1 City of Rockwall Historical Preservation Handbook, Residential Guidelines to Rehabilitation, Restoration and New Construction
2 Table of Contