2 n 1 n Table of Contents Acknowledgments vii Preface ix Introduction xi 1 Why We Roast Coffee Beans 1 2 Green-Coffee Chemistry 2 Structure Sugars Lipids Proteins Alkaloids: Caffeine and Trigonelline Moisture Content Organic Acids Gases and Aromatics 3 Green-Coffee Processing and Storage 4 Primary Processing Methods Wet/Washed Dry/Natural Pulped/Natural Green-Coffee Storage Water Activity and Moisture Content Seasonality 4 Physical Changes During Roasting 9 Color Changes Classic Definitions of Roast Degree Cinnamon City Full City Viennese French Italian Structural Changes Inner-Bean Development Bean Size, Density, and Weight Loss
3 5 Roasting Chemistry 15 Changes in Chemical Composition Development of Acids During Roasting Aroma Development Maillard Reactions and Caramelization Caffeine Content and Roasting 6 Heat Transfer in Coffee Roasting 19 Convection, Conduction, and Radiation Heat Transfer and Temperature Gradient Heat and Mass Transfer Within Coffee Beans Heat Transfer and Moisture 7 Roasting Machine Designs 22 Classic Drum Indirectly Heated Drum Fluid-Bed Recirculation 8 Progression of a Roast 29 The Illusion of the S Curve The Myth of the Drying Phase The Middle (Nameless) Phase First Crack Second Crack Development Time 9 Planning a Roast Batch 34 Batch Size Setting Airflow Adjusting the Air Fuel Ratio Charge Temperature Machine Design Batch Size Bean Density Bean Size Bean Processing Method Intended Roast Time Determining Roast Time Drum RPM Bean Moisture, Density, and Size 10 The Three Commandments of Roasting 42 I. Thou Shalt Apply Adequate Energy at the Beginning of a Roast II. The Bean Temperature Progression Shalt Always Decelerate III. First Crack Shalt Begin at 75% to 80% of Total Roast Time 11 Mastering Consistency 49 How to Warm Up a Roaster Between-Batch Protocol Other Tips to Improve Batch-to-Batch Consistency Green-Coffee Storage and Consistency Ambient Conditions Chimney Cleaning Managing Different Batch Sizes 12 Measuring Results 53 All About Bean Probes Choosing a Probe Installing a Probe Weight Loss Measuring Roast Degree Verification of Development Using a Refractometer 13 Sample Roasting Cupping 59 How to Cup Cupping Recommendations The Phases of Cupping Dry Aroma, or Fragrance Wet Aroma Tasting the Coffee When It Is Hot Tasting the Coffee When It Is Cool How to Interpret Cupping Results 15 Roasting, Brewing, and Extraction 66 Testing Roast Development Calibrating Extraction Roasting for Espresso Blending 16 Storing Roasted Coffee Choosing Machinery 72 Features to Consider when Selecting a Roaster Capacity Configuration The Drum Airflow Gas Control Drum Speed Data-Logging Software Automated Profiling Software Pollution-Control Devices Parting Words 79 Glossary 80 References 84 Index 87 About the Author 89
4 n 17 n Choosing Machinery S electing a roasting machine is a long-term commitment, and I hope readers do their homework before buying a machine. Most small roasters, especially first-time buyers, don t have the experience to evaluate machines properly, so if that s you, I recommend seeking expert advice before making what is probably your company s largest investment. You must choose carefully because the majority of machines on the market today will limit your coffee s quality or consistency, though their sales representatives may neglect to tell you that. Features to Consider when Selecting a Roaster Every roasting company has its unique list of needs and preferences when choosing a roaster, such as aesthetics, machine footprint, cost, and so on. While I can t comment on those company-specific requirements, I offer the following technical recommendations to help you choose a roaster. Capacity First, decide how much roasting capacity you need. Second, use a manufacturer s stated capacity as a starting point and look up a machine s BTU rating to estimate what its realistic capacity might be. Finally, given that every machine will have different heat-transfer efficiency, I recommend that you contact a few users of a given machine to ask about their typical batch sizes and roast times. Using those three pieces of information, you should have a good sense of the machine s realistic capacity. Configuration A roasting machine s configuration probably has the greatest effect on the quality of coffee that it can produce. As I m sure you ve gathered by now, I recommend single-pass roasters over recirculation roasters, despite the latter s energy efficiency. I also recommend an indirectly heated drum, or a double drum, over a standard flame-on-drum design. A single-pass roaster with a double drum or indirectly heated drum will maximize your chances of producing great coffee and minimize potential flavor taints due to bean-surface burning or a smoky roasting environment. The Drum If