International Investments

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1 2008 AGI-Information Management Consultants May be used for personal purporses only or by libraries associated to dandelon.com network. International Investments Bruno Solnik H.E.C. SCHOOL of MANAGEMENT Dennis McLeavey ASSOCIATION for INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT and RESEARCH PEARSON Addison Wesley Boston San Francisco New York London Toronto Sydney Tokyo Singapore Madrid Mexico City Munich Paris Cape Town Hong Kong Montreal

2 Contents Chapter 1 Foreign Exchange 1 Learning Outcomes 1 Foreign Exchange Quotations 3 Basic Principles and the Forex Quotation Convention 3 More on Quotation Conventions 4 Bid-Ask (Offer) Quotes and Spreads 5 Arbitrage 7 Cross-Rate Calculations with Bid-Ask Spreads 7 Bilateral Arbitrage 10 Triangular Arbitrage 12 Forward Quotes 14 Interest Rate Parity: The Forward Discount and the Interest Rate Differential 16 Summary 21 Problems 23 Solutions 25 Chapter 2 Foreign Exchange Parity Relations 31 Learning Outcomes 31 Foreign Exchange Fundamentals 33 Supply and Demand for Foreign Exchange 33 Balance of Payments 34 Current Account Deficits and Financial Account Surpluses 35 Factors That Cause a Nation's Currency to Appreciate or Depreciate 38 Government Policies: Monetary and Fiscal 40 Exchange Rate Regimes 42 International Parity Relations 44 Some Definitions 44 Interest Rate Parity 45 Purchasing Power Parity: The Exchange Rate and the Inflation Differential 46 International Fisher Relation: The Interest Rate and Expected Inflation Rate Differentials 48 Uncovered Interest Rate Parity 50 Foreign Exchange Expectations: The Forward Premium (Discount) and the Expected Exchange Rate Movement 52 Combining the Relations 53 International Parity Relations and Global Asset Management 55 XII

3 Contents xiii Exchange Rate Determination 56 Purchasing Power Parity Revisited 56 Fundamental Value Based on Absolute PPP 59 Fundamental Value Based on Relative PPP 59 The Balance of Payments Approach 62 The Asset Market Approach 70 Summary 77 Problems 79 Solutions 83 Bibliography 89 Chapter 3 Foreign Exchange Determination and Forecasting 91 Learning Outcomes 91 International Monetary Arrangements 92 A Historical Perspective 92 The Empirical Evidence 100 Interest Rate Parity 100 International Fisher Relation 100 Purchasing Power Parity 101 Foreign Exchange Expectations 105 Practical Implications 106 Exchange Rate Forecasting 107 Is the Market Efficient and Rational? 108 The Econometric Approach 111 Technical Analysis 112 Central Bank Intervention 114 The Use and Performance of Forecasts 115 Summary 119 Problems 119 Solutions 122 Bibliography 127 Chapter 3 Appendix: Statistical Supplements on Forecasting and Asset Returns 130 Some Notations 130 Traditional Statistical Models with Constant Moments 131 Traditional Statistical Models with Time-Varying Moments 132 Nontraditional Models 134 Data Mining, Data Snooping, and Model Mining 136

4 i xiv Contents Chapter 4 International Asset Pricing 139 Learning Outcomes 139 International Market Efficiency 140 Asset-Pricing Theory 143 The Domestic Capital Asset-Pricing Model 143 Asset Returns and Exchange Rate Movements 146 The Domestic CAPM Extended to the International Context 147 International CAPM 150 Market Imperfections and Segmentation 157 Practical Implications 158 A Global Approach to Equilibrium Pricing 158 Estimating Currency Exposures 161 Tests of the ICAPM 169 Summary 171 Problems 173 Solutions 177 Bibliography 181 Chapter 5 Equity: Markets and Instruments 185 Learning Outcomes 185 Market Differences: A Historical Perspective 186 Historical Differences in Market Organization 187 Historical Differences in Trading Procedures 188 Automation on the Major Stock Exchanges 189 Some Statistics 195 Market Size 195 Liquidity 197 Concentration 198 Some Practical Aspects 199 Tax Aspects 199 Stock Market Indexes 202 Information 205 Execution Costs 206 Components of Execution Costs 206 Estimation and Uses of Execution Costs 208 Some Approaches to Reducing Execution Costs 211 Investing in Foreign Shares Listed at Home 214 Global Shares and American Depositary Receipts 214 Closed-End Country Funds 211 Open-End Funds 221 Exchange Traded Funds 222

