5th International Symposium on Ecohydraulics 2004 Aquatic Habitats: Analysis & Restoration th September, Madrid, Spain

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1 Aquatic Habitat Monitoring and Mapping: Digital Hydroacoustics as a Paramount Tool for Assessing Fish, Plankton, Submersed Aquatic Vegetation, and Classification of Bottom Substrata Patrick Schneider, A. Monteoliva,, J. Burczynski

2 Commercially available system components: BioSonics DT-X X digital echosounder (portable) Laptop PC GPS (or DGPS) and System description BioSonics and SonarData software Signal from echosounder is stored on laptop PC during survey GPS position of each sample is integrated in the data

3 System description Radio Antenna Data Radio Receiver Boat GPS Receiver GPS Signal GPS Antenna Transmitted GPS Corrections Laptop PC GPS Data Echo Data Deck Unit DGPS Broadcast Source Transducer

4 System description

5 System description

6 System description

7 Fish and Plankton Acoustic surveys cover huge areas in short time Fast, cost effective availability of comprehensive data sets Assessment of spatial distribution (vertical, horizontal) Evaluation of density (total, per layer, per area) Biomass estimation (total, per layer, per area) Migration studies (Salmons, etc.), fish count Study of behavioural patterns (diurnal migration, effectiveness of occlusion devices, etc.) Passive and active fish tracking (tags, tracking transducer)

8 Fish and Plankton

9 Case study: Reservoirs 9 reservoirs studied in Spain from vertical beaming (echocounting) in all reservoirs additionally horizontal beaming since 2002 most reservoirs present typical layering in summer usually only upper 10m habitable for fish in summer horizontal beaming accounts for acoustically dead zone in first meters of beam

10 Case study: Reservoirs specific software (SonarData s( EchoView ) allows fast evaluation and exclude artefacts (gas bubbles, etc.) from analysis GPS positions integrated in data allow generation of maps (density, biomass, etc.) and use of data in GIS

11 Case study: Reservoirs Ind/1000m³ AQUASON

12 Aquatic plants Specific system consisting of digital BioSonics echosounder and BioSonics EcoSAV software measures height, aerial coverage and bottom depth Output report contains: Presence/Absence of SAV Canopy Height Aerial Coverage Bottom Depth Georeferenced Data (Lat( Lat/Long) for inclusion in GIS, etc.

13 Detectability of Species DETECTABILITY FRESHWATER MARINE/ESTUARINE EASY LESS EASY Myriophyllum spicatum Hydrilla verticillata Broadleaf pondweed Vallisneria spp. Elodea spp. Chara spp. Nitella spp. Potamogeton pectinatus Ceratophyllum Demersum Zostera spp. Posidonia oceanica Thalassia testudinum Syringodium filiforme Cymodocea nodosa Halodule wrightii Ruppia spp.

14 Case study: Santoña estuary Asón river estuary, Santoña (Northern Spain), included 1994 in the RAMSAR listing Objective: asses and map distribution and abundance of two seagrass species, Zostera marina (eelgrass) and Zostera noltii Transect spacing 20m, one sample each 0,31m (~1 ft) Total area of 387ha surveyed on a total of 11 days (Aug.-Sept. 2000), corresponding to about samples

15 Santoña estuary: Transects performed (20m spacing)

16 Case study: Santoña estuary

17 Case study: Santoña estuary

18 Case study: Strait of Gibraltar Tarifa (Strait of Gibraltar, Spain) in July 2001 Objective: Assess the general distribution of Cymodocea nodosa and avoid confusion with Laminaria sp. SAV expected in a small strip parallel to the shore line Bottom depths up to 15-20m Detections of Cymodocea nodosa confirmed by divers

19 Bottom typing Specific application: BioSonics VBT (Visual Bottom Typing) software Five bottom / sediment classification routines Batch processing enabled Bottom Classification Library: Classification based on actual acoustic references from ground truthed environments

20 Case study: Strait of Gibraltar Transects performed extended to bottom depth of m Total area of 1980 ha surveyed on one day 33 grab samples taken for establishing bottom library

21 Case study: Santoña and Colindres Bottom typing study of access channels of two fishing ports (towns of Santoña and Colindres) Results used to support decision of need for dredging Transect spacing between 20-30m 12 grab samples in each access channel for establishing bottom library

22 Case study: Santoña and Colindres

23 Bathymetries Bathymetric data included in acoustic survey data by default, independent from type of application External sensors for improved accuracy (heave, etc.) General bathymetric information useful for interpretation of biologic information Technical resolution: one sample each 1,8cm (range)

24 Case study: Reservoirs

25 Case study: Strait of Gibraltar AQUASON

26 Combined methods Latest echosounder technology allows acquisition of data for all mentioned applications with one single survey Parameter-plexing (virtual multiple transducers): operation of one transducer swapping between different settings Provides even more flexibility and cost-effective sampling All important data for ecosystem management are obtained fast and in an objective way using one single system AQUASON

27 Case study: Strait of Gibraltar Laminaria sp. Hard substrate Cymodocea nodosa Gravel Very coarse sand Coarse sand Medium sand Fine sand

28 Summary System: BioSonics DT-X X full digital echosounder, BioSonics Acquisition, VBT and EcoSAV and SonarData EchoView software Rugged, weather resistant portable unit wired or wireless, remote controlled operation Easy, fast and cost-effective assessment of large surfaces All presented hydroacoustic applications can be performed with the same sounder system and add to its benefits: fish and plankton submersed aquatic vegetation bottom (sediment) types bathymetries The End AQUASON

29 Acknowledgements The research of the reservoirs was made under contract of the Confederación Hidrográfica del Duero and the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana. The Santoña project was financed by Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Reserva Natural de las Marismas de Santoña y Noja. The Tarifa project was financed by Red Eléctrica de España. We wish to thank all implied persons for their support.

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