you buy a classic drum roaster with a flame-on-drum configuration, I recommend choosing a machine with a carbon-steel drum. Contrary to popular belief, most old, German cast-iron roasters have carbon-steel drums, not castiron drums. Those machines and many others often have cast-iron faceplates, drum spokes, and drum paddles, but steel drums. I have seen one machine with Single-walled steel drum a cast-iron drum (a small, newer roaster manufactured in Taiwan) and one machine with a sheet-iron drum, but every other machine I ve ever seen has had a steel drum. Most roasting drums are made of carbon steel, but some manufacturers have recently begun building machines with stainless-steel drums; this seems reasonable, but I don t have enough experience with them to have an opinion about their performance. Stainless steel drums may develop hot spots more easily than mild carbon steel ones, but that s probably not a serious concern, given the drum s rotation and an adequate thickness. Airflow I ve come across few roasters with inadequate airflow but several machines with poor airflow adjustment mechanisms. Ideally, your exhaust fan s RPM should be adjustable in minute, stepless increments. Subtler airflow adjustments will produce smoother roast profiles. Machines with two or three discreet airflow settings, usually controlled manually by a damper, are acceptable but limiting. Not only are the settings usually too far apart, forcing the machine operator to compromise and choose a suboptimal setting, but the large shifts 72 choosing machinery 73
5 III. First Crack Shalt Begin at 75% to 80% of Total Roast Time Experience has taught me that the roast time from the onset of first crack* to the end of a roast should make up 20% 25% of total roast time. Put another way, first crack should begin at between 75% 80% of total roast time. I m confident that the optimal ratio is actually in a much narrower range, and the ratio should vary slightly depending on roast degree desired, but I don t have enough data yet to back up those beliefs. If first crack begins at earlier than 75% of total roast time, the coffee will probably taste flat. If more than 80% of the total roast time elapses before first crack begins, development will likely be insufficient. Most roasters seem to adjust a roast s development time separately from the rest of the roast curve, but such an approach will often lead to baked flavors or underdevelopment. Instead of focusing on development time, I recommend that roasters adjust the last phase of a roast curve to ensure it is proportional to the entire roast curve. I hope roasters will find this suggested ratio useful and that the conversation among roasters shifts from development time to development time ratio or a Ideal similar First-Crack phrase. Time Range Temperature ( F) bean profile 100 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 Time First crack should ideally begin in the shaded zone. Ideal First-Crack Time Range 75% 80% 8:00 10:00 * I consider the beginning of first crack to be the moment the operator hears more than one or two isolated pops. finish M n 11 n Mastering Consistency uch like the elusive God shot of espresso, most companies roast the occasional great batch but can t seem to reproduce it consistently. Variations in a roaster s thermal energy, green-coffee temperature and moisture, ambient conditions, and chimney cleanliness all collude to make roasting inconsistent. I ve designed the tips in this chapter to help you control or lessen the impacts of these factors. Following these recommendations will help any roaster improve consistency. How to Warm Up a Roaster At a cupping of some lovely Cup of Excellence coffees a few years ago, I noticed that one of the samples was very underdeveloped and another was slightly underdeveloped. The other cups had varying degrees of good development. It dawned on me that those two cups had been brewed from, respectively, the first and second batches roasted that day. I suggested to my cupping host the order in which he had roasted the samples that morning. I had guessed the order correctly. Every roaster I ve ever asked has admitted to having difficulty with the quality of the first few batches of a roasting session. The problem is usually caused by inadequate warming up of the roasting machine. Most machine operators warm up a roaster to the charge temperature and then idle the machine at or near that temperature for some amount of time, usually minutes, before charging the first batch. This protocol guarantees that the first batch will roast sluggishly compared with successive batches. The problem is that temperature probes are poor indicators of a machine s thermal energy. (See Charge Temperature in Chapter 9.) As a cold roasting machine