5 Contents xv Summary 225 Problems 226 Solutions 230 Bibliography 234 Chapter 6 Equity: Concepts and Techniques 237 Learning Outcomes 237 Approaching International Analysis 238 The Information Problem 240 A Vision of the World 241 Differences in National Accounting Standards 242 Historical Setting 243 International Harmonization of Accounting Practices 244 Differences in Global Standards 247 The Effects of Accounting Principles on Earnings and Stock Prices 254 The Information Content of International Differences in GAAP 255 Global Industry Analysis 256 Country Analysis 256 Industry Analysis: Return Expectation Elements 262 Industry Analysis: Risk Elements 268 Global Industry Analysis in Practice: An Example 273 Equity Analysis 277 Global Risk Factors in Security Returns 292 Risk-Factor Model: Industry and Country Factors 292 Other Risk Factors: Styles 293 Other Risk Factors: Macroeconomic 294 Practical Use of Factor Models 296 Summary 296 Problems 297 Solutions 302 Bibliography 309 Chapter 7 Global Bond Investing 311 Learning Outcomes 311 The Global Bond Market 312 The Various Segments 312 World Market Size 314 Bond Indexes 315 The Eurobond Market 316 Emerging Markets and Brady Bonds 320

6 xvi Contents Major Differences Among Bond Markets 323 Types of Instruments 323 Quotations, Day Count, and Frequency of Coupons 324 Legal and Fiscal Aspects 326 A Refresher on Bond Valuation 327 Zero-Coupon Bonds 328 Bond with Coupons 330 Duration and Interest Rate Sensitivity 332 Credit Spreads 334 Multicurrency Approach 335 International Yield Curve Comparisons 335 The Return and Risk on Foreign Bond Investments 338 Currency-Hedging Strategies 339 International Portfolio Strategies 340 Floating-Rate Notes and Structured Notes 344 Floating-Rate Notes (FRNs) 345 BullFRN 351 BearFRN 352 Dual-Currency Bonds 353 Currency-Option Bonds 356 Summary 359 Problems 361 Solutions 365 Bibliography 370 Chapter 8 Alternative Investments 371 Learning Outcomes 371 Investment Companies 373 Valuing Investment Company Shares 373 Fund Management Fees 3 74 Investment Strategies 374 Exchange Traded Funds 377 Real Estate 386 Forms of Real Estate Investment 387 Valuation Approaches 388 Real Estate in a Portfolio Context 396 * Private Equity: Venture Capital 398 Stages of Venture Capital Investing 400 Investment Characteristics 401 Types of Liquidation/Divestment 403 Valuation and Performance Measurement 404 Hedge Funds and Absolute Return Strategies 406

7 Contents xvii Definition 409 Classification 410 Funds of Funds 414 Leverage and Unique Risks of Hedge Funds 416 The Case for Hedge Funds 417 Caveats 421 Closely Held Companies and Inactively Traded Securities 424 Legal Environment 424 Valuation Alternatives 424 Bases for Discounts/Premiums 425 Distressed Securities/Bankruptcies 425 Commodity Markets and Commodity Derivatives 426 Commodity Futures 428 Motivation and Investment Vehicles 428 Active Investment 429 The Example of Gold 430 Commodity-Linked Securities 432 Summary 433 Problems 436 Solutions 441 Bibliography 447 Chapter 9 The Case for International Diversification 451 Learning Outcomes 451 The Traditional Case for International Diversification 454 Risk Reduction Through Attractive Correlations 454 Portfolio Return Performance 464 Currency Risk Not a Barrier to International Investment 4 71 The Case Against International Diversification 472 Increase in Correlations 4 73 Past Performance Is a Good Indicator of Future Performance 4 76 Barriers to International Investments 477 The Case for International Diversification Revisited 481 Pitfalls in Estimating Correlation During Volatile Periods 481 Expanded Investment Universe and Performance Opportunities 483 Global Investing Rather Than International Diversification 483 The Case for Emerging Markets 486 The Basic Case 486 Volatility, Correlations, and Currency Risk 488 Portfolio Return Performance 489 Investability of Emerging Markets 490 Segmentation versus Integration Issue 491

