas Protocols and Methodologies Data Organization and Management Results GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS ELECTRICITY Data Sources Data Analysis Summary of Results Key Assumptions and Uncertainties NATURAL GAS Data Sources Data Analysis Summary of Results Key Assumptions and Uncertainties VEHICLE FLEET Data Sources Data Analysis Summary of Results Key Assumptions and Uncertainties EMPLOYEE AND STUDENT COMMUTING Data Analysis Summary of Results Key Assumptions and Uncertainties MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Data Sources Data Analysis Summary of Results

9 3.5.4 Key Assumptions and Uncertainties REFRIGERANTS Data Sources Data Analysis Summary of Results Key Assumptions and Uncertainties FERTILIZER Data Sources Data Analysis Summary of Results Key Assumptions and Uncertainties RESULTS Total Greenhouse Gas Greenhouse Gas Comparison: RECOMMENDATIONS Greenhouse Gas Inventory Analysis Develop Protocol for Future Data Collection Improve Data Analysis with More Complete Data Collection Conduct Annual Inventories APPENDIX A 9

10 COLLEGE-WIDE GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY Valencia Community College EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction The purpose of this report is to present the results of a college-wide greenhouse gas inventory for Valencia Community College in Central Florida. The greenhouse gas inventory provides an estimate of the school s greenhouse gas emissions for the baseline year of 2006 as well as for 2007 and The study will provide a valuable tool to measure the College s future greenhouse gas reductions and is the first step towards developing a broader climate action plan for Valencia Community College. Higher education institutions across the nation have been increasingly aware of how their anthropomorphic greenhouse gas emissions impact the globe. Many schools have adopted comprehensive plans for reducing emissions and improving their energy efficiency. As a reflection of this trend, the American College and University President s Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) was established in Institutions that sign this agreement commit to performing a greenhouse gas inventory and establishing a climate action plan to support campus-wide sustainability. Valencia Community College signed this agreement in Study Area Valencia Community College is located in the Orlando Metropolitan Area in Central Florida. Valencia is one of the largest community colleges in Florida, with over 63,000 students enrolled across seven campuses in Orange and Osceola Counties. Methodology Greenhouse gas accounting is the process of taking an inventory of all greenhouse gases sources and sinks. Sources can be described as operations or activities that result in a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions while sinks are operations or activities that result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. The net greenhouse gas emissions of an entity are quantified by subtracting total greenhouse gas reductions from greenhouse gas emissions. Baseline greenhouse gas inventories are intended to provide a summary of all GHG emissions for a given year in order to provide a point of comparison for the attempted future reductions of such emissions. Valencia Community College selected Calendar Year 2006 as its baseline year. This year was chosen because it was the earliest year for which sufficient data was available. The following years, 2007 and 2008, were chosen as comparative years of study. This allows Valencia to track their emissions over time and monitor the activities that could lead to any fluctuations. The Local Government Operations (LGOP), developed by The Climate Registry, 10

11 California Air Resources Board, California Climate Action Registry, and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), was used to quantify the majority of greenhouse gas emissions for Valencia Community College. In order to provide March 19, a complete 2010 analysis of all emissions, it was necessary incorporate methodologies from other published protocols, including the United States Department of Energy (DOE), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Clean Air Cool Planet. Results In 2006, Valencia Community College emitted a total of 52,785 metric tons of CO 2 e. Of all the sources of greenhouse gases in 2006, electricity consumption and employee/student commuting were responsible for 50% and 47% of total emissions, respectively. Solid waste, fugitive emissions from refrigerant use, natural gas consumption, vehicle fleet emissions from the campus vehicle fleet and fertilizer application made up the remaining 3% of the emissions. for air travel were not included in the analysis due to lack of data. Absolute CO 2 e from Valencia Community College (2006) 11

12 The top emitters of greenhouse gases in 2006 were East and West Campus, which were responsible for 39% and 37% of the total emissions, respectively. Commuting emissions were not included in the campus and center analysis, due to instances of students March and 19, employees 2010 travelling to more than one campus in a given week. Percent Absolute CO 2 e by Valencia Community College Campus (2006) 12

