Water Column Monitoring, Condition Monitoring 2011

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2 Water Column Monitoring, Condition Monitoring 211 Bjørn Einar Grøsvik 1, Eirin Kalstveit, Li Liu, Guri Nesje, Kjell Westrheim, Marc H.G. Berntssen 2, Pål Olsvik 2, Jeremie Le Goff 3, Sonnich Meier 1 1) Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway. 2) The National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway 3) Adn tox, Caen, France

3 Condition monitoring Performed every three year, since 22. Should document whether fish from open seas are affected from discharges from oil and gas exploration. Measure hydrocarbon components in addition to selected biomarkers in fish. 211: Biological data Analyses of stomach content. Lipid class analyses on liver of cod and haddock. Fatty acid profiles on fillet of cod and haddock, algae and zooplankton. Measurements of exposure levels NPD/PAH in muscle and liver of cod and haddock. NPD/PAH metabolites in bile from cod and haddock. Effect parameters Parameters of oxidative stress; Vitamin E in cod and haddock fillet and lipid peroxidation in cod and haddock liver. CYP1A levels in liver of cod and haddock DNA adducts in haddock liver

4 Content in PW BTX ton Benzene 832 Ethylbenzene 42 Toluene 71 Xylene 244 Heavy metal Ton Barium 772 Pb.2 Iron 82 Hg.2 Organic compounds ton Others 79 BTEX 1818 Alkylphenols C1-C3 31 Alkylphenols C4-C 1 Alkylphenols C6-C9.3 Phenols 167 Oil in water 12 Organic acids 2472 Sum PAH16 1. PAH 141 Compound Ton C1-dibenzothiophene.6 C1-Phenanthrene 2,2 C1-Naphthalene 4 C2-Dibenzothiophene,9 C2-Phenanthrene 2.6 C2-Naphthalene 21.8 C3-Phenanthrene.7 Dibenzothiophene.4 Phenanthrene 1.6 Fluorene 1.1 Naphthalene 48 OLF miljørapport 211

5 Discharges of oil and produced water 21: 131x1 6 m 3 water- 11 mg/l oil 163 ton oil 141 ton PAH 32 ton alcylated phenols Grey: Discharged to sea Blue:Injected produced water 139 ton added chemicals Green:Dispersed oil in produced water Red:Acute discharges OLF-miljørapport, 211

6 Leakage from sea bottom - Injection well at Oseberg field m 3 Green: Oil Blue: Drilling fluids and chemicals Mostly green and yellow category chemicals. Approx 19 ton of red category chemicals. Probably due to hydraulic fractures as continuous injection of piles and drilling fluids over a long period has produced an increased pressure in the reservoir. OLF miljørapport 211

7 Why? Prognoses for discharges of produced water, mill m 3 8 % of produced water from the Norwegian oil and gas activities are disharged at (Statfjord and Gullfaks area in the North Sea). RKU Nordsjøen 211

8 Weighted currents Based on ROMS model with 4x4 km resolution. Currents averaged on data from April during the period from Currents given at depth of 2 m. Bank Colours: Temperature C Red circle: Fish stations Blue cross: Oil and gas installation

9 PW amount and oil content, PW-discharges Statfjord field Gullfaks field Oil content in PW (mg/l) Statoil, 21

10 Haddock stations, July 211 H1: Bank, H2: Ula area, Southern North Sea, H3: Southern North Sea, H4: Bressay Bank, H6: Viking Bank, H South, H7 between Statfjord and Gullfaks

11 Cod stations, July 211

12 Stomach content haddock Hermit crabs Bivalves Hermit crabs Brittle stars Fish Brittle stars

13 Fish Fish

14 NPD/PAH in cod and haddock muscle Compound Cod muscle N= 2 Haddock muscle N=2 Naphthalene a,b < LOQ < LOQ.27.8 C1-naphthalene a < LOQ < LOQ C2-naphthalene a < LOQ < LOQ C3-naphthalene a < LOQ.99± Dibenzothiophene a,b < LOQ < LOQ.2. C1-dibenzothiophene a < LOQ < LOQ.2.6 C2-dibenzothiophene a < LOQ < LOQ.6.14 C3-Dibenzothiophene a < LOQ < LOQ.8.2 Phenanthrene a,b < LOQ < LOQ C1-phenanthrene a < LOQ < LOQ.7.18 C2-phenanthrene a < LOQ < LOQ.8.14 C3-phenanthrene a < LOQ < LOQ..2 Acenaphthylene b < LOQ < LOQ.2. Acenaphthene b < LOQ.2±..3.7 Fluorene b < LOQ.38± Anthracene b < LOQ < LOQ.3.8 Fluoranthene b < LOQ < LOQ..11 Pyrene b < LOQ < LOQ.4.11 Benz(a)anthracene b < LOQ < LOQ.2. Chrysene b < LOQ < LOQ.4.9 Benzo(b)fluoranthene b < LOQ < LOQ.3.6 Benzo(k)fluoranthene b < LOQ < LOQ.1.4 Benzo(a)pyrene b < LOQ < LOQ.2.7 Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene b < LOQ < LOQ.2.4 Dibenz(a,h)anthracene b < LOQ < LOQ.3.7 Benzo(g,h,i)perylene b < LOQ < LOQ.3.7 SUM NPD a < LOQ.99±1.81 SUM PAH (EPA 16 ) b < LOQ.8 LOD LOQ

15 Sum NPD (ng/g wet weight) Sum NPD in haddock liver days after the discharge of 44 m 3 oil at Statfjord, Dec Bank Jan 8 Bank May 8 Bank July 8 Bank July 11 Dec 7 May 8 July 8 July 211 July 211 H H7 Halten Bank Nov 8 Barents Sea Aug 8

16 22 Bile metabolites Haddock 28 (GC-MS) Sum PAH metabolites b a c a Balk et al., 211 Bank Barents Sea Halten Bank

17 Bile metabolites in haddock Bank Barents Sea Halten Bank

18 Sum PAH metabolites (ng/g bile) Sum PAH metabolites in bile from haddock and cod Blue: haddock Green: cod

19 Parameters of oxidative stress; Vitamin E (Alpha tocopherol) in cod and haddock fillet and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cod and haddock liver. TBARS < 1 nmol/g ww are considered background levels.

20 CYP1A in liver of cod and haddock A) Cod B) Haddock A: Monoclonal anti-cod CYP1A B: Polyclonal anti-trout CYP1A

21 CYP1A in cod liver, 28

22 DNA adducts in haddock liver LOD:.1 RAL x 1-8 ICES, 211: BAC.3 RAL x 1-8, EAC.67 RAL x 1-8

23 ICES, 211: BAC.3 RAL x 1-8, EAC.67 RAL x 1-8

24 Liver lipid relativ to body weight (%) Liver lipid relativ to body weight (%) Liver lipid relativ to body weight (%) Lipid (%) Lipid (%) Lipid (%) LSI (%) LSI (%) LSI (%) a 28 b bc c Halten Bank a a Bank Barents Sea ab b c Halten Bank Barents Sea a Bank b, H1, H1 a Southern North Sea, H2 Southern North Sea, H2 211 ab Bressay Bank, H4 Bressay Bank, H4 b Viking Bank, H6 Viking Bank, H6 ab, H, H b, H7, H c b bc b a ab b ab b Halten Bank Bank Barents Sea, H1 Southern North Sea, H2 Bressay Bank, H4 Viking Bank, H6, H, H7

25 Viking B. Bressay B. B Liver index (LSI) at and Viking B is among the lowest in the North Sea in 211 Southern North Sea

