1 Agenda for meeting in Academic Council, Thursday 27. maj 2010 kl , Kilen, K Approval of Agenda 2. Approval of Minutes from last meetings 3. Information from board meeting Rector Johan Roos 4. Financial update Rector Johan Roos 5. VIP status Deans Alan Irwin and Jan Molin 6. Strategy process update Rector Johan Roos 17. maj 2010 ULJ Ulla Lykke Jørgensen Dekansekretariatet for Forskning Dir. tlf.: Research Evaluation of CBS s Departments Dean Alan Irwin and Department Head Jan Mouritzen, Operation Management 8. VIP recruitment policy development Profesor Peter Møllgaard 9. Professor MSO and Adjunct Professor policy development Professor David Lando 10. Guidelines for establishing and closing programs Dean Jan Molin 11. Models for endowed chairs Dean Alan Irwin 12. Selection of theme and members of working group for workshop in AR October 4 th. 13. MIsc.
2 Møde i Akademisk Råd, mandag den 8. marts, 2010 REFERAT - udkast Tilstedeværende medlemmer: Robin Oliver Bentley, Peter Bogetoft, Klaus Kortegaard Graven, Martin Jess Iversen, Arnt Lykke Jakobsen, David Lando, Johan Roos, Dalia Ali Siwan, Finn Valentin (suppleant for Thomas Riis, som er på udlandsophold), Signe Vikkelsø Afbud: Susanne Beckmann, Keld Laursen, Niels Åkerstrøm Andersen Observatører: Mai Britt Aaronstein, Henrik Hermansen Tilforordnede: Alan Irwin, Peter Lotz, Jan Molin, Peter Pietras (punkt 5 8) Desuden deltog: Torben Aaberg, Leif Hansen, institutleder Niels Mygind (under punkt 4), institutleder Dorte Salskov-Iversen (under punkt 4) Jessie Tvillinggard (under punkt 4), institutleder Peter Møllgaard (under punkt 5) Referent: Ulla Lykke Jørgensen 17. marts 2010 ULJ Ad 0 Rektor Johan Roos introducerede projektchef Birthe Thomsen, som sammen med direktionen vil lede strategiprocessen. Ad 1 Godkendelse af dagsorden Studerende Klaus Kortegaard Graven havde fremsendt en henvendelse til rektor og sekretariatet vedr. lovlighed og beslutningsdygtighed i rådets møder. Rektor takkede for kommentarerne vedrørende beslutningsdygtighed og lovlighed, men mindede om at Akademisk Råd primært er et rådgivende organ for rektor. Ad 2. Godkendelse af referat fra sidste møde Arnt Lykke Jakobsen opfordrede til, at referenten fremover skelnede mere klart mellem, hvornår synspunkter blev fremsat af ledelsen, og hvornår de blev fremsat af de øvrige medlemmer af rådet. Med denne bemærkning blev referatet godkendt. Ad 3. Strategiprocessen Rektor Johan Roos orienterede om status på strategiprocessen.
3 2 Rektor har modtaget inputs til strategiprocessen fra konsultationer og møder med bl.a. medlemmer af bestyrelsen, direktionen, institutledere, studieledere og administrative ledere. Oplægget til strategiproces ligger næsten klart. Det vil blive forelagt Bestyrelsen mandag den 15. marts og vil blive præsenteret for medarbejdere og studerende ved en kick off event i slutningen af marts. Ad 4. Forskningsevaluering af CBS s institutter I december 2008 tilsluttede Akademisk Råd sig forslaget om at igangsætte en ny runde af forskningsevalueringer af CBS institutter med start i I 2009 er der gennemført 4 evalueringer på følgende institutter/centre: IKL, INT, PEØ og CBP. Dekan for forskning Alan Irwin orienterede om formålet med den igangsatte forskningsevaluering, som primært er at udvikle CBS forskning gennem: Selvreflektion Anbefalinger for den videre udvikling fra et panel af eksterne peers En efterfølgende dialog på CBS, inklusive instituthandlingsplaner for den videre udvikling Alan Irwin pointerede, at det i vurderingen af evalueringsrapporterne var vigtigt at holde sig for øje, at ledelsen havde bedt evalueringspanelerne om en kritisk evaluering af forskningsområderne for dermed at få det bedst mulige grundlag for den videre udvikling af disse. Ad 4a. Forskningsevaluering af institut for Interkulturel Kommunikation og Ledelse (IKL) Som grundlag for drøftelsen var vedlagt IKLs selvevalueringsrapport, panelets evalueringsrapport og IKLs handlingsplan. Institutleder Dorte Salskov-Iversen indledte diskussionen med en kort orientering om evalueringsprocessen. Hun syntes det havde været inspirerende at deltage i evalueringen, og forventede at processen ville få en positiv indflydelse på den videre udvikling af forskningen på IKL. Evalueringspanelet havde umiddelbart haft svært ved at forstå organiseringen af CBS og dens forskning. For at gøre det lettere for evalueringspanel og institut, foreslog Dorte Salskov-Iversen, at man i de efterfølgende evalueringer gav en kort introduktion til organiseringen af CBS, herunder til organiseringen af forskning og uddannelse, og af hvordan forskningen bidrager til undervisningen. Rådet drøftede evalueringen og havde en række spørgsmål og råd til IKL vedrørende sikring af kvalitet og relevans i nyrekruttering, anvendelse af forskningsmetoder, forekomsten af kerneforskningsemner, balancen mellem publicering i de bedste tidsskrifter og sikring af eksterne forskningsmidler, spørgsmålet om basisområder de yngre forskere på instituttet trænes
4 3 i/forventes at kunne undervise i, samt hvordan instituttet ville udmønte en handlingsplan, der kan sikre, at instituttet afsætter intellectual foot prints. Rektor Johan Roos fremhævede panelets anbefaling om at have fokus på fælles institutidentitet og distinctiveness, herunder evnen til at kunne afsætte intellectual foot prints. Han savnede, at panelet havde foretaget en benchmarking, der gjorde det muligt at vurdere, hvordan instituttets forskning klarede sig internationalt. Alan Irwin understregede, at diskussionen omkring udviklingen af forskningen skulle holdes levende, såvel på institutniveau som på CBS-niveau også efter afslutningen af forskningsevalueringerne af institutterne. Hvis institutternes og CBS forskning skal være på internationalt niveau, må man løbende stille sig bl.a. følgende spørgsmål samt overveje hvordan man kan nå sine mål: Hvordan skabes distinctiveness/ intellectual foot prints indenfor et forskningsområde/institut Hvordan understøttes og sikres publicering i top journals, herunder behovet for eksplicitte overvejelser og evt. prioriteringer i forhold til udvalgte tidsskrifter Hvordan sikres sammenhæng mellem forskning og undervisning Rektor lykønskede afslutningsvis instituttet og institutleder Dorte Salskov- Iversen med en positiv og inspirerende evaluering Ad 4b. Forskningsevaluering af Institut for International Økonomi og Virksomhedsledelse (INT) Som grundlag for drøftelsen var vedlagt INTs selvevalueringsrapport, panelets evalueringsrapport og udkast til INTs handlingsplan. Institutleder Niels Mygind gav en kort orientering om evalueringsprocessen og forskningen på INT med reference til den forrige evaluering af INT i Rådet drøftede evalueringen og havde en række spørgsmål og råd til INT vedrørende sammenhængen mellem instituttets forskningsområder/centre, instituttets forskningsprofil og balancen mellem outreach og publicering i de bedste tidsskrifter. Rektor Johan Roos fremhævede igen panelets anbefaling om at have fokus på en fælles institutidentitet og distinctiveness, herunder evnen til at kunne afsætte intellectual foot prints. Han efterlyste desuden forslag til, hvordan man kunne etablere hensigtsmæssige kriterier for benchmarking. Niels Mygind tilsluttede sig ønsket om international sammenligning (benchmark) af instituttet, men fandt at det - som for IKL - synes muligt at benchmarke instituttets centre/forskergrupper og i mindre grad muligt at benchmarke instituttet. Rektor lykønskede afslutningsvis instituttet og institutleder Niels Mygind med en positiv og inspirerende evaluering.
5 4 Ad 5. VIP-rekruttering Formand for arbejdsgruppen vedrørende VIP-rekruttering institutleder Peter Møllgaard orienterede kort om status for arbejdsgruppens arbejde og efterlyste input til gruppens videre arbejde Arbejdsgruppens kommissorium er at komme med forslag til en forbedring af CBS rekrutteringsproces, herunder at komme med forslag til en mere transparent proces, der gør CBS i stand til at prioritere og sikre en høj og ensartet kvalitet i rekrutteringen på tværs af CBS. Processen skal samtidigt gøre det muligt at sikre langtidsplanlægning. Parallelt hermed arbejder en anden arbejdsgruppe med processen omkring rekruttering til stillinger som professor MSO. Arbejdsgruppen arbejder med to forbundne problemstillinger: Kvalitet i rekrutteringen o Rekruttering, herunder tenure o Forfremmelse Allokerings- og prioriteringsprocessen på tværs af CBS o Strategisk allokering o Forsknings- og uddannelsesbehov, hver for sig og i sammenhæng I begge problemstillinger er tidsaspektet en hel central problemstilling Arbejdsgruppen planlagde bl.a. at stille forslag om at forlænge ansættelsesperioden for adjunkter fra 3 til 4 år. Rådet diskuterede arbejdsgruppens opgave og havde bl.a. følgende input til gruppens videre arbejde: At sikre kvaliteten i forbindelse med forfremmelse gennem intern konkurrence på baggrund af et sæt af forud definerede kriterier At anvende eksterne bedømmere At overveje at anvende kaldelse i mindre omfang i forbindelse med intern forfremmelse Johan Roos udtrykte sin tilfredshed med, at dette arbejde var igangsat, da kvaliteten i nyrekruttering og forfremmelse er helt afgørende for udviklingen af CBS. Han pegede på at rekrutteringsprocessen bl.a. skulle: Sikre objektivitet og legitimitet i beslutningerne om rekruttering Fremme mobilitet Sikre adjunkter tilstrækkelig tid til at prove themselves, kombineret med ambitiøse kriterier for forfremmelse
6 5 Ad 6. Anvendelsen af taxameterforhøjelsen Dekan Jan Molin orienterede om planerne for anvendelsen af det forhøjede uddannelsestaxameter. Som bilag var vedlagt et notat om taxameterforhøjelsen. Partierne bag det såkaldte globaliseringsforlig besluttede i efteråret 2009 at forøge taxametertilskuddet til humaniora og samfundsvidenskab med kr , i form af en gradvis stigning fra det nuværende niveau frem til Direktionen har besluttet, at en væsentlig del af merindtægten skal gå direkte til uddannelserne via studienævnene til at give de studerende bedre mulighed for læring, refleksion og interaktion med praksis, fx. i form af midler til nye undervisningsformer, flere valgfag, inddragelse i forskningsprojekter m.v. Den øvrige del af merindtægten skal gå til en udviklingspulje, der skal finansiere større tværgående initiativer, der tjener CBS uddannelser generelt og ikke blot styrker det enkelte studiums særlige forhold og interesser, herunder til at øge fastlærerdækningen og den forskningsbaserede undervisning. Rådet diskuterede Jan Molins redegørelse. På spørgsmål fra Klaus Kortegaard Graven kunne dekan Jan Molin forsikre om, at der på ingen måde var planer om at foretage besparelser på uddannelserne. Jan Molin kunne yderligere oplyse, at puljer og initiativer var tilrettelagt således, at de både kunne tilfredsstille behovet for en hurtig anvendelse af en del af midlerne og en langsigtet, velovervejet anvendelse af den væsentligste del af midlerne. Udfordringen er at hæve kvaliteten af uddannelserne i takt med muligheden for at øge kapaciteten af forskningsbaseret undervisning såvel som af lokaler m.v. Et medlem af rådet opfordrede til at styrke den interne kommunikation omkring planerne om kvalitetsforbedringer på uddannelserne. Rektor udtrykte stor tilfredshed med balancen i uddannelsesdekanens forslag. Ad 7. Revideret mødeplan for Akademisk Råd Rådet tog mødeplanen til efterretning. Ad 8. Meddelelser og eventuelt 1. Sekretariatsleder Torben Aaberg orienterede kort om status på arbejdet i arbejdsgruppen vedrørende rådets fremtidige arbejdsform. Til det næste ordinære møde i Akademisk Råd torsdag den 27. maj 2010 vil arbejdsgruppen fremlægge et forslag til temaer for temamøderne i efteråret 2010 samt et forslag til foreløbig dagsorden for de øvrige møder i Arnt Lykke Jakobsen foreslog at rådet på et kommende møde diskuterede kriterier for oprettelse og nedlæggelse af uddannelser. 3. Rektor meddelte at direktionen og dens support team flytter til Kilen i slutningen af marts 2010, og dermed bliver mere centralt placeret på CBS campus.