13 From 2006 to 2007, GHG emissions at Valencia Community College increased to 53,891 metric tons of CO 2 e, a 2% rise from the baseline year. In 2008, GHG emission levels still remained at 2% above 2006 levels. A drop in electricity and natural gas consumption in 2008 March was 19, offset 2010 by an increase in commuting emissions. A total of 53,863 metric tons of CO 2 e were emitted in Absolute CO 2 e from Valencia Community College ( ) Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions comprised 53% of the Valencia Community College s total emissions in 2006 yet dropped to 47% by For this study, Scope 1 emissions included greenhouse gases emitted as a result of natural gas consumption, refrigerant use, and fertilizer application while Scope 2 emissions represented indirect emissions from electricity consumption. Scope 3 emissions from solid waste and commuting continued to rise between 2006 and Absolute CO 2 e from Valencia Community College by Scope ( ) Year Scope 1 [tonnes CO 2 e] Scope 2 [tonnes CO 2 e] Scope 3 [tonnes CO 2 e] All Scopes [tonnes CO 2 e] , , , , , , , , , , ,

14 Comparing the baseline year 2006 to 2008, the following observations were made: from employee and student commuting climbed 15% with March rising 19, 2010 student population from building electricity consumption dropped 8% as a result of energy efficiency projects across multiple campuses Natural gas emissions dropped 65% due to the removal of a large boiler on West Campus Campus vehicle fleet emissions increased by 9% due to an increase in the size of the fleet and vehicle miles traveled from solid waste decreased by 10% with the implementation of a recycling program that reduced mixed municipal solid waste Converting to organic fertilizer reduced fertilizer application emissions by 87% on East Campus Even with significant reductions across many categories, total emissions increased by 2%. from increased commuting exceeded the large emission reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Change in CO 2 e by Source Category at Valencia Community College ( ) 14

15 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to present the results of a college-wide greenhouse gas inventory for Valencia Community College in Central Florida. The greenhouse gas inventory provides an estimate of the school s greenhouse gas emissions for the baseline year of 2006 as well as for 2007 and The study is the first of two actions that Valencia Community College needs to complete as part of the American College and University President s Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). The inventory will be used as a tool to measure the College s future greenhouse gas reductions and to develop a broader climate action plan for Valencia Community College. This study was completed by EcoAsset Solutions, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lykes Brothers Inc. based in Tampa, Florida. EcoAsset Solutions is a professional services firm that specializes in sustainability management, advisory and analysis for government, corporations, higher education institutions, and large landowners. The company combines technical analysis and planning, stakeholder engagement and education, and data management to help organizations achieve their sustainability goals. EcoAsset Solutions has conducted greenhouse gas inventories for local and state governments in Florida and Maryland. This inventory was commissioned by Valencia Community College s Sustainability Committee, which was established in Study Area Valencia Community College is located in the Orlando Metropolitan Area in Central Florida. Valencia is one of the largest community colleges in Florida, with over 63,000 students enrolled and seven campuses and centers in Orange and Osceola Counties (Figure 1.1). Opened in 1967 as Valencia Junior College, Valencia has 2,800 employees with an operating budget of $141,335, Colleges all across the nation have been increasingly aware of how their anthropomorphic greenhouse gas emissions impact the globe. Many schools have adopted comprehensive plans for reducing emissions and improving their energy efficiency. As a reflection of this trend, the American College and University President s Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) was established in Institutions that sign this agreement commit to performing a greenhouse gas inventory and establishing a climate action plan to support campus-wide sustainability. Valencia Community College signed this agreement in Retrieved April 6, Retrieved April 6,