warms up, although the temperature probes quickly indicate that the air in the machine has reached roasting-level temperatures, the mass of the machine is still much cooler than the air in the drum. If one charges a batch at this point, the machine s mass will behave akin to a heat sink and absorb heat from the roasting process, decreasing the rate of heat transfer to the beans. After several roast batches, the machine s thermal energy will reach an equilibrium range within which it will fluctuate for the remainder of the roasting session. The trick to normalizing the results of the first few batches of a roasting session is to seemingly overheat the machine during the warm-up, before stabilizing it at normal roasting temperatures. To my knowledge, there is no practical, precise way to measure a roaster s thermal energy. However, the operator can apply some informed experimentation to establish a protocol that brings a 48 the Coffee Roaster s Companion 49
6 Which Roast is More Developed? P n 10 n The Three Commandments of Roasting lease don t take the word commandment too seriously. One may transgress some of these rules harmlessly on occasion. As with a certain other list of commandments, however, if you make a habit of ignoring the rules, you might end up in a bad place. As a roaster and a consultant over the past nineteen years, I ve had the opportunity to cup and view the roast data for each of more than 20,000 batches roasted on a variety of machines by various methods. About five years ago, I spent several days poring over reams of roast data in an attempt to find the common elements in the best batches I d ever tasted.* To be clear, I m not referring to really good batches. I focused only on the data from batches so special that I could taste them in my memory months or years after physically tasting them. That effort yielded what I think of as the commandments of roasting. A method graduated to a commandment only if it seemed to apply to a great variety of coffees and roasting machines. I ve been testing and refining the commandments for five years, and so far I ve yet to find a situation in which coffee tastes better when a commandment is broken. I ve also had opportunities to test the commandments in reverse; the times I ve tasted stellar roasts from others and the roaster was kind enough to share the roast data with me, sure enough, the profiles conformed to the commandments. I can t fully explain why these methods work. But I m confident that if you remain open-minded and apply these techniques carefully and completely, you will be impressed by how much better your roasts taste. I. Thou Shalt Apply Adequate Energy at the Beginning of a Roast Applying sufficient heat at the beginning of a roast is essential to achieving optimal flavor and proper bean development. While one may begin a roast with too little heat and still cook the bean centers adequately, the flavor of such coffee may suffer because the operator must lengthen the roast time excessively to compensate for the insufficient early heat transfer. Temperature ( F) Which Roast Is More Developed? batch A batch B :00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 Time Batch A and batch B had identical charge temperature, drop temperature, and roast time. Given that batch A s bean temperature initially Comparison rose more of quickly Temperature than batch B s, Gradients batch A is more developed. Comparison of Temperature Gradients outer bean A inner bean A outer bean B inner bean B Temperature ( F) nameless phase T T 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 Time * I compiled and evaluated my roast data by using a pencil, calculator, and spreadsheet. These days one can analyze such data much more efficiently with the aid of computer software such as Cropster s Roast Ranger application. This graph illustrates the importance of establishing a large DT early in a roast. In batch A, the machine operator applied sufficient energy early in the roast, creating a large DT, which gave the inner bean the impetus to smoothly catch up to the outer bean by the end of the roast. Batch B began sluggishly, creating a smaller early DT. Relative to batch A, the operator applied more heat mid-roast to adequately cook the outer bean in a similar total roast time. However, the extra energy was too little, too late for the inner bean s temperature to match that of the outer bean, and batch B was underdeveloped. 42 the three commandments of roasting 43