8 xviii Contents Summary 491 Problems 493 Solutions 496 Bibliography 505 Chapter 10 Derivatives 507 Learning Outcomes 507 Forward and Futures 508 The Principles of a Forward and a Futures Contract 508 The Different Instruments 511 Forward and Futures Valuation 517 Use of Forward and Futures 522 Swaps 528 The Principles of a Swap 528 The Different Instruments 529 Swaps Valuation 533 Use of Swaps 537 Options 542 Introduction to Options 542 The Different Instruments 543 Option Valuation 546 Use of Options 549 Summary 555 Problems 556 Solutions 562 Bibliography 570 Chapter 11 Currency Risk Management 571 Learning Outcomes 571 Hedging with Futures or Forward Currency Contracts 573 The Basic Approach: Hedging the Principal 5 73 Minimum-Variance Hedge Ratio 576 Optimal Hedge Ratio 580 Hedging Strategies 582 Hedging Multiple Currencies 582 Insuring and Hedging with Options 584 Insuring with Options 584 Dynamic Hedging with Options 587 Hedging Strategies 589 Other Methods for Managing Currency Exposure 590 Currency Overlay 592 Summary 595

9 Contents xix Problems 597 Solutions 602 Bibliography 613 Chapter 12 Global Performance Evaluation 615 Learning Outcomes 615 The Basics 616 Principles and Objectives 616 Calculating a Rate of Return 619 Performance Attribution in Global Performance Evaluation 626 The Mathematics of Multicurrency Returns 627 Total Return Decomposition 629 Performance Attribution 631 An Example of Output 634 More on Currency Management 636 From Quarterly to Multi-Year Performance 637 Performance Appraisal in Global Performance Evaluation 637 Risk 638 Risk-Adjusted Performance 639 Risk Allocation and Budgeting 642 Some Potential Biases in Return and Risk 644 Implementation 645 More on Global Benchmarks 646 Global Investment Performance Standards and Other Performance Presentation Standards 648 Summary 650 Problems 651 Solutions 659 Bibliography 674 Chapter 13 Structuring the Global Investment Process 677 Learning Outcomes 677 A Tour of the Global Investment Industry 679 Investors 679 Investment Managers 684 Brokers 685 Consultants and Advisers 686 Custodians 687 Global Investment Philosophies 688 The Passive Approach 688 The Active Approach 689

10 xx Contents Balanced or Specialized 691 Industry or Country Approach 692 Top-Down or Bottom-Up 692 Style Management 693 Currency 694 Quantitative or Subjective 695 The Investment Policy Statement 695 Capital Market Expectations 698 Defining Asset Classes 698 Long-Term Capital Market Expectations: Historical Returns 699 Long-Term Capital Market Expectations: Forward-Looking Returns 701 Short-Term Capital Market Expectations 705 Global Asset Allocation: From Strategic to Tactical 706 Strategic Asset Allocation 706 Tactical Asset Allocation 711 Global Asset Allocation: Structuring and Quantifying the Process 712 Research and Market Analysis 713 Asset Allocation Optimization 715 Portfolio Construction 717 Performance and Risk Control 718 Summary 719 John Bouderi: Case Study A 720 Leigh Brennan: Solution A 730 John Bouderi: Case Study B 731 Leigh Brennan: Solution B 735 Bibliography 736 Glossary 738 Index 751

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