16 Figure 1.1 Valencia Community College Campuses 16

17 1.2 Greenhouse Gas Basics Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are gases that encourage the trapping of heat in the atmosphere that contributes to global climate change. GHGs are typically released through the combustion of fossil fuels, but some can be released through the handling of certain chemical substances, the decomposition of biogenic material, and the combustion of other fuels. Greenhouse gases that are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol include carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). Of these, the most commonly reported and abundant greenhouse gases are CO 2, CH 4, and N 2 O. Each of the six greenhouse gases has a different potential to warm the atmosphere. To reflect this difference, each GHG is assigned a global warming potential (GWP). Since CO 2 is the largest component of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, it is used as the standard for measuring greenhouse gas emissions. It has a GWP of 1. With a GWP of 21, methane has the potential to trap 21 times more heat than carbon dioxide. That is, 1 metric ton (tonne) of CH 4 emissions has the same global warming potential (GWP) as 21 tonnes of CO 2. Likewise, 1 tonne of N 2 O (GWP of 310) is equivalent to 310 tonnes of CO 2 emissions. These GWP factors are used to convert all non-co 2 emissions into carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e), the standard unit of measurement for greenhouse gas emissions METHODOLOGY Greenhouse gas accounting is the process of taking an inventory of all greenhouse gases sources and sinks. Sources can be described as operations or activities that result in a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions while sinks are operations or activities that result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. The net greenhouse gas emissions of an entity are quantified by subtracting total greenhouse gas reductions from greenhouse gas emissions. This section outlines the criteria used to define and measure greenhouse gas emissions for Valencia Community College, including the determination of the baseline year, description of the boundaries, identification of greenhouse gas sources, and selection of protocols used for the analysis. 2.1 Baseline Year Determination and Comparative Years Baseline greenhouse gas inventories are intended to provide a summary of all GHG emissions for a given year in order to provide a point of comparison for the attempted future reductions of such emissions. Valencia Community College selected Calendar Year 2006 as its baseline year. This year was chosen because it was the earliest year for which sufficient data was available. 3 Local Government Operations Protocol, Appendix E 17

18 The following years, 2007 and 2008, were chosen as comparative years of study. This allows Valencia to track their emissions over time and monitor the activities that could be leading to any fluctuations. 2.2 Boundary definition This greenhouse gas inventory evaluates all campuses and centers within Valencia Community College, including West, East, Osceola, Downtown Center, Winter Park, Sand Lake, and the Criminal Justice Institute, for which data was available. The inventory also analyzes commuting data from both students and employees. 2.3 Greenhouse Gas Sources For Valencia Community College, the key sectors and categories of greenhouse gas emissions were identified before data collection and analysis. Table 2.1 presents the key categories of greenhouse gas emissions organized by sector. Table 2.1 Greenhouse Gas Sources for Valencia Community College Sector Energy Key Categories Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Consumption Vehicle Fleet Fuel Consumption Commuter Fuel Consumption Refrigerants Fugitive from refrigerants Waste Solid Waste Fertilizer from applications of fertilizer While Valencia Community College does have vegetated land that is acting as a carbon sink, the analysis was not part of the scope of the current inventory. 2.4 Greenhouse Gas Protocols and Methodologies The Local Government Operations (LGOP) was used to quantify the majority of greenhouse gas emissions for Valencia Community College. Developed through a partnership between The Climate Registry, California Air Resources Board, California Climate Action Registry, and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), the stated purpose of the protocol is to encourage greenhouse gas inventories that are based on international guidelines, to enable consistent reporting, and to help track the success of various sustainability programs. In order to provide a complete analysis of all emissions, it was necessary to incorporate 18

19 methodologies from other published protocols, as well as additional information needed for specific analysis of Valencia Community College (Table 2.2). Table 2.2 Greenhouse Gas Protocols and Methodologies for Valencia Community College Greenhouse Gas Category Electricity, Natural Gas, Refrigerants, and Vehicle Fleet Solid Waste Protocol The Local Government Operations Protocol (LGOP) was used to calculate emissions from Valencia Community College electricity usage, natural gas consumption, and vehicle fleet. Local Government Operations Protocol (2008): from Solid Waste were estimated using emission factors developed by the US EPA s 2006 Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life Cycle Assessment of and Sinks report. EPA (2006): from fertilizer were not included in the LGOP. Equations were used from the Department of Energy (DOE) 1605 (b) Program. Fertilizer Commuter Technical Guidelines - Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (1605(b)) Program (2007): from student and faculty commuting to and from campus were calculated using the Clean Air-Cool Planet Campus Carbon Calculator. Clean Air-Cool Planet Campus Carbon Calculator: Data Organization and Management Data for the greenhouse gas inventory and AutoCAD files were requested directly from Valencia Community College s facilities managers and collected in electronic format. All data was organized by greenhouse gas category and analyzed in Microsoft Excel. All data was then imported into ArcGIS 9.3 to create a geospatial database, a computer database for storing, manipulating, querying, displaying, and analyzing geographic data. 2.6 Results The results of the 2006 baseline inventory for Valencia Community College and the comparative years of 2007 and 2008 are presented in the following sections, separated by emission source. All sections include an introduction, the source of activity data, step-by-step data analysis, a summary of results, and any assumptions or uncertainties regarding the data or 19