7 Meeting in Academic Council, Monday May 3rd, 2010, followed by a workshop on strategy Minutes - draft Members present: Niels Åkerstrøm Andersen (from lunch) Robin Oliver Bentley, Klaus Kortegaard Graven, Martin Jess Iversen, Arnt Lykke Jakobsen, David Lando (until lunch), Johan Roos, Dalia Ali Siwan, Finn Valentin (alternate member for Thomas Riis, who is abroad), Signe Vikkelsø 18. maj 2010 ULJ Members not present with apologies: Susanne Beckmann, Peter Bogetoft, Keld Laursen Observers: Mai Britt Aaronstein (not present), Henrik Hermansen Tilforordnede : Alan Irwin, Peter Lotz, Jan Molin (not present), Annie Stahel(not present) Furthermore attended: Torben Aaberg (after lunch), Leif Hansen Referent: Ulla Lykke Jørgensen In the workshop on strategy also attended: Flemming Poulfelt, David Lando, Peter Møllgaard, Hanne Leth Andersen, Peter Lotz, Maja Horst, Dorte Salskov-Iversen, Signe Vikkelsø, Dalia Ali Siwan, Charlotte Aller and project manager Birthe Thomsen Discussion of proposal concerning the future working of Academic Council A working group, consisting of Johan Roos, Martin Jes Iversen, Robin Oliver Bentley and Ulla Lykke Jørgensen had drafted a proposal concerning the future working of Academic Council. Martin Jes Iversen presented the proposal. The purpose of the council is to advise Rector on the internal allocation of funds and on key strategic issues in research, teaching and knowledge dissemination. The purpose of the proposal was to change the format of the meetings to further discussion on strategic issues and mobilize as many as possible of the council members in the advising of rector. The working group proposed the following changes in the format: An agenda with focus on strategic issues A working format, that furthers discussion A reduction in the number of meetings (4 regular meetings and 2 workshops a year) A reduction in the number of people attending the meetings. Guest will be invited to participate and inspire discussion, where relevant English as meeting language. Furthermore the working group proposed:
8 2 That the workshops were planned by the deans in cooperation with a working group consisting of 3-5 members, appointed by the council That meeting documents for sustainability reasons - is sent by mail only with the possibility of exceptions Finally it was proposed that the new meeting format was evaluated after a year. The proposal was welcomed by the council, who found the suggested changes of the format helpful in furthering strategic discussion and involvement. In response to a question concerning the decrease in the number of attendants, rector stressed, that the purpose of reducing the number of attendants was to further discussion and the working process in the council. Furthermore guest would be invited to participate and inspire discussion in the council, where relevant. However, rector will take a look at the bylaws (Vedtægter) and consider a change that will balance the participants in the council in a different way. Klaus Kortegaard Graven proposed to look at the possibility of changing the length of the term for student members of the council from 1 year to 2 years in order to improve the competence and influence of the student members. Arnt Lykke Jakobsen suggested that the Academic Council, including the minutes, became more visible on the web. Martin Jes Iversen stressed the responsibility of the council members to secure feed-back from the meetings to departments. Alan Irwin suggested that the agenda and the format of the workshop was the responsibility of the working groups. The deans would host the workshops. He also suggested that the number of members of the working groups be reduced to 2-3 members. David Lando asked that the meeting schedule of the council be planned well in advance. Johan Roos thanked for the comments and proposals. He will discuss the proposal and the comments with the leadership team, before he makes a final decision concerning the changes in meeting format. Input from Academic Council to the working groups concerning CBS s strategy Johan Roos had invited the theme leaders or their appointed representatives to present the status and discussions of the working groups concerning CBS strategy in order to get input from Academic Council to the subsequent work in the groups. Flemming Poulfelt presented the discussions of the working group on: Providing Value for Money to Key Stakeholders.
9 3 David Lando presented the discussions of the working group on: Securing long-term Financial Flexibility Peter Møllgaard presented the discussions of the working group on: Improving Society through Research Hanne Leth Andersen presented the discussions of the working group on: Educating to transform People Peter Lotz presented the discussions of the working group on: Creating Synergies between Education and Research Maja Horst presented the discussions of the working group on: Addressing grand Societal and Business Challenges that influence the Region Dorte Salskov-Iversen presented the discussions of the working group on: Extending Global Engagement Signe Vikkelsø and Dalia Ali Siwan presented the discussions of the working group on: Cultivating Opportunities for People, Business and Society Charlotte Aller presented the discussions of the working group on: Creating Excellent Business Infrastructure The presentations were followed by a lively discussion. Both theme leaders and the leadership team got valuable input to the subsequent work on CBS strategy. There are no minutes from the workshop.
