Looking Beyond Technology: Barriers of E-Commerce Privacy in Building E-Loyalty Intention on Internet Banking

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1 , pp Looking Beyond Technology: Barriers of E-Commerce Privacy in Building E-Loyalty Intention on Internet Banking Ahmad Al-Khasawneh Computer Information Systems Department, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract Privacy is considered now a key differentiator in electronic commerce, and it is vital for building and maintaining customer s loyalty. Since online transactions involve many uncertainties for the customer and most of the Internet banking offers the same product as the other competitor, it is crucial for banks to recognize the key factor that can tie their existing customer become a loyal customer and change the web surfers into purchaser as well which are critical to increase the business and its profits. This paper attempts to evaluate whether privacy issues are the major obstacles to the growth of e-commerce in Jordan. A survey conducted for the study reveals that privacy issues are major barriers to Internet banking and e-commerce activities among consumers. Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs); privacy; e-commerce; Enterprise Development 1. Introduction A review of the top MIS journals over the past decade shows little research that has explicitly examined the problem of technology in developing countries, which is problematic since half of the world lives in such nations [20]. Emerging opportunities abound as some Arab nations begin to explore technology and telecommunications connectivity as an economic lever for national prosperity (cf., [2]; [6]; [13]; [18]. Little research has been done to examine the ICT diffusion process in emerging economies, particularly those of the Middle East [1]. Several studies have examined the global diffusion of the Internet from a broad perspective, including [15] econometric global Internet diffusion model and [9] recent digest of the Global Diffusion of the Internet study series. Yet, prominent bodies of work focusing on global Internet and ecommerce diffusion, such as [12] CAIS special issue on globalization and ecommerce, appear to have largely overlooked the Middle Eastern nations. The lack of research on technology usage issues in this keenly disadvantaged region is problematic [16]. With the notable exception of Israel ([6], Goodman & Wolcott, 1999b), the nations of the Middle East have traditionally been some of the least technologically-enabled economies in the world [21], hence opportunities for research and practice abound as the developing nations in the Middle East begin to explore technology and telecommunications connectivity as an economic lever for national prosperity (cf., [1]; [2]; [6], Goodman & Wocott, 1999a; [13]; [18]. Though the literature has ready examples of business studies of technological acceptance and application in the Middle East, there has been little work done on the likely use and motivations for use by the consumer Internet ISSN: IJSEIA Copyright c 2014 SERSC

2 publics in these regions probably because business use must precede commercial consumer use of such networks in e-commerce considerations. This research attempts to evaluate whether privacy issues are the major obstacles to the growth of e-commerce in Jordan. Jordan, however, is a recent and shining example of a resource-poor developing nation that has seized upon IT as a competitive differentiator to enhance its interaction with the global business markets ([6]; [11]; [22]). The paper is structured as follows. First, it reviews the literature on the privacy and security issues, mainly focusing on concepts of privacy. Second, it explains the research design, data collection protocol, and data analysis methods. Third, the findings are presented, illustrating the incongruent interpretation of barriers of privacy. Finally, in the discussion section, the concept of technology fears is developed and related to the case evidence. 2. Literature Review Privacy is considered from the most important facilitator in conducting business especially online business. People and organizations are opposed to revealing personal or business information to others, because they are cautious from mishandling information or accessing it illegally. But the methods and approaches of collecting information about people and business have been developed because of customers desire to personally deal with them and the high competition among online business as well [8]. Privacy refers to the characteristics and attitudes of people or any other objects like business that are looking to keep their confidential information away from anybody else. Other researchers defines privacy as the interest that individuals have in sustaining a personal space, free from interference by other people and organizations [5]. Scholars have explained four concerns associated with the privacy ([3]; & [5]): 1. Privacy: the kind of information that is collected and held about people, and if it is related to business or not. 2. Accuracy: the correctness of information about people, is it correct or not? Incorrect information will harm people. 3. Property: the owner of information and how it can be transferred. 4. Accessibility: the people who are authorized to access people s personal data and at what time and in which situation that information has to be accessed. Other shows another viewpoint related to the privacy concerns; he makes these concerns to customers and companies as well; Transparency: who is collecting what information? Security: how is information protected once it is collected by a company? Liability: who is responsible if data are abused? [7]. Majority of people see that privacy is a part of security, but [7] claim that they are not the same but he acknowledges that to obtain privacy we need to have security, but security does not guarantee our privacy. If a company has a powerful security system, then the company joins another company to expand its business so that the two companies will share their database leading to the exposure of our confidential information to another company. Customer concerns about his or her privacy from four different perspectives: the kind of information that is collected from customer, the way that it is gathered and for what goal and purpose, the security level of gathered information, and for how long the company gathers, uses, shares, stores and sells it to other organizations. Therefore the company has to let customers know the type of 66 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

3 information that it gathers from them, and take their permission to collect information, explain how the company uses the information as well as explain to the customers the methods that the company uses in collecting information in order to preserve excellent privacy practices for their customers [7]. Some companies breach customer s privacy without using any powerful technology or hackers to breach the network or computer security while they do indirectly through loyal cards. Nowadays there are many non-reputable companies giving loyalty cards for which the customers have to fill a specific application providing their personal information [7] Principles of Privacy According to Allusse et al (2003, quoted in [8]) the Federal Commission of Commerce has launched and founded four essential principles relating to the online people privacy: Warning: each web site has to publish its privacy policy to show the types of information that web site is going to collect and how it will be used. Choice: the consumers have the ability and right to make a decision if they want their information to be used, not just for transactions but for other purposes. Access: the customers have the right to access their information and ensure that their information that is collected by the web site is accurate. Security: each web site has to own powerful security tools to guarantee the integrity and security of the collected information. These principles could be implemented through the web site in two ways: privacy policy (policy statement) and privacy seal. Since, some web sites provide a document to the customers or users which explain how they deal and interact with the personal information that they have collected from people, such as, the methods that are used to collect, use, and secure the information, as well as the purpose of collecting it [10] Security and Privacy It is essential to differentiate between privacy and security; privacy is related to the way that companies use customers information (personal and financial), whereas security is related to the methods that companies use in protecting and securing the information during transmission as well as when it is stored in the database in order to mitigate the risk of abuse of information, fraud and other unauthorized actions towards customers information. Therefore privacy is not the same as security which is crucial in protecting customers privacy from unauthorized people, who are trying to take advantage of it through many ways, like implementing security tools at many places, using encryption and digital signature in transferring information and firewalls and giving restricted access tools in database where the information is stored. 3. Method and Procedure The aim of this research is to test weather privacy policy and privacy seal compromise the elements of warning, choice, access and security that are theoretically derived from principle of privacy [8] as well as to evaluate whether privacy issues are the major obstacles to the growth of e-commerce in Jordan. In this study, single case was chosen due to the fact that this research attempted to collect detailed information and knowledge about customer privacy in Copyright c 2014 SERSC 67

4 online banking. Samples of 500 internet users were randomly selected from various education institutions in Jordan. A survey questionnaire was used to measure privacy issues perception and attitude toward e-commerce and Internet banking. A survey methodology was used to collect data of the study. In addition, demographic data such as age, gender, computer experience and frequency of internet access were also captured. The final version of the questionnaire was developed after issues such as ambiguity and time length to complete the questionnaire were addressed. We designed questionnaire based on the research objectives discussed. From 500 questionnaires distributed only 270 were collected and usable for analysis. Existing literature were utilized and existing instruments were adapted to measure the variables of this study to support the specification of a set of potentially strong metrics. Respondents were asked to rate their opinion using 5-point Likert scale (1 = very important, 2 = important, 3 = neutral, 4= unimportant, 5= very unimportant) on most of the questions. Nevertheless, questions measuring privacy intention to internet banking used a 5-point Likert scale, rating the performance by (1 = excellent, 2 = very good, 3 = good, 4 = fair, 5 = poor), multiple selection and close nominal measurement (1 = Yes, 2 = No). The reliability of an instrument is most often measured by the Cronbach-alpha statistic. The Cronbach alpha value for trust constructs is while usability constructs is Results and Discussion Frequency distributions were performed and found that 58% were female and 42% were male and respondent age were in range of years (78%) followed by years (18 %) of the overall total and 68% of them use the Internet daily and 70% uses the Internet banking Concern Over Privacy Issues Although most of the respondent believes that using the Internet banking and shopping will make their life easier and is more convenient. Half of them (50%) think that it is safe and secure. The study illustrate that the customers are anxious and worried about how the online banks collect customers (personal and financial information). To overcome their worries online banks have to explain and show which ways and methods they use in collecting customers information, financial and personal, through the privacy policy which appears in the web site and every customers can see it, such as through using cookies, forms, internet connections and other methods. The study show that customers are concerned (61%) how the online bank interacts with their information (personal of financial). Therefore online banks have to explain and show how the online bank interacts with this kind of information to their customers through privacy policy, in order to increase their confidence towards their concerns, and to increase their trust in them. The study shows that the layout of the web site encourages customers to access and interact with the web site (63%). So a very organized, nice, and enjoyable, designed with the user interface systems, is very important in supporting and encouraging customers to deal with the web site, because these things might help customers in reducing the cost of searching and seeking for product or service which lead as a result to reduce the effort of selecting and performing any kind of transaction. The result of this study has the same opinion with Griffith (2001 quoted in [17]) and it claims, Since user interface of an online store influences the experience of consumers interacting with a retailer s product or service offering, a welldesigned user interface system may reduce consumers cost of searching and the time required for information processing. In addition this result agrees with [19] that a powerful web site design which helps and encourages customers to interact with it helps in obtaining customer satisfaction in order to build and maintain the trust among customers and company. 68 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

