# Multi-port DC-DC Topology for Renewable Energy Systems using Soft Computing Techniques

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2 II. PV SYSTEM AND CHARACTERISTICS A photovoltaic cell is comprised of a P-N junction semiconductor material such as silicon that produces currents via the photovoltaic effect. When light energy strikes the solar cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material. If electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical circuit, the electrons can be captured in the form of an electric current. This electricity can then be used to power a load. Due to the low voltage generated in a PV cell (around 0.5V), several PV cells are connected in series (for high voltage) and in parallel (for high current) to form a PV module for desired output. A block diagram representation of a proposed MPC with PSM and PWM for DC series motor representation is given in the fig 1. where: Iph is the Isolation current, I is the Cell current, Io is the Reverse saturation current, V is the Cell voltage, ns is the number of cells in series, np is the number of cells in parallel, Irs is the reverse saturation current, Rs is the Series resistance, Rp is the Parallel resistance, VT is the Thermal voltage, K is the Boltzman constant, A is the ideality factor, T is the Temperature in Kelvin, q is the Charge of an electron, Tr is the cell reference temperature, Irr is the cell reverse saturation current at Ir, EG is the band gap of the semiconductor, Iscr is the cell short circuit current at reference temperature, ki is the short circuit current temperature coefficient, S is the solar radiation in mw/sq. cm. From equation, Output voltage of the PV module is obtained as: B. Maximum Power Point Tracking Maximum power is extracted from a solar array when the solar array is operating at the maximum power point. The array can be made to operate at the maximum power point by changing the impedance to the value given by Figure 1 Block Diagram of the Proposed System A. PV Cell Characteristics A PV cell can be represented by a current source connected in parallel with a diode, since it generates current when it is illuminated and acts as a diode when it is not. The equivalent circuit model also includes a shunt and series internal resistance. Rs is the intrinsic series resistance whose value is very small. Rp is the equivalent shunt resistance which has a very high value. Figure 3: VI Characteristics The output characteristics of PV module are non-linear as it is dependent on the irradiance intensity and cell temperature as shown in figure. Hence it is necessary to continuously track the MPP in order to maximize the output power from the PV system. In the current design, a buck type DC/DC converter is used to match the load to the PV system in order to extract the maximum power [12] Figure 2: Equivalent Circuit Figure 4: MPPT characteristics Available 70

3 Figure 5: Flow Chart For Perturb and Observe Algorithm The Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm was used for continual adjustment of the load impedance to match the maximum power point impedance Voltage and current measurements at the output of the solar array are used to determine the power output. The present power output, P(k) of the solar array is compared with the past power output, P(k-1), and the load is changed depending on the comparison. solar Panel the P&O algorithm on a Three Level Controller which then controls a power-switching circuit through a PWM (pulse-width modulated) signal. Changing the duty cycle of the PWM changes the load resistance across the solar array. In addition to coding the maximum power point tracker, added some safeguards to prevent damages such as overheating of circuit elements. The duty cycle was set to stay between 5% and 95%. Allowing the duty cycle to surpass this range will damage the circuit due to either too little or too much current drawn, respectively. III. BB-FPC TOPOLOGY The sub circuit on the primary side of the PS-FBC is composed of two switching legs and an input source Uin, and Leg 1 is composed of S1 and S2 while Leg 2 is composed of S3 and S4. Each switching leg generates a square-wave voltage, ua or ub, from Uin. The two voltages ua and ub are in phase shift with an angle ϕ to control the voltage on the transformer primary winding, uab. From this viewpoint, the primary sub circuit of the PS-FBC can be simplified into two square-wave voltage sources, where the two sources can be connected with a common negative terminal or a common positive terminal. A. Four-Port Converter Family By combining the two BDCs with a port shared, the derived FB-BDC-MPC topologies have four ports totally, and a family of four-port converters can be harvested, as shown in Fig.7. In each of the resulted topologies, all the three sources, U1, U2, and U3, can supply power to the load, Uo, and the power can also be exchanged simultaneously between U1 and U2/U3 because the two BDCs on the primary side of the converter build a bidirectional three port converter. Single-stage conversion between U1 and U2 and U1 and U3 can be achieved with the bidirectional threeport converter on the primary side. However, the conversion between U2 and U3 is a two-stage one. Lk is the leakage inductance of the transformer. The switches S1 and S2 and the inductor L1 form a boost converter to interface the PV panel PV1 with the battery. The switches S3 and S4 and the inductor L2 form another boost converter to interface the PV panel PV2 with the battery. Since the equivalent circuit from PV to the battery is a boost converter, the PV voltage must be lower than the battery voltage. In addition, the switches S1 S4, the transformer T, the output diodes Do1 Do4, the output filter inductor Lo, and the output capacitor Co compose a PS-FBC, which can supply power to the isolated load uo. IV. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER The dc chopper present in the SMES circuit is switched according to the need that is charging or discharging. The duty cycle is controlled by the fuzzy logic controller taking the active power of the system and current through the coil. are created according to the variation in the values of power and current in the system. Figure 7: Simulation Diagram For Proposed System Available 71