10 Bold in Ideas Strong on Practices Self evaluation of the Department of Operations Management/Department for Production and Managerial Economics November 2009 Department of Operations Management is a broad business studies department that researches and teaches decision making principles and practices around key business issues such as supply chain management, operations management, innovation management and performance management (management accounting). It often understands management in relation to managerial tools and instruments that help to frame and make business issues visible and thus make them amenable to intervention, development and control. Typically the department integrates aspects of the various disciplines in research and teaching activities. The department has a commitment to detailed empirical analysis and its research is carried out both as normal research projects and as research collaboration with firms and institutions. The department develops accounts of empirical situations based on managerial economics, sociology, organisational theory and strategy. Introduction Imagine conversations about the character of the department. How would we characterise what we do and would like to do; and how would others presumably characterise us? Such imaginary is not quite true but neither is it quite wrong. It is neither quite descriptive nor quite aspirational, but it may be inspirational for some of the implications research- and teaching-wise that this self evaluation may trigger. Observe the table below. It is organised around a simple model of talking and listening, where some talk and others listen. The actors talking and listening are generalised others actors that may not exist as such but who may speak louder because of the imaginary. It may be a court-jester who can speak the virtual truth without the constraints of detail and fairness. LISTEN Ourselves Others TALK Ourselves We are bold in developing new ideas on the margin of what is generally accepted. We add by juxtaposing new theoretical ideas and by combining insights from different disciplines in relation to decision making and by adding empirical materials. We attempt to learn and bridge boundaries by both seeking a position in established disciplines and extending each discipline by insights from other disciplines. Others You experiment and create diversity but are you certain that this is wise in a world that seems to frown at inter-disciplinarity? They are broad theoretically and empirically. The golden threat is complex decision making but as many research projects are organised in disciplines, the common theme is mobilised with variation across the department. 1
11 The table presents an image, a sort of self-understanding, which is in process. It is not quite clear as yet whether we are, or can be, or even strive unambiguously towards the propositions. Yet the image is not without seriousness. It presents the department as one seeking to extend and juxtapose knowledge from different disciplines and as goal this transfer generates more to the disciplines from which ideas originated. It also represents the dangers: Can things be kept together? Do they help each other? The stories illustrate the department s strategic concerns. As things stand currently, the thesis is that this variety is an advantage. It is important for the department with its particular history and capabilities to seek diversity in research, in teaching and in dissemination. This thesis is behind this self evaluation report, and this is the claim that this report seeks to make discussable. The department s academic profile The English title of the department - Department of Operations Management differs a bit from its Danish title Department for Production and Managerial Economics. 1 Operations Management directs attention to managerial practices concerned with firms production and technology including sourcing, while Managerial Economics directs attention to a decision oriented type of economics. While Operations Management supplies a series of topics of interest in the management of firms, Managerial Economics provides a perspective from which managerial topics can be evaluated. Operations Management and Managerial Economics together provide a framing of the interests of the firm. However, the department adds to research and teaching in Operations Management and in Managerial Economics. Primarily it adds a concern to understand decision making by including in addition to the rules of classical, economic decision theory also rules that are formulated strategically, psychologically, organisationally, and sociologically. In effect the concern of the department is in appreciating economic effects of organizational decision making also in situations where classical economics only provides some, sometimes only little, part of the solution to the issue at stake. This is why, typically, the department s research and teaching in addition to mobilising economic theory also forcefully mobilises sociological, strategic and organisational theory to understand empirical phenomena. The department s research and teaching activities aim to develop ideas about organisational decision making; the decision dilemma here typically concerns how much to invest in e.g. developing supply chains, investing in innovation and knowledge, making factory organisation and production methods efficient, developing managerial information, establishing organisational responsibilities and incentive systems, overseeing the performance of large projects, and implementing accounting and information systems. The department is different from typical departments in Operations Management and in Managerial Economics. Typically such departments have a strong foothold theoretically or empirically which provide them with identity. The identity of this department is different because even if its concerns 1 Institut for Produktion og Erhvervsøkonomi. 2
12 parallel those of Operations Management and Managerial Economics, it has important additions to them, and it has important affiliations and connections with other disciplines in business research. Therefore, even if there is research and teaching which parallels typical Operations Management and Managerial Economics, there is also research and teaching of a quite different kind because it has engagement with other disciplines. The department has developed these additions along a series of disciplinary insights which generally seek to add empirical detail and complexity, theoretical innovation, and broad dissemination ambitions around key business issues: Supply chain management develops an account of the firm s external relations; innovation management concerns the firm s future; operations management engages the firm s lateral flows; and performance management analyses calculations for planning, delegation and coordination. More specifically: Supply chain management. SCM is concerned with the flows of goods, services, knowledge and information between firms in an increasingly globalised world. It discusses harmonisation of flow of goods between firms, management of demand driven information and with coordinating business processes within and between firms. This results in chains of different length and character related to the flow of goods and information between a point of origin and a point of consumption. The main research question in supply chain management generally concerns how supply chains, relations between the actors, and competencies to outsource or insource activities are designed when there are coordination costs