5 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Easy to read privacy policy 1 Easy to read privacy policy Figure 1. Easy to Read Privacy Policy The study show that 79% from the whole respondents agree that the privacy policy has to be available in the web site in order to increase the trust between customers and web site, because through the privacy policy customers can have a look on the company policy towards customers privacy. In addition privacy policy considers one of the ways that [3] declare to customers in order to assist them in saving and securing their privacy. Thus if customers do not find privacy policy in the web site they will be cautious about the web site and as a result will make them away from it. Furthermore [14] agree with this result and they claim that the privacy policy helps especially in building customers trust towards their privacy and generally with the web site. Figure 1 illustrate that 89% of entire respondents agree that the privacy policy has to be written easily, in order to enable every customer to read and understand it correctly, where as 11% disagree and do not mind. This result agrees with [7] who admit that privacy policy has to be written without difficulty and simply in order to make it perfect. Therefore easy writing affects positively the privacy policy. Factors encourage people to use online banking Preserve Reputation Convenient Secure Save time Series1 0% 20% 40% Figure 2. Factors Encourage People to Use Online Bank In Figure 2 where it shows the factors that encourage and help customers to use online banking. It shows that 31% of respondents who are not using online banking might use it if the online banking helps them in saving their times. This indicates that the online bank Copyright c 2014 SERSC 69

6 transactions have to be processed and finished quickly without any delays and any physical behavior from customers. Furthermore convenience is another factor that supports customers to interact with online banking, with 24% claiming that it is very important for them in order to deal with online banking, convenience comes from easy accessing, selecting, and performing any kind of transaction effectively and efficiently. Furthermore 26% claim that security of transactions is very important in encouraging them to do any online transaction, because they would need to be assured that their transactions are correctly performed. Factors that prevent you from doing online banking Series1 60% Figure 3. Factors that Prevent People from Doing Online Banking The following figure (Figure 3) shows the factors that prevent people from doing online banking transactions; the first important one is security 60%. This result agrees with business week (2000 quoted in [4]) which claim that 62.2% of people are willing to do online transactions if they are convinced that the transactions are secure perfectly. Privacy concern is the second factor that prevents people from doing online transaction, 27%, because nowadays the result of privacy breach leads to identity theft crime where lots of people are cautious and worried about their personal and financial information to be exposed to unauthorized people. Finally 18% declare that the procedures of how to do online transaction could be another factor preventing customers from undertaking online transactions. Linear Regression analysis was used to test relationship between independent (intention to use Internet banking) and dependent variable (online people privacy). In this analysis, the dependent variables were the four design factors (Website warning and choice; Access and security) and the independent variable is (intention to use internet banking). From this analysis, the R² value can be obtained. Table 1 reports the linear regression analysis results for the relationship of Website warning and choice Access and security constructs toward customer online banking. Table 1. Variables Testing Model R² F Value t Significant Privacy Policy (Website warning and Significant choice) and intention to internet banking Privacy Seal (Access and security) and intention to internet banking Significant 27% 1% Security Privacy Procedure 70 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

7 The result shows that privacy policy website design dimension was more significant with customer online banking loyalty rather than privacy seal dimension. From this results we can conclude that privacy policy factor has relatively more important than privacy seal factor in building customer online loyalty in Internet banking environment. The higher respondents perceived privacy policy website design on Internet banking websites, the higher their intentions to purchase and revisits from those websites. Bivariate Correlation analysis was used to test whether privacy policy website design significantly have relationship with customer privacy seal on website. From the analysis, privacy policy website design was highly significance with privacy seal on the website with p value = The findings show that consumers the higher they perceived privacy policy website design on the Internet banking, the higher their privacy seal towards the website, which will eventually affect their attitudes toward their like hood to held commitment for certain services provides online and positive online loyalty behaviour. In addition, their attitudes toward websites affect their future intentions to use the same Internet banking websites rather than other Internet banks. Privacy policy factor was found to be the important factor than privacy seal. In other words, consumers may stay with a company s products through the Website warning and choice that they get from websites. In new paradigm of building relationship with customer, privacy seal was no longer the main factor for customer s usage of internet banking. 5. Conclusion The study concludes that researchers need to consider the fear factor in order to achieve effective internet banking loyalty. As the internet enables and creates new marketplace for all kinds of business, the companies which are interested in conducting business online should be aware of the security and privacy because they have a very positive impact on the success of any kind of business on the internet. The companies should take into consideration many factors when conducting business on the internet in order to be successful, for example, they should consider that, if the company has a powerful security system it does not mean that it preserves the privacy of the company and customers, and also trust does not mean loyalty and vice versa. The company which has a good reputation and a brand name certainly has a powerful privacy system. In addition, the marketing and advertising of the security and privacy tools and functions that the company has implemented in its web site are important in increasing their confidence towards the security. In future studies, researchers may find other dimensions of technology fears in other contexts, using different information systems theories. References [1] J.M.H. Ali, Information technology in the Middle East. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, vol. 7, no. 1, (2004), pp [2] S. Al-Jaghouob, and C. Westrup, Jordan and ICT-led, development: Towards a competition state? Information, Technology & People, vol. 16, no. 1, (2003), pp [3] M. Attaran and L. Vanlaar, Privacy and Security on the Internet: How to Secure Your Personal Information and Company Data, Information Management and Computer Security, vol.7, no. 5, (1999), pp [4] R. Chellappa and P. Pavlou, Perceived Information Security, Financial Liability and Customer Trust in Electronic Commerce Transactions, Logistics information management, vol. 15, no. 4/6, (2002), pp [5] R. Clarke, Introduction to Dataveillance and Information Privacy, and Definitions of Terms [Internet], Available from: < [6] P. Ein-Dor, Goodman, S. and Wolcott, P. The Global Diffusion of the Internet Project: The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The MOSAIC Group, (2005). [7] A. Ghosh, (2001) Security and Privacy for E-business, New York, Wiley Computer Publishing. Copyright c 2014 SERSC 71

8 [8] C. Gurau, A. Ranchhod and C. Gauzente, To Legislate or Not to Legistae : a Comparative Exploratory Study of Privacy/Personalisation Factors Affecting French, UK and US Web Sites. Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 20, no. 7, (2003), pp [9] J. K. Ho, Global Diffusion of the Internet VIII: Maximum Resolution Dichotomy for Global Diffusion of the Internet, Communications of the AIS, vol. 15, (2005), pp [10] Host Queue. Ecommerce Glossary [Internet]. Available from: (2005). [11] Info-Prod Research, Jordan Telecom launches Home initiative, (2005) March 23. [12] K. L. Kraemer, J. Dedrick and J. Gibbs, Introduction to the special volume on globalization and e- Commerce, Communications of the AIS, vol. 11, (2003), pp.1-3. [13] D. R. Kulchitsky, (2004), Computerization, knowledge, and information technology initiatives in Jordan, Administration & Society, vol. 36, no.1, pp [14] D. Mcknight and N. Chervany, What Trust Means in E-commerce Customer Relationships: An Interdisciplinary Conceptual Typology, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol. 6, no. 2, (2001), pp [15] S. Mukhopadhyay, (2006), Global diffusion of the Internet IX: Predicting global diffusion of the Internet - an alternative to diffusion models, Communications of the AIS, vol. 17, pp [16] P. Palvia, S. Palvia and J. Whitworth, Global information technology: A meta-analysis of key issues, Information & Management, vol. 39, no. 5, (2002), pp [17] C. Park and Y. Kim, Identifying Key Factors Affecting Consumer Purchase Behaviour in an Online Shopping Context, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. vol. 31, no. 6, (2003), pp [18] D. J. Paré, (2003), Does this site deliver? B2B e-commerce services for developing countries, The Information Society, vol. 19, pp [19] D. Ribbink, Comfort Your Online Customer: Quality, Trust and Loyalty on the Internet, Managing Service Quality, vol. 14, no. 6, (2011), pp [20] S. Sahay and C. Avgerou, (2002), Introducing the special issue on information and communication technologies in developing countries, The Information Society, vol. 18, pp [21] D. W. Straub, K. D Loch and C. E. Hill, Transfer of information technology to the Arab world: A test of cultural influence modeling, Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 9, no. 4, (2001), pp [22] World IT Report, New partnership in Jordan to bring new sophisticated services, (2003). Author Ahmad Al-Khasawneh is an Associate Professor of Computer information system at Hashemite University and was a director of elearning Center. He holds the PhD and M.Sc. of information and software systems and technology from Newcastle University, Australia and B.S in computer and automatic control engineering. He has involved in many presentations and workshops. Dr. Khasawneh has 20 years of experience in ICT field and in ICT applications and acts as technical advisor to the Royal Jordanian Airlines director on issues related to the development of travel industry and ICT strategy. Prior to joining the Hashemite University of Jordan, he held several key positions with major international ICT consultancy and solutions firms and lecturer in IT related topics at Newcastle University, Australia. Currently, he is the dean of the Prince Hussein Bin Abdullah II for Information Technology at Hashemite University. 72 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

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