Distributed PV the road California is already on. Public Interest Environmental Law Conference Bill Powers, P.E., Powers Engineering March 5, 2011

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1 Distributed PV the road California is already on Public Interest Environmental Law Conference Bill Powers, P.E., Powers Engineering March 5,

2 John Geesman, Energy Commissioner, 2007 source: California Energy Circuit, State Sees DG Providing 25% Peak Power, May 11, There s an ongoing schizophrenia in state policy between what we say we want to do and what we actually allow to happen. 2

3 CPUC just can t say no Project Cost MM ($) CPUC judge s decision Full CPUC action PG&E Oakley 624 MW gas-fired $800 deny approve SCE Eldorado Ivanpah Transmission $450 deny approve SDG&E Sunrise Powerlink Transmission $2,000 deny approve 3

4 Federal judges can say no sources: Los Angeles Times, Court rejects U.S. bid to establish corridors for new electric transmission lines, February 1, San Diego Union Tribune, Judge blocks Imperial Valley solar project, December 17, th Circuit strikes down DOE s attempt to establish national interest electric transmission corridors. This could be blow to SCE and SDG&E. Federal judge in San Diego blocks 709 MW of solar dishes in Imperial Valley, ruling government had not consulted enough with tribe. 4

5 What is the state s plan? Energy Action Plan Energy Action Plan Loading Order: Energy efficiency & demand response (net zero energy buildings EE/rooftop PV) Renewable energy Combined Heat & Power - CHP Conventional gas-fired generation Transmission as needed 5

6 How much rooftop PV does California need to meet 2020 net zero energy targets for existing buildings? ~15,000 MW CPUC, California Long-Term Strategic Energy Efficiency Plan, January 2011 update Target: 25% of existing residential reaches 70% reduction by 2020 Assume 30% reduction with EE, 40% with PV Residential rooftop PV requirement = 4,800 MW Target: 25% of existing commercial reaches net zero energy by 2020 Assume 30% reduction with EE, 70% with PV Commercial rooftop PV requirement = 9,800 MW Total residential and commercial rooftop PV = 14,600 MW 6

7 What is utility renewable energy plan? CPUC, 33% RPS Implementation Analysis Preliminary Results, June 2009, p. 87. J. Firooz, Transmission in Short Supply or Do IOUs Want More Profits?, Natural Gas & Electricity Journal, July graphic: Black & Veatch and E3, Summary of PV Potential Assessment in RETI and the 33% Implementation Analysis, Re-DEC Working Group Meeting, December 9, 2009, p ,000 MW of largescale, remote solar. 0 MW of distributed PV. Customer-owned rooftop PV is not RPS-eligible. The more new, high profit (12% ROI) transmission the better. $15 billion in new transmission additions in California, justified on renewable energy, if utility plans realized. 7

8 20,000 MW of existing transmission supplying SoCal today, average load is 14,000 MW. 10,000+ MW Path 46 has lightest load in West. Sources: 2005 CEC Strategic Transmission Investment Study; June 2010 WECC Path Utilization Study Part of TEPPC 2009 Annual Report. 8

9 Local PV and remote solar the tortoise and the hare PV Project Underway California Solar Initiative Utility distributed PV SB 32 feed-in tariff CPUC renewable auction mechanism SMUD feed-in tariff Total committed DG PV Capacity (MW) 3,000 1, , ~6,000 Completion date

10 Remote solar projects still standing in ARRA cash grant hunt extended thru 2011 Remote solar project Capacity (MW) Ivanpah Blythe + Palen Genesis Desert Sunlight Chevron Lucerne Valley Total large remote solar 370 1, ,715 10

11 Germany the gold standard ~7,000 MW distributed PV installed in % on rooftops 1,550 MW of wind installed in % distributed PV, 20% wind in 2010 Framework for success: feed-in tariff 11

12 Feb. 24 th 2011, Germany PV provides 10% of country s electricity at mid-day, should be ~20% on mild day in June German source, EEX Transparency Platform: Installed Jan. 1, 2011: wind, 27,000 MW ac solar PV, 14,000 MW ac >80% of PV is rooftop Graphic: yellow = PV green = wind gray = conventional 12

13 Western Interconnect 2010 loads a bit higher than German loads: min 73,000 MW, max ~150,000 MW Black & Veatch, Need for Renewables and Gas Fired Generation in WECC - Wyoming Infrastructure Authority Board Meeting, Jan 25,

14 Cost of energy for solar, geothermal, and wind RETI Phase 2B report and CPUC renewable study source: Renewable Energy Transmission Initiative (RETI) Phase 2B Final Report, May 2010, Tables 4-5, 4-7, 4-8, CPUC 2010 LTPP proceeding, Long-Term Renewable Resource Planning Standards, Attachment 1, Table 1, June Technology Capacity (MW) Capacity factor (%) Cost of energy ($/MWh) Solar thermal, dry-cooled Fixed thin-film PV Tracking polysilicon PV Geothermal utility-scale Onshore wind utility-scale

15 DOE on current cost of distributed MW PV source: DOE, Solar Vision Study Draft, Chapter 4: Photovoltaics: Technologies, Cost, and Performance, May 28, 2010, Figure 4-4, p