to be observed? Performance management. PM or management accounting analyses the character, role and effects of performance measures. As a discipline performance management /management accounting is concerned with design, use, and effects of financial and non-financial measures in making the implementation of a firm s strategy possible or its processes manageable. As all visibility (transparency) is partial, the main research question is generally how different types of visibility about performance developed e.g. via financial and non-financial calculations and presented in accounting reports frame decision making, make people accountable, and influence their behaviour? Innovation management. IM analyses firms product and process development. It is concerned with the mechanisms though which managers convince themselves of the relevance of an innovation before it has materialised. This is an investment concern; often a portfolio decision; and most surely a matter of complementarity between an innovative technology and its manufacturability and marketability technology, organisation and markets are interconnected. The main research question is here generally, how do managers use management tools to devise the contours of innovations that are both uncertain and ambiguous? Operations management. OM analyses relation between production, organization, and strategy in manufacturing and service industries. It is concerned with the management of operations in business development, operations strategy, system design, planning, monitoring, and control and related to the decisions about relationships between a firm s strategy and the efficiency of its operations. This involves the application and development of management tools that frame and develop quality, service, productivity and costliness. Since many production activities frame certain issues and 3
13 constrain others, the main research question here is how different and logically opposite requirements of a production systems can be accommodated, such as speed versus productivity; flexibility versus cost; exploitation versus exploration? Managerial economics. ME analyses cost-revenue relationships, investments and forecasting. It is concerned with pricing, structuring cost structures and investing as decision points for managers. A central part of this is the modelling of the decision situation so that the formulation of boundaries behind the managerial issue in question becomes central. Thus the main research question in the area on managerial economics is typically related to how managers convince themselves about the framing of a decision how the marginal effects of a potential decision unfold? Centre for Business Development and Management Technology. This is a business oriented branch of the department a centre which based on funding from private and public companies develops contract research within the department s broad area. This research is organised as dialogue between partners and the centre s researchers. Areas of concern have been management changes in the public sector; the role and consequences of multidimensional performance measurement systems; designing supply chain management; evaluating the effectiveness of service systems; formulating strategies in the experience economy; developing possible avenues for process management. The main themes of interest concern the development of new organisational practices based on dialogue focused research and intervention. The centre has three types of collaborative relationships: 1. Owners : Participants are active in the research and supply key resources such as empirical material and time. Participants are co-researchers. 2. Followers : partners can follow the process developed around Owners without having to supply empirical material themselves and without having to be co-researchers. Such participants can provide feedback. 3. Sponsors: this is a co-operative form where participants provide resources that can be used to study an empirical phenomenon within an area or theme but whose empirical material can be developed from many places. These areas of inquiry are all elements of Operations Management and Managerial Economics. However, they are also found in standalone disciplines such as accounting research, logistics, innovation, and production economics. The department tends to contribute not only, nor even primarily, to Operations Management and Managerial Economics but in large measure to Accounting, Logistics, and Operations and Innovation research. In effect, the department places its activities in relation to these different research communities with each its set of conferences, its set of journals, and its set of preferred research problems and theorisations. This diversity makes the department s research cross disciplines, conferences, and journals. This may create confusion. However, there is also a common emphasis: It focuses on organisational decision making practices, and the research typically involves (at least) one management technology an instrument, a tool which mediates, communicates and makes decision situations 4
14 visible: e.g. accounting calculations, portfolio management systems, representations of the roles of a supplier in a supply chain, a map of modules in modular production, and quality and time indicators in production settings. The interest in the instrument a fairly mundane management tool is central in much of the department s research and teaching. The instrument relates managers to their contexts and since the instrument often provides central tenants of what managers actually know about their situation, the role of the instrument in theorising supply chains, innovation, operations, accounting and decision making is central in much of the departments research and teaching. Strategy in research, teaching and dissemination the appreciation of diversity A central guiding principle of the department throughout its 11 years of existence it has been a concern with complex organisational decision making. This has developed a high degree of diversity empirically and theoretically. This can develop unfortunate silos of thinking within the department, and to a certain degree some of this does happen currently; but is it too much? The profile outlined above proposes a common focus on organisational decision making and there is often an explicit consideration of the role of managerial technologies (instruments) in various situations. These situations vary because they each has a disciplinary field but they also add to each other since in the research of the department there are considerable links between the various disciplines and these links have been developed over the existence of the department. For example, the department has research, publications and teaching about the role of accounting in innovation, the performance in and of supply chains, portfolio decisions in innovation, and performance in and of product- and process development. Such examples of cross-overs between disciplines would have been difficult without the department. The department could have been organised more clearly from its disciplines with appointed discipline-mangers and delegated responsibilities for resources and outputs. This could possibly have created more direction in research and teaching. However, this has not been the strategy. The cross-overs mentioned above are examples of outputs that arguably have benefitted from a looser structure. Lacking clear structural boundaries allows researchers from different disciplines to interact more freely and even if there is a limit to the degree of actual interaction, the propensity has increased and research publications have emerged authored by researchers from different disciplines. In addition, the mere fact of a dialogue that enables more issues and concerns to be generally debated than a one-discipline approach may have accomplished a more diverse attention to the ways in which even disciplinary concerns cans be approached. The current very flat organisational structure of the department is a possible asset in this process. However, a boundary condition is also that researchers do not always involve themselves in cross-overs; there is due to affiliations with conferences and journals still a good dose of disciplinary thinking or at least interpretation of other disciplines from disciplinary vantage points which help to maintain and develop deep knowledge useful in disciplines. And this is the ambition that something can be added to disciplines by inter-disciplinarily; not to detract from disciplines. 5