20 methodology utilized. All GHG emissions from Valencia Community College were summarized in the final section. 3.0 GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS The key categories of greenhouse gases for the Valencia Community College college-wide inventory include electricity, natural gas, municipal solid waste, vehicle fuel consumption, employee and student commuting, refrigerants and fertilizer application. This section presents the analysis and results for each source category. 3.1 ELECTRICITY Many different Valencia Community College operations depend on electricity. In 2006 and 2007, electricity was used in 43 facilities across six campuses. In 2008, electricity was used in 44 facilities. Since Valencia Community College did not produce its own electricity in this period, all electricity was purchased from Orlando Utilities Commission, Kissimmee Utilities Authority, Progress Energy and Winter Park Utilities (Table 3.1). For the baseline year of 2006, Valencia Community College consumed a total of 44,116,360 kilowatt-hours (kwh) of electricity. Table 3.1 Electricity Utility Providers for Valencia Community College by Campus Utility Orlando Utilities Commission Description West Campus, Downtown Center Kissimmee Utilities Authority Progress Energy Winter Park Utilities Osceola Campus East Campus, Criminal Justice Institute, and Sand Lake Campus Winter Park Campus Data Sources Valencia Community College facilities managers provided monthly kilowatt-hour (kwh) usage for all campuses and centers. All records were based on invoices from Orlando Utilities Commission, Kissimmee Utilities Authority, Progress Energy and Winter Park Utilities. 20

21 3.1.2 Data Analysis The generation of electricity by utilities results in CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O emissions March at the 19, power 2010 plant, where fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas are combusted on site. Between 2006 and 2008, the College s consumption of this electricity through campus operations resulted in indirect CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O emissions. The Local Government Operations Protocol was used to quantify the emissions from Valencia Community College electricity for all three years. To calculate greenhouse gas emissions from electricity consumption, the following steps were followed: Step 1: Configure electricity data by campus and year Step 2: Identify emission factors and calculate emissions for CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O Step 3: Calculate CO 2 e emissions Step 1: Configure electricity data by campus and year Electricity use was compiled for each campus for the years 2006, 2007, and Table 3.2 summarizes Valencia Community College electricity use by campus. Table 3.2 Valencia Community College Electricity Consumption by Campus ( ) Campus 2006 Electricity Use [kwh] Electricity Use [kwh] 2008 Electricity Use [kwh] West 15,750,385 16,134,332 14,370,722 Downtown 660, , ,320 Osceola 6,120,060 6,068,300 5,812,820 East 17,377,915 17,280,862 15,354,919 Criminal Justice Institute 2,612,420 2,655,720 2,959,700 Winter Park 1,268,500 1,306,600 1,183,600 Sand Lake 326,400 N/A 397,320 Total 44,116,360 44,150,603 40,695,401 Step 2: Identify emission factors and calculate emissions for CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O Emission factors for the Florida Reliability Coordination Council (FRCC) subregion were identified using EPA s 2007 egrid data. 4 Total electricity use was converted to megawatt hours (MWh) and multiplied by the individual emission factors to obtain tonnes of CO 2, N 2 O, and CH 4 (Equation 3.1). Tables 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 present CO 2, N 2 O, and CH 4 emissions by campus for years 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. 4 EPA s egrid 2007 data set:

22 Equation 3.1 Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity GHG electricity = ((Electricity use * Unit Conversion A) * EF CO2 / Unit Conversion B) + ((Electricity use * Unit Conversion A) * EF CH4 / Unit Conversion B) * GWP CH4 + ((Electricity use * Unit Conversion A) * EF N2O / Unit Conversion B) * GWP N20 Variable Description Value Units Source Electricity use Total electricity consumed by Valencia Community College See Table 3.2 kwh Valencia Community College Facilities EF CO2 Electricity emission factor for CO lbsco 2 /MWh egrid 2007 IPCC, EF CH4 Electricity emission factor for CH lbs CH 4 / MWh egrid 2007 EF N2O Electricity emission factor for N 2 O lbs N 2 O/ MWh egrid 2007 Unit Conversion A kwh to MWh 10-3 kwh/mwh Standard Unit Conversion B GWP CH4 GWP N20 GHG electricity lbs to tonnes Global warming potential of CH 4 Global warming potential N 2 O Tonnes of CO 2 e emissions from electricity consumption lbs/tonne Standard 21 None IPCC 310 None IPCC Calculated mtco 2 e Calculated 22