16 DOE on current cost of commercial rooftop PV source: DOE, Solar Vision Study Draft, Chapter 4: Photovoltaics: Technologies, Cost, and Performance, May 28, 2010, Figure 4-4, p

17 Germany installs residential PV at $4/W dc, we do same system for ~$6/W dc C. Landen Sovella AG, Complexity cost and economies of scale: Why German residential PV costs 25% less than US, presented at Solar Power International, October

18 Representative California peak load profile 18

19 PV and wind summer output profiles: PV tracks demand, wind is opposite demand 19

20 Summer peak availability - sun and wind are not the same Resource Reference Capacity factor (%) Tracking PV CPUC/E3, June Fixed rooftop PV Itron, 2010 CSI evaluation Onshore wind PG&E 2006 Long-Term Plan 4 20

21 Achilles heel of remote central station generation, whether solar or wind - cost of new transmission sources: 1) RPS Calculator, 2) J. Firooz, P.E., CAISO: How its transmission planning process has lost sight of the public s interest, prepared for UCAN, April 15, CPUC calculated $34/MWh transmission cost adder in June 2009 for remote renewable generation. CPUC assumed renewable generation financed over 20 yr, transmission over 40 yr. Cost adder is $46/MWh if generation and transmission financed over same 20 yr period (apples-to-apples). 21

22 Achilles heel of wind power is lack of summer daytime output used by utilities to justify new generation of high cost peaker turbines source: CEC, Comparative Cost of Electric Generation Technologies, January 2010, Table 4 and Table 5. Note the dates shown in the table, 2009 and 2018, are commercial start dates. Combustion turbine (MW) Capacity factor (%) Cost of energy 2009 ($/MWh) Cost of energy 2018 ($/MWh) ,

23 Utilities wind power must be backed-up by combustion turbines World without RPS requirements utilities build combustion turbines to meet rising peak load. World with RPS requirements utilities build combustion turbines, and wind turbines, and new transmission to meet rising peak load. Or central station solar thermal or solar PV, and new transmission. Or distributed solar PV (ideally with limited 2 to 3 hr energy storage), and no new transmission. 23

24 Gov. Brown s Clean Energy Jobs Plan local focus 12,000 MW of local renewable power by 2020, out of 20,000 MW target Feed-in tariff for renewables under 20 MW 4,000 MW of new combined heat & power (can be fueled with biogas or biomethane) 24

25 The 21 st century smart grid, with full two-way flow at every substation source: CEC 2007 Integrated Energy Policy Report, December 2009, p

26 Utilities spend ¾ of total budgets on distribution system, but not yet building for 21 st century source: CEC 2007 IEPR, December 2009, pp Utilities spend approximately three-fourths of their total capital budgets on distribution assets, with about two-thirds spent on upgrades/new infrastructure in most years. Investments will remain for 20 to 30 or more years. Magnitude of these investments suggests need to require utilities, before undertaking investments in non-advanced grid technologies, to demonstrate that alternative investments in advanced grid technologies that will support grid flexibility have been considered, including from a standpoint of cost-effectiveness. 26

27 2010 UCLA/LABC feed-in tariff for LA: enough for sustained wave of PV, and less than grid power note: grid power estimate is all-in including cost of energy, time-of-use, losses, and transmission & distribution costs PV category 2011 ($/kwh) 2019 ($/kwh) residential, 17% commercial, 50% ground, 33% PV composite Grid power ~ ~

28 Residential rates are already at $0.30/kWh for about a third of the electricity sold in PG&E territory sources: 1) PG&E A General Rate Case Phase 2 filing, Chapter 3, 2) CEC 2009 Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEPR), Figure 4, p. 52. Assumption residential IOU customer consumption is 2/3 of total statewide residential consumption. California s investor-owned utilities (IOUs) bill residential customers using tiered rates, with high users paying much more. PG&E example: Tier 1 and 2 are in the $0.12 to 0.14/kWh range, Tier 3 at $0.30/kWh. About a third of the 30,000 gigawatt-hr per year PG&E residential usage is billed at Tier 3 rate. This means about 10,000 gigawatt-hr per year is billed at $0.30/kWh. 5,000 to 6,000 MW of distributed PV capacity would be required to generate 10,000 gigawatt-hr per year. 28

29 SDG&E example: urban PV potential is vast Commercial buildings: 1,600 to 1,800 MW ( Commercial parking lots: 3,000 MW, residential: 2,800 MW Total PV potential: ~7,500 MW Highest demand ever recorded in SDG&E territory: 4,600 MW 29

30 PV and parking lots smart dual use Presentation by Chevron Energy Solutions, Solar Forum at Diablo Valley College, Feb. 8,

31 PV for parking lot- shade is added value Presentation by Chevron Energy Solutions, Solar Forum at Diablo Valley College, Feb. 8,

32 California is already on the road to a predominantly distributed PV future No technical or economic impediments. PV at the point-of-use is more cost-effective than remote solar thermal whether or not new transmission is needed. Remote PV that does not require new transmission is comparable in cost to PV at the point-of-use line losses negate much of the desert sun advantage. Hurdles are institutional investor-owned utility model has not yet been re-aligned to advance distributed energy future. 32

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