15 Another advantage can be found in teaching (which will be discusses further later). One example is an innovative Executive Masters program which integrates all the disciplines of the department, and adds a novel perspective on the role of performance measurement and control in innovation and inter-organisational relations. Research results The department research focus has been a concern with the development of disciplines on their margins. This does not mean that its research is strange and inaccessible; rather there is an explicit concern to add to the literature in discernible ways. Examples of contributions from the department s research include the following ones some of which are more radical than others: 2 1. Supply chain management often builds and extends the credible idea that enlarged supply chain relations allow more coordination and interaction with positive productivity and knowledge effects. This is the idea of the extended enterprise which expands and allows sourcing from places where they exhibit a preferable cost/benefit ratio. However, management problems also increase with size and therefore there is a pressure to reduce the length of the supply chain or to change mechanism of coordination. Sometimes, therefore, firms may decide to in-source again; firms may decide to use external certification mechanism e.g. in relation to quality of production such as ISO certification, and yet other times firms may wish to only consider the first tier rather than the many possible tiers in the supply chain but persuade the first tier to control the second tier on the focal firm s behalf. 2. It is well known that management accounting calculations help firms to implement strategies. However, by making things visible and thus by making certain arrangements problematical, they also contribute to the development of organisational problems and in turn they contribute to making and developing strategy. Management accounting calculations can sometimes be accorded a role in accounting for a much broader set of organisational issues than they count and calculate. 3. Modularity is typically seen as a coordination mechanism for complex innovation activities. It allows innovation to take place quickly through decomposition where dispersed teams can work separately yet fitting their work into a larger product or service system. Modularity encourages the standardization of processes, and yet the benefits of modularity are said to include wider variety of products or services, flexibility, simplification of complex systems, and cost savings. However, empirical observations suggest that modularity creates tensions in its underlying structure and when a system becomes too modular, it may compromise performance and craftsmanship; the firm s processes may be copied and replicated by competitors. There is thus a dilemma between modular and integral strategies which is an example of concerns with aggregation and fragmentation of processes in other areas such as service development, business process designs, supply chain management, and performance management. 2 Clearly, other universities and business schools also take part in the development of parallel ideas. The department takes part in a wider move to develop theorization. 6
16 4. The management of corporate innovation is often described as a set of sequential gate meetings where manages monitor the progress of the portfolio of innovation projects. They are described as highly profiled decision making settings. However, on inspection, these settings less concerned with the simple question whether an innovation project should be prolonged or not. It is more a complex search for the appropriateness and desirability of innovation projects which develops what should count as reasonable performance. 5. Economics often plays an important role in accounting for the character of accounting calculations. This economic account can be made more precise by empirical analysis and then it turns out that surprisingly while typically delegation is thought to narrow and focus managers actions, it is likely that delegation may extend the number of entities that will be taken into account under certain circumstances. 6. Nonfinancial performance measures are often seen to link intermediate results to financial results as a predictive function. Yet it is also possible that non-financial performance measures are more strongly involved in coordination of interdependent tasks and activities. 7. Product and process development are increasingly carried through in complementary locations and with substantial outsourcing to suppliers, experts and partners/ competitors. Development costs create barriers and encourage collaboration in networks. One possible strategy is to develop technology platforms that can serve several actors over long time periods with many product versions. Intra- as well as inter-technology strategy requires technology transfer to be key competency involving product and process technology development. 8. With the globalization of economy, market and companies production units rather than being stand alone factories serve specific roles in global networks. The effect is a move towards the network of actors, often in a so called group of focused factories, each making a unique still complementary contribution. The research of the department is orientated towards questions that attempt to debate the boundaries of the disciplines. The points mentioned above illustrate that the department, along with other international collaborators, seek to find new issues, new problematisation and new ideas to challenge status quo. This is done, hopefully, with respect and acknowledgment of the positions rendered debatable by the department s research. 7