7 n 7 n Roasting Machine Designs 5 2 A coffee-roasting machine is a specialized oven that transfers heat to coffee beans in a stream of hot gas while continually mixing the beans to ensure they roast evenly. Several types of roasters are in use today in the specialty coffee industry: classic drum roasters, indirectly heated drum roasters, fluidbed roasters, recirculation roasters, and several others. Recirculation roasters return a portion of the exhaust air to the burner chamber to assist in heat generation for roasting. I will use the term single-pass to refer to machines that do not recirculate exhaust air. Each roaster design has distinct advantages and disadvantages, though no new design has eclipsed the popularity of the classic drum roaster, the design of which has not changed much in the past century Single Drum Classic Drum A classic drum roaster consists of a solid, rotating, cylindrical steel or iron drum laid horizontally on its axis, with an open flame below the drum. The flame heats both the drum and the air to be drawn through the drum. A fan draws hot gases from the burner chamber through the rotating beans and exhausts the smoke, steam, and various by-products of roasting and combustion out of the building through a vertical pipe, or stack. The drum s rotation mixes the beans while they absorb heat by conduction from direct contact with the hot drum and convection from the air flowing through the drum. At the completion of a roast, the machine operator opens the door to the drum, dumping the beans into the cooling bin, which stirs the beans while a powerful fan draws room-temperature air through the bean pile to cool it rapidly. The best classic drum roasters have a double drum of two concentric layers of metal separated by a gap several millimeters wide. In a double drum, direct contact with the flame heats the outer drum, while the inner drum remains cooler. A double drum decreases conductive heat transfer and limits the risk of tipping, scorching, and facing. (Henceforth, these three are referred to in this text as bean-surface burning. ) If you buy a classic drum roaster, I strongly suggest finding one that has a double drum. Advantages: The single pass of the roasting gas provides a clean roasting environment, and the drum serves as an effective heat-storage system, providing conductive heat transfer, especially during the first few minutes of a batch. Disadvantage: Overheating the drum metal can easily lead to bean-surface burning. Classic drum roaster. Beans (brown arrows) enter the roasting drum (1) through the loading funnel (2). After roasting, the beans cool in the cooling bin (3). Air (blue arrows) passes from the combustion chamber (4) through the roasting drum and exhausts through the chimney (5) by way of the cyclone (6), which traps chaff. Single Drum Single drum (left) and double drum (right) Outer Drum Inner Drum Outer Drum Inner Drum 22 roasting machine designs 23
8 To understand the Maillard reactions contribution to flavor, consider the different effects of roasting and boiling on the flavor of meat: Roasting imparts aromatics, complexity, and depth of flavor absent in boiled meats. Maillard reactions contribute similar roast-flavor traits and complexity to coffee beans. During roasting, once a bean s internal temperature is high enough to boil off most of its moisture, the temperature rises more rapidly, speeding Maillard reactions. This is one reason aroma development accelerates at mid-roast. Maillard reactions become self-sustaining at above 320 F (160 C). Unlike Maillard reactions, caramelization is a form of pyrolysis, or thermal decomposition. Caramelization begins at approximately 340 F (171 C), 19 as the heat of roasting breaks apart molecules of sugar and produces hundreds of new compounds, including smaller, bitter, sour, and aromatic molecules and larger, brown, flavorless molecules. 19 Although most people associate the word caramel with a very sweet dessert food, caramelization, ironically, decreases the sweetness and increases the bitterness of a food or beverage. Lighter roasts are sweeter, and darker roasts more bitter and caramelly, primarily because of caramelization. Caffeine Content and Roasting Despite what almost everyone has heard, darker roasting does not decrease the caffeine content of coffee beans. Caffeine levels are virtually unchanged by roasting, 3 as caffeine is stable at typical roasting temperatures. Given that beans lose mass during roasting, their proportion of caffeine by weight increases during roasting. Therefore, assuming one brews coffee of all roast degrees with a particular ratio of water to ground-coffee mass, rather than volume, darker roasts will yield brewed coffee with higher caffeine content. C n 6 n Heat Transfer in Coffee Roasting offee roasting machines transfer heat to beans by convection, conduction, and radiation. Each roasting machine transfers heat by a different mix of these mechanisms. The following is an overview of how machine design affects heat transfer. I discuss roasting machine designs