23 Table 3.3 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Electricity Consumption (2006) Campus 2006 Electricity Use [kwh] 2006 CO CH N 2 O West 15,750,385 9, Downtown Center 660, Osceola 6,120,060 3, East 17,377,915 10, Criminal Justice Institute 2,612,420 1, Winter Park 1,268, Sand Lake 326, Total 44,116,360 26, Table 3.4 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Electricity Consumption (2007) Campus 2007 Electricity Use [kwh] 2007 CO CH N 2 O West 16,134,332 9, Downtown Center 685, Osceola 6,068,300 3, East 17,280,862 10, Criminal Justice Institute 2,655,720 1, Winter Park 1,306, Sand Lake N/A N/A N/A N/A Total 44,131,094 26,

24 Table 3.5 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Electricity Consumption (2008) Campus 2008 Electricity Use [kwh] 2008 CO CH N 2 O West 14,370,722 8, Downtown Center 616, Osceola 5,812,820 3, East 15,354,919 9, Criminal Justice Institute 2,959,700 1, Winter Park 1,183, Sand Lake 397, Total 40,695,401 24, Step 3: Calculate CO 2 e emissions CO 2, N 2 O, and CH 4 emissions were converted to metric tons and N 2 O and CH 4 were multiplied by their respective GWPs. Table 3.6 summarizes the total CO 2 e emissions from electricity use for each year by campus. Table 3.6 CO 2 e from Electricity Consumption ( ) Campus 2006 CO 2 e 2007 CO 2 e 2008 CO 2 e West 9, , , Downtown Center Osceola 3, , , East 10, , , Criminal Justice Institute 1, , , Summary of Results Winter Park Sand Lake N/A Total 26, , , From the baseline year 2006, overall emissions from electricity consumption increased slightly in 2007 before decreasing by 8% in This large drop in 2008 can be attributed to energy efficiency projects that were implemented by Valencia Community College Facilities Department at multiple campuses. It is also worth mentioning that the drop occurred despite the fact that two new facilities, the Chiller Plant and Building 10, came on line and began consuming 24

25 electricity. Overall, the West and East campuses used the most electricity while the Downtown Center and Sand Lake Campuses used the least (Figure 3.1). Figure 3.1 CO 2 e by Campus from Valencia Community College Electricity Consumption ( ) Key Assumptions and Uncertainties The 2005 electricity emission factors used in the analysis represent an average for the majority of the State of Florida and may not accurately reflect the local energy supplied to Valencia Community College. 25

26 3.2 NATURAL GAS Valencia Community College consumed a total of 173,778 therms of natural gas in 2006 for space and water heating. West Campus was the biggest user of natural gas, consuming 86% of the total therms purchased (Figure 3.2). Natural gas consumption decreased by 30% between 2006 and 2007, followed by a 65% drop the next year. The drop in 2008 was attributed to the removal of a large natural gas boiler on West Campus. Figure 3.2 Natural Gas Consumption by Valencia Community College Campus ( ) Data Sources Valencia Community College Facilities Managers provided natural gas consumption in therms per month for West, East, Criminal Justice and Winter Park Campuses. Natural gas was purchased from TECO Peoples Gas and Florida Power and Light Data Analysis The combustion of natural gas releases CO 2, N 2 O, and CH 4 emissions to the atmosphere. Using the Local Government Operations Protocol, greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas consumption were quantified (Equation 3.2). To calculate greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas consumption, the following steps were followed: Step 1: Configure data by campus 26

27 Step 2: Calculate CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O emissions Step 3: Calculate CO 2 e emissions Step 1: Configure data by campus Total therms of natural gas consumption per campus were compiled and summed for years 2006 through Table 3.7 presents the total therms per campus. Table 3.7 Natural Gas Consumption by Campus and Year ( ) Campus West 149, , , East 12, , , Criminal Justice Institute Winter Park 11, , , Total 173, , , Step 2: Calculate CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O emissions Total natural gas consumption was converted to MMBtu and multiplied by the emission factors for CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O (Equation 3.2). Table 3.8 summarizes total emissions for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. 27

28 Equation 3.2 Greenhouse Gas Calculation for Natural Gas GHG natural gas = ((Fuel use * Unit Conversion A) * EF CO2 * Unit Conversion B) + ((Fuel use * Unit Conversion A) * EF CH4 * Unit Conversion C) * GWP CH4 + ((Fuel use * Unit Conversion A) * EF N2O * Unit Conversion C) * GWP N20 Variable Description Value Units Source Fuel use Natural gas consumption See Table 3.7 therms Valencia Community College Facilities EF CO2 EF CH4 EF N2O Natural gas emission factor for CO 2 Natural gas emission factor for CH 4 Natural gas emission factor for N 2 O (Weighted US Average) kg CO 2 /MMBtu 5 (Commercial/Institutional) g CH 4 /MMBtu 1 (Commercial/Institutional) g N 2 O/MMBtu LGOP, Table G.1 IPCC, LGOP, Table G.3 LGOP, Table G.3 Unit Conversion Therms to MMBtu 10-1 therms/mmbtu Standard A Unit Conversion Kilograms to tonnes 10-3 kg/tonnes Standard B Unit Conversion Grams to tonnes 10-6 g/tonnes Standard C GWP CH4 Global warming potential of CH 4 21 None IPCC GWP N20 Global warming potential N 2 O 310 None IPCC GHG natural gas Tonnes of CO 2 e emissions from natural gas combustion Calculated mtco 2 e Calculated 28

29 Campus Table 3.8 CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O from Natural Gas ( ) MMBtu CO 2 Emission Factor CH 4 Emission Factor N 2 O Emission Factor CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O 2006 West 14, East 1, Criminal Justice Institute Winter Park 1, Total 17, West 10, East 1, Criminal Justice Institute Winter Park Total 12, West 3, East 1, Criminal Justice Institute Winter Park Total 5, Step 3: Calculate CO 2 e emissions CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were multiplied by their GWP and added to the CO 2 emissions to arrive at the total CO 2 e emissions. Table 3.9 summarizes the total CO 2 e emissions from natural gas consumption. 29

30 Table 3.9 CO 2 e from Natural Gas Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Campus CO CH 4 N 2 O CO 2 e West East Criminal Justice Institute Winter Park Total West East Criminal Justice Institute Winter Park Total West East Criminal Justice Institute Winter Park Total Summary of Results In 2006, Valencia Community College s natural gas consumption emitted a total of 924 tonnes of CO 2 e across all the campuses, which proceeded to drop in years 2007 and 2008 (Figure 3.3). As explained in the introduction, a large reason for the fall was the removal of a central natural gas boiler on West Campus. Since then, new high efficiency boilers were installed in three buildings. 30

31 Figure 3.3 CO 2 e from Natural Gas Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Key Assumptions and Uncertainties For the natural gas analysis, the weighted U.S. average CO 2 emission factor was used to quantify CO 2 emissions and default emission factors for methane and nitrous oxide emissions were used for commercial and institutional facilities. 3.3 VEHICLE FLEET Valencia Community College operates a highway fleet of light trucks, vans, and SUVs and a non-highway fleet consisting of groundskeeping mowers and a tractor to serve the East and West campuses. Table 3.10 summarizes the highway vehicle fleet by vehicle type and year for Valencia Community College. Table 3.10 Highway Vehicle Fleet of Valencia Community College ( ) Vehicle Type Light trucks Vans SUVs Total In 2006, the highway vehicle fleet consumed over 14,000 gallons of gasoline while the nonhighway fleet consumed roughly 1,000 gallons of diesel fuel. Between 2006 and 31

32 2008, gasoline consumption increased 16% percent while diesel fuel consumption dropped by 65% (Figure 3.4). In this same time period, while the fuel economy of the fleet improved from 4.9 to 6.8 miles per gallon, the total vehicle miles traveled increased by 20%. Figure 3.4 Fuel Consumption of Valencia Community College Vehicle Fleet ( ) Data Sources Vehicle fleet data was acquired separately from the facilities managers at the West and East Campuses. For East Campus, fuel use was tracked through the fuel purchase orders for the given year and mileage was captured by subtracting the total miles driven per vehicle at the end of each year from the total miles recorded at the beginning of each year. Due to the lack of similar data for West Campus, total fuel purchased and mileage was estimated per vehicle and year by Facilities Management Data Analysis The Local Government Operations Protocol was used to quantify vehicle fleet emissions for Valencia Community College for years To calculate greenhouse gas emissions generated for Valencia Community College s vehicle fleet, the following steps were followed: Step 1: Calculate CO 2 emissions for highway and non-highway vehicles Step 2: Calculate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions for highway vehicles 32

33 Step 3: Calculate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions for non-highway vehicles Step 4: Calculate CO 2 e emissions Step 1: Calculate CO 2 emissions for highway and non-highway vehicles Fuel consumption in gallons was multiplied by the appropriate CO 2 emission factors for gasoline and diesel fuel (Equation 3.3). Total kilograms of CO 2 were then converted to metric tons of CO 2 emissions. Table 3.11 summarizes the total CO 2 emissions per year. Equation 3.3 CO 2 Calculation for Vehicle Fleets CO 2 vehicles = (Fuel gasoline * EF gasoline * Unit Conversion) + (Fuel diesel * EF diesel * Unit Conversion) Variable Description Value Units Source Fuel gasoline Fuel diesel Gasoline consumed by vehicle fleet Diesel consumed by vehicle fleet Table 3.11 Table 3.11 Gallons Gallons Valencia Community College Facilities Department Valencia Community College Facilities Department EF gasoline EF diesel CO 2 emission factor for gasoline CO 2 emission factor for diesel 8.81 (Motor Gasoline) (Diesel) kg CO 2 /gallon kg CO 2 /gallon LGOP, Table G.9 IPCC, LGOP, Table G.9 Unit Conversion Kilograms to tonnes 10-3 kg/tonnes Standard 33

34 Table 3.11 CO 2 from Valencia Community College Vehicles by Campus ( ) Year Gasoline [gallons] Diesel [gallons CO 2 West Campus East Campus Step 2: Calculate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions for highway vehicles Emission factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were assigned to each highway vehicle based on the vehicle type and model year. Total vehicle miles traveled per vehicle were multiplied by the emission factors and converted to metric tons (Table 3.12). Table 3.12 CH 4 and N 2 O from Valencia Community College Highway Vehicles ( ) Year CH 4 emissions N 2 O emissions Total Step 3: Calculate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions for non-highway vehicles Emission factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were assigned to the groundskeeping equipment and tractor and multiplied by total gallons of diesel fuel consumed. Total grams of methane and nitrous oxide were then converted to tonnes (Table 3.13). 34

35 Table 3.13 CH 4 and N 2 O from Valencia Community College Non-Highway Vehicles ( ) Step 4: Calculate CO 2 e emissions CH 4 emissions N 2 O emissions Metric tons of CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were multiplied by their respective GWP to calculate CO 2 e emissions. All emissions were added together to obtain total CO 2 e emissions from vehicles (Table 3.14). Table 3.14 CO 2 e from Valencia Community College Vehicles by Year and Campus ( ) Campus CO 2 N 2 O CH 4 CO 2 e West Campus East Campus Summary of Results Total CO 2 e emissions from the Valencia Community College vehicle fleet were 138 tonnes in 2006, which increased by 8.5% in 2008 (Figure 3.5). The increase is due to both the expansion of the highway fleet and increase in vehicle miles traveled. 35

36 Figure 3.5 CO 2 e for Valencia Community College Vehicle Fleet ( ) Key Assumptions and Uncertainties West Campus vehicle fleet data was based on mileage and fuel consumption estimates rather than exact records. In cases where CH 4 and N 2 O emission factors were not available for certain highway vehicle models, vehicles were assigned the emission factor closest to their model year. 3.4 EMPLOYEE AND STUDENT COMMUTING Without on-campus housing, students and employees of Valencia Community College must commute to and from campus on a daily basis. In 2006, there were 42,859 enrolled Credit students and 1,207 full time employees. Between 2006 and 2008, the student population increased 8% annually while the number of employees rose by 2-3% per year (Figures 3.6 and 3.7). 36

37 Figure 3.6 Student Enrollment at Valencia Community College ( ) Figure 3.7 Full Time Employees at Valencia Community College ( ) 37