17 Empirical topics of the department s research currently centre on the following themes: Supply Chain Management Performance Management Innovation Management Operations Management Managerial Economics Centre for Business Development and Management Technology 3 rd and 4 th party logistics, and logistics outsourcing Costing in SCM environments Procurement strategies and vendor-managed purchasing Integration in supply chains and networks Performance measures and the development of innovation Management accounting in inter-organisational relations Intellectual capital and knowledge management Balanced scorecards, EFQM and other comprehensive performance management systems ERP systems, accounting systems and the introduction of IT Costing in new manufacturing environments Accounting, delegation and coordination Stage-gate models in innovation management Portfolio strategies and innovation decisions Performance evaluation of innovation The role of performance indicators in developing innovation Modularity and platform strategies for innovation, service production, and supply chain management Managing with LEAN methods Comparative production systems Business process modelling Industrial networks development and management Production and cost theory Forecasting Operational Research ABC and organisation development SAP and ERP systems The New Public sector Managing modern supply chains Balanced scorecard and organisational renewal These examples of items of research illustrate the breath of the department s research agenda. The list is broad as it covers many of the themes that are currently under debate in research. This is fortunate because otherwise it would be difficult to generate dialogue about research findings and theorisation. 8
18 Publications Non-Nordic language Nordic language The graph illustrates the quantity of written output from the department via different media. Over a long period of time the relative importance of non-nordic and Nordic publications is about similar. Proceedings, working papers and other are not so important to the department. The graph shows that the department s publication profile is heterogeneous. It is not either oriented neither towards the international research outlets nor primarily towards local outlets. The advantage of such a profile is that research reaches many possible constituents; the danger is that it falls between two chairs. The graph also shows a noteworthy drop in publications in This is unfortunate; fortunately 2009 will show a higher number of publications. Yet, the department s publications have been hampered by developments in the last 2-3 years. Senior researchers have resigned and young lecturers have been employed who still need to develop their research and writing. In the coming years the department will still need to fill up places particularly with respect to operations management, performance management and innovation management. Observing the graph, it is also possible to suggest that the department has a level of publications of about 50 for international and local publications. With an average employment of about 22, the average number of publications per person seems to remain around 4½. This is not too bad. This has also been the strategy to insist on both international and local publications. The department has links with the world of research in a series of ways. Publications constitute one link but there are others: memberships of editorial boards, reviewers for journals, guest editorships, membership of boards of professional associations, organiser of conferences, workshops and PhD activities nationally and internationally (see more later). The strategy is not so much to direct the magnitude of such links or to put time allocation to them. The strategy is to say that presence in the research community can take many forms. Yet, to most of these activities access requires some standing in the research community, so therefore there is a sequence in them. Research is the starting point for them all. The department does not have one definite set list of journals to be published in. Everyone knows the school s list and clearly the department has to contribute to the development of a research 9
19 standing of the school. However, research comes first; if we make sure to do research publications will follow suit. Publications are not the objective but more a constraint or a condition. The objective is to do interesting research. This will often be publishable. Research funds are necessary to conduct research, obviously. The following diagram shows externally generated funds over the previous years Research funds) 12,0 10,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 EU funds, External State funds External private funds 0, The diagram shows that 2008 and has not been impressive but apart from this year external funding has been at a fairly stable rather high level. It shows that the department is able to generate funds from a variety of sources suggesting that many types of arrangements are supported. The research profile is heterogeneous with respect to funding. The drop in 2008 has been on its way for some time because of a change in the composition of the faculty as the average age is decreasing significantly. New people have to learn how to generate funds. Service to research communities The department has been and is involved in several research community activities which signify a commitment to research collaboration and acceptance of the scientific community of the standing of the department. Research Stays abroad Visiting Professor University of New South Wales ( ) Visiting Professor University of Sydney ( ) Visiting Professor European Business School ( ) Editorial board memberships: CEMS Business Review Critical Perspectives on Accounting Management Accounting Research Accounting, Management and Information Technologies/Organisation & Information 10
20 Corporate Reputation Review Økonomistyring & Informatik The European Accounting Review Accounting and Finance Journal of Intellectual Capital Accounting, Organizations and Society Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting Scandinavian Journal of Management Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Organizational Change Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal Productivity and Quality Management Capital Intelectual International Journal of Business Innovation and Research Journal of Management Accounting Research International Journal of Managerial and Financial Accounting Accounting Research In China Journal of E-Government/Journal of Information Technology & Politics Contemporary Accounting Research International Review of Business and Finance Journal of Money, Investment and Banking International Journal of Operations and Production Management Journal of Product Innovation Management International Journal of Innovation Management International Journal of Automotive Technology Management International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management Japanese Management and International Studies Brazilian Journal of Operation and Production Management International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) Journal of Creativity and Innovation Management Guest editorships: International Product Development Management, Journal of Creativity and Innovation Management (2007) New Challenges in Operations and Production Management, International Journal of Operations and Production Management (2003) Inter-Organizational aspects of operations management, Integrated Manufacturing Systems (2003) Management control and Information technology, The European Accounting Review (2003) Critical intellectual capital, Critical Perspectives on Accounting (2009) On the relations between modern IT, decision making and management control, International Journal of Accounting Information Systems (forthcoming) Outsourcing R&D for Efficient Innovation, R&D Management (forthcoming) Memberships of boards of research associations and institutions: Editorial Advisory Board of The European Accounting Review Board of Dansk Erhvervsforskningsakademi, DEA Board of Nordisk Företagsekonomisk Forening Board of the European Institute of Advanced Studies in Management Board of Certified Institute of Management Accounting Research Board (UK) The Publications Committee, European Accounting Association 11
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