4 increased, then the armature current (la) drawn by the motor also increases. The inductance of the armature decided whether current can sustain itself f in a continuous manner or not even though firing angle may be large. Figure 8: PV Model Simulation Figure 11: DC Motor speed controller Figure 9: Fuzzy and PID feedback Simulation V. DC MOTOR A separately excited DC motor has a field system having a separate power supply. The rated field current here is 1.6 Amp with 75 Ohms resistance. Accordingly Vf is chosen. Figure 12: Battery Voltage and PV Slope Figure 10: DC Motor PSM Controller A. DC Motor Speed Control The armature gets an excitation from the rectifier according to the firing angle chosen. As the firing angle decreases from 90 degrees towards zero, the voltage applied to the armature increases due to which the speed also increases. If the torque demanded is Figure 13: Output Voltage and Current Available 72

5 Figure 14: Output Speed CONCLUSION MPCs provide good candidates for the applications of renewable power system, such as PV-supplied power systems, hybrid systems and battery systems. Voltage regulations between any two ports can be achieved by employing pulse width modulation and phase-angle shift control scheme by using Fuzzy logic controllers and PID controllers. The Fuzzy Controller is designed to reach MPPT by monitoring the voltage and current of the PV array and adjusting the duty cycle of the Multiport DC/ DC converter. The PID controller is designed for speed control of DC series motor by setting the voltage fed to the DC series motor through another DC/ DC converter. [7] Esram T, Chapman P.L. Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques. IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, 2007; 22: [8] A. K. Abdelsalam, A. M. Massoud, S. Ahmed, and P. N. Enjeti, "High-Performance Adaptive Perturb and Observe MPPT Technique for Photovoltaic- Based Microgrids," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, pp , [9] P. E. Kakosimos, A. G. Kladas, and S. N. Manias, "Fast Photovoltaic-System Voltage- or Current- Oriented MPPT Employing a Predictive Digital Current-Controlled Converter," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, pp , [10] O. Lopez-Lapena, M. T. Penella, and M. Gasulla, "A Closed- Loop Maximum Power Point Tracker for Subwatt Photovoltaic Panels," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, pp , [11] N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, "Optimization of perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 20, pp , [12] Rana Ahmed, A.K. Abdelsalam, A. Namaan, Y.G. Dessouky, N.K. Sirdi Improved Performance State- Flow Based Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique,Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, ENSAM, University of Toulon, LSIS UMR 7296, 13397, Marseille, France. References [1] H. Fakham, D. Lu, and B. Francois, Power control design of a battery charger in a hybrid active PV generator for load-following applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp , Jan [2] W. Jiang and B. Fahimi, Multiport power electronic interface Concept, modeling and design, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 7, pp , Jul [3] Multiport Power Electronic Interface Concept, Modeling, and Design Wei Jiang, Member, IEEE, and Babak Fahimi, Senior Member, IEEE [4] W. Li, J. Xiao, Y. Zhao, and X. He, PWM plus phase angle shift (PPAS) control scheme for combined multiport dc/dc converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 3, pp , Mar [5] J.-K. Kim, S.-W. Choi, C.-E. Kim, and G.-W. Moon, A new standby structure using multi-output fullbridge converter integrating flyback converter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 10, pp , Oct [6] J. Salazar, F. Tadeo, C. Prada, L. Palacin, Simulation and Control of a PV System connected to a Low Voltage Network JORNADAS DE AUTOMÁTICA, September 08-10, 2010, JAÉN, Spain. Available 73

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