38 3.4.1 Data Sources At the time of the study, no data was available to estimate emissions from employee and student commuting. EcoAsset Solutions developed an online survey for current students March and 19, employees 2010 using SurveyMonkey, and Valencia Community College delivered the survey to the student body and staff via . All survey responses were collected between March 22 and April 2, The survey template is available in Appendix A. All analysis for the commuting section was based on the data collected from the survey, which represents a small sample of the overall population. Of the 1270 employees, 446 individuals responded to the survey, a 35% response rate. Likewise, 426 students responded to the survey. Using enrollment figures for Spring 2009, the student response rate was 1% Data Analysis The Clean Air-Cool Planet Campus Carbon Calculator tool was used to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions for employees and students. To calculate emissions from student and employee commuting, the following steps were taken: Step 1: Calculate average miles per trip for each transportation source and average number of trips per week Step 2: Break down the percentage of total miles traveled by transportation source Step 3: Extrapolate total vehicle miles driven by all students and employees Step 4: Calculate total gallons consumed through commuting Step 5: Calculate CO 2 emissions Step 1: Calculate average miles per trip for each transportation source and average number of trips per week Average trips per week and miles per roundtrip were calculated based on the responses provided by current students and employees that responded to the survey. Table 3.15 summarizes the results. Table 3.15 Average Commuting Data for Valencia Community College ( ) Transportation Source Trips/Week [average] Miles/trip [average] Students Personal Vehicles/Carpool Bus Employees Personal Vehicles/Carpool Bus

39 Step 2: Break down the percentage of total miles traveled by transportation source Total vehicle miles were separated into three categories: driving alone, carpool and bus. A percentage was calculated based on the mileage per transportation source relative to the total vehicle miles traveled (Table 3.16). Table 3.16 Percentage of Miles by Transportation Source for Valencia Community College ( ) Category Drive Alone [%] Carpool [%] Bus [%] Employees Students Step 3: Extrapolate total vehicle miles driven by all students and employees Average miles per week for each study group were multiplied by the number of trips per week, the total weeks per year, and total population per semester to arrive at total annual vehicle miles. Tables 3.17 and 3.18 summarize vehicle miles traveled in personal vehicles by students and employees, respectively. Table 3.19 and Table 3.20 report bus vehicle miles traveled by students and employees, respectively. Table 3.17 Annual Personal Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College Students ( ) Semester Student Enrollment Trips/Week Weeks/Year Miles/Trip Total Distance [Miles] 2008 Fall 35, ,079,182 Summer 20, ,794,660 Spring 31, ,979,148 Total 64,852, Fall 32, ,872,185 Summer 18, ,285,652 Spring 28, ,935,940 Total 59,093, Fall 30, ,803,076 Summer 17, ,658,775 Spring 27, ,276,990 Total 55,738,841 39

40 Table 3.18 Annual Personal Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College March Employees 19, 2010 ( ) Year Employees Trips/Week Weeks/Year Miles/Trip Total Distance [miles] , ,317, , ,118, , ,004,187 Table 3.19 Annual Bus Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College Students ( ) Semester Trips/Week Weeks/Year Miles/Trip Total Distance [miles] 2006 Fall ,651 Summer ,257 Spring ,839 Total 107, Semester Trips/Week Weeks/Year Miles/Trip Total Distance [miles] Fall ,984 Summer ,750 Spring ,444 Total 98, Semester Trips/Week Weeks/Year Miles/Trip Total Distance [miles] Fall ,547 Summer ,709 Spring ,350 Total 92,605 40

41 Table 3.20 Annual Bus Vehicle Miles Traveled by Valencia Community College Employees ( ) Year Employees Trips/Week Weeks/Year Miles/Trip Total Distance [miles] , , , , , ,598 Step 4: Calculate total gallons consumed through commuting Total miles traveled were multiplied by the fuel efficiency of each transportation source to quantify total gallons of fuel consumed through commuting. Tables 3.21 and 3.22 present the results for gasoline and diesel fuel consumed for 2006 through Table 3.21 Commuting Gasoline Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Population Total miles Fuel efficiency [mpg] Gasoline consumption [gallons] 2008 Employees 6,317, , Students 64,852, ,934, Employees 6,118, , Students 59,093, ,673, Employees 6,004, , Students 55,738, ,522,

42 Table 3.22 Commuting Diesel Consumption at Valencia Community College ( ) Category Total miles Fuel efficiency [mpg] Gasoline consumption [gallons] 2008 Employees 19, Students 107, Employees 18, Students 98, Employees 18, Students 92, Step 5: Calculate CO 2 e emissions Total gallons of gasoline and diesel were multiplied by the appropriate emission factors and summed. Table 3.23 presents the total CO 2 e emissions for employee and student commuting. Table 3.23 CO 2 e from Employee and Student Commuting at Valencia Community College ( ) CO 2 e from Gasoline CO 2 e from Diesel Total CO 2 e Category 2008 Employees 2, , Students 25, , Total 28, , Employees 2, , Students 23, , Total 25, , Employees 2, , Students 22, , Total 24, ,

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