extensively in Chapter 7. Convection, Conduction, and Radiation Classic (my term) drum roasters, which apply heat directly to the drum, cook beans primarily by convection and secondarily by conduction. Radiant heating from hot roasting-machine surfaces and between neighboring beans makes a small contribution to heat transfer as well. In a personal communication with me, a representative of a well-known German manufacturer estimated heat transfer in his company s drum roasters to be 70% by convection and 30% by conduction. Indirectly heated drum roasters segregate the drum from the heat source to maintain a cooler drum during roasting. Convection contributes a higher proportion of the heat transfer in these machines. Fluid-bed roasters have no drum, and they roast by keeping the beans aloft in a high-velocity stream of hot gases. Recirculation roasters, such as the Loring Smart Roaster TM, capture and reuse a proportion of the exhaust air from the roasting process. Both of these roasting machine designs transfer heat almost exclusively by convection. At the beginning of a roast batch, charging the beans introduces a large volume of room-temperature beans and air into the hot roaster, sending the environmental temperature in the roaster plummeting. During the first few minutes of a batch in a classic drum roaster, conduction from the hot drum plays a significant role in transferring heat to the beans. As the air temperature in the roaster rebounds after its initial plunge, convection comes to dominate heat transfer. In such a machine the drum acts as a heat-storage device that jump-starts development early in a batch. Convection-oriented machines call for the use of hotter charge temperatures to provide adequate heat transfer early in a roast and compensate for lack of a heat-storing drum. Establishing a high DT Heat Transfer and Temperature Gradient early in a roast and minimizing it by the end The first two-thirds or so of roasting is an endothermic process, meaning the beans absorb of a roast is essential energy, and heat is conducted from the outer to creating good innerbean development bean to the inner bean. The temperature gradient, or DT, within the beans largely determines the rate of heat transfer. Simply put, and a uniform roast. a 18 the Coffee Roaster s Companion 19
9 n 1 n Index A acids, 2 3, 15 16, 31, 64, afterburner, airflow, 35 36, air fuel ratio, alkaloids, 2 3 aroma development, 17 automated profiling software, B baked flavors, 33 batch planning, size, 34 35, 52 between-batch protocol, 50 blending, C caffeine, 3, 18 caramelization, 2, 17 18, 31 charge temperature, 4, chemistry of roasting, 1 2, chlorogenic acid, 16 cleaning your roasting machine, 49, color changes of beans during roasting, 3, 9 12, 17 18, 31, 55, commandments of roasting, 33, conduction, 19 consistency between batches, convection, 19 crack first, 9 10, 12, 14, 16, 21, 30, 32, 45 48, 53, 58, 67 second, 11 14, 33, 45 Cropster, 44 45, 75 cupping, D development time, 29, 33, 48 drum RPM, 40, 7 types, 19, 22 26, 37 40, drying phase, 9, E endothermic flash, 32 F freezing of coffee beans green, 6 roasted, 71 G GrainPro bags, 6 green coffee, 1 8, 15 17, 39, 41, 51 H heat shield, 24 heat transfer, heat-sink effect, 49 M machinery. See: roasting Maillard reactions, 9, 17 18, 31 manometer, 58 moisture content, 7, 21 O organic acids, 3 P planning a roasting session. See: batch, planning pollution control, probe, bean, 29 30, 32, 35, 37, 49 50, 52 54, 58, 75 processing methods, 4 dry, (natural) 4 pulped natural, 4 wet, 4 purchasing a roasting machine, R radiation, 19 rate of rise (ROR), 32, 42 47, 65 refractometer, 55 56,
10 roasting chemistry, 15 consistency, ambient conditions, 51 batch size, 52 chimney cleaning, 51 green storage, 51 degree cinnamon roast, 10 city roast, 10 French roast, 12 full city roast, 11 Italian roast, 12 measurement, 55 Viennese roast, 11 development, 13, 31, 33, 39 40, 42 48, 54 55, machine designs classic drum, double-drum, fluid-bed, 26 indirectly heated, recirculation, single-drum, 23 machine maintenance, selection, time, S seasonality, of green coffees, 8 software, roasting, 28, 42, stack effect, 51 storage of green coffee, 5 7 of roasted coffee, T temperature effect on bean storage, 5 7 gradient, 19 20, 43 probes, 49, testing of bean development, 13, 53 55, tools, 55, thermometric lag, 30 third-wave coffee, 10 trigonelline, 3 W warming up a roaster, 49 water activity, 7 weight loss of beans during roasting, 13 14, the Coffee Roaster s Companion
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1 How air conditioning works The essential ingredients in an air conditioning system are a fan to blow air around, a cold surface to cool and dehumidify the air, a warm surface and a source of water vapour.
SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS UNIT OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, the reader should be able to explain the purpose of the condenser in a refrigeration system. describe differences
SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what
Why hot water freezes faster than cold water By Daniel Muthukrishna Undergraduate Engineering/Physics Student at the University of Queensland Images also produced by Daniel Muthukrishna Some of the main
Product Description: Nu G Medical Waste System Technology (Pyrolysis / Thermal Decomposition) The NU G System uses pyrolysis thermal decomposition to treat infectious wastes typically generated in hospitals.
DataCenter 2020: hot aisle and cold aisle containment efficiencies reveal no significant differences November 2011 Powered by DataCenter 2020: hot aisle and cold aisle containment efficiencies reveal no
Boiler control Tips for burner modulation, air/fuel cross-limiting, excess-air regulation, oxygen trim and total heat control Boilers are often the principal steam or hot-water generators in industrial
Heating and cooling Heating and cooling your home can be one of the biggest users of energy. Efficency in this area can bring great savings. Heating and cooling depend on many contributing factors. The
Name KEY Date Hour Chemical Reactions - Chapter 2 - Review p. 79-80 #1-23; p. 81 #1-4 Science 8 Reviewing Key Terms Choose the letter of the best answer. 1. Which of the following is not a physical property?
RECOGNIZING EXCELLENCE IN BREWED COFFEE A PROGRAM OF THE SPECIALTY COFFEE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA IN COLLABORATION WITH THE EUROPEAN COFFEE BREWING CENTRE SCAA s Minimum Certification Requirements for Coffee
Condensing Economizers Workshop Enbridge Gas, Toronto MENEX Boiler Plant Heat Recovery Technologies Prepared by: Jozo Martinovic, M A Sc, P Eng MENEX Innovative Solutions May 15, 2008 MENEX INC. 683 Louis
Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its
IMPORTANT SAFEGUARDS BELLMAN CXE-25/27 INSTRUCTIONS 1. READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS. 2. WARNING: SCALDING MAY OCCUR IF TOP IS NOT TIGHTENED DOWN COMPLETELY OR IF TOP IS TAKEN OFF BEFORE MACHINE IS COOL AND ALL
User s Manual & Safety Instructions Assembling: Unpack the fireplace and accessories. Check the content for completeness and any damages incurred in transit. Keep children and animals away from the packing.
TRITTICO ORIGINAL BY BRAVO A WHOLE WORKSHOP IN A SINGLE MACHINE TRITTICO STARTRONIC PREMIUM TRITTICO STARTRONIC PLUS In 1974, I invented and patented your satisfaction: the Trittico system for making gelato
CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Conventional cooling methods of thermal power plants are extremely water intensive processes. Once-through cooling needs large natural bodies of water
FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served
Introducing AUDIT-BUDDY Optimize the Data Center with AUDIT-BUDDY Executive Summary Proper temperature and humidity for the inlet air into the servers is essential to efficient data center operation. Several
The Only GUY To Call May 2014 412.885.2356 Why are my utility bills so high? What can I do to lower my energy expenses? Did you know... that between 2007 and 2012, the average U.S. household spent more
Introduction This manual is designed as a simple guide to programming your electric kiln for people new to kiln firing, for established potters brushing up their knowledge and for teachers and technicians
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Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties
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