26 FA profile (%) Fa profile (%) FA profile (%) FA profile (%) FA profile (%) FA profile (%) (n-3)/(n-6) ratio (n-3)/(n-6) ratio (n-3)/(n-6) ratio 2 28 a , H1 1 1 b c b a b c b Halten Bank Bank Barents Sea a ab ab ab b b Southern North Sea, H2 Bressay Bank, H4 Viking Bank, H6, H, H7 NL PC/PE NL PC/PE NL PC/PE NL b a b a a b a ab NL NL ab ab ab a b ab b a b b 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3) 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3) bc a abc ab c abc 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3) PC/PE b b b a c ab bc a bc a b c 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3) PC/PE 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3) PC/PE abc c c a bc ab 2:4 n-6 2: n-3 22:6 n-3

27 Fa profile (%) Fa profile (%) FA profile (%) Fa profile (%) FA profile (%) Fa profile (%) Liver Liver SFA MUFA PUFA (n-6) PUFA (n-3) 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3) 7 6 Muscle 4 Muscle SFA MUFA PUFA (n-6) PUFA (n-3) :4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3) Brain * * SFA MUFA PUFA (n-6) PUFA (n-3) Brain 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3)

28 Frekvens (%) 7 6 Stomach

29 Fa profile (%) Fa profile (%) Frekvens (%) 7 6 Stomach Stomach content SFA MUFA PUFA (n-6) PUFA (n-3) 2:4 (n-6) 2: (n-3) 22:6 (n-3)

30 PC. 2 (22%) PCA of stomach Fa profile Score plot Loading plot 22:1 (n-11) 14: 16:1 (n-) E17 E14 E16 T13 T E18 E8 T3 E13 E4 E11 E1 E2 T2 E1 E6 T1 T1 E T14 E7 T1 T16 T12 T4 T7 T6 T8 T11 PC. 1 (23%) 18:4 (n-3) 18:1 (n-11) 1: 22:1 (n-9) Antiso 17: 16:1 (n-7) 2:1 (n-11) 18:3 (n-3) 16.1 (n-11) 16:1 (n-9) 22: (n-3) 21: (n-3) 2:4 (n-3) Iso 17: 2:1 (n-9) 22:4 (n-6) 2:3 (n-3) 17: 2:3 (n-6) 22: (n-6) 2:2 (n-6) 16: 18:2 (n-6) 2:1 (n-7) 22:1 (n-7) 2: (n-3) 18:2 (n-4) 24:1 18:1 (n-9) 22:6 (n-3) (n-7) 18:1 (n-) 18. 2: 18:1 (n-9) 2:4 (n-6) E3 E12 E9 B 24.

31 n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio Haddock at had higher levels of (n-6) PUFA in all thissue, But also in the stomach content. This indicate that the differens in lipid composition between and are driving by different in diet or differents in the lipid composition of the benthos organism

32 Conclusions (I) The results of the lipids analysis in 211 compared with earlier monitorings show large natural variation from year to year. We need better understanding of the natural regulation of the lipid homeostasis in wild fish and more experimental studies of how discharges from oil and gas activities effect the lipid metabolism, before we can conclude whether difference in lipid composition between and other areas as reported in 22, 28 and 21, can be correlated to discharges from the oil and gas activities.

33 Conclusions (II) The results do not indicate that discharges from oil and gas activities affect food safety aspects as No changes in PAH metabolite levels in fish bile between and the Bank. For DNA adduct levels of 6 stations in the North Sea had levels above background levels and two of 6 had levels above environmental assessment criteria (EAC). This included the two reference stations and one of the stations at. The other station at together with the station at Viking the Bank had levels slightly above EAC. This raises concern of general increased DNA adduct levels of haddock in the North Sea.

34 Conclusions (III) Due to the low differences between at and the two reference stations, the present study does not indicate that cod and haddock caught at are more contaminated with oil related compounds than fish caught at the reference stations ( Bank and Bressay Bank), although the general PAH pressure in the North Sea Bassin needs more attention.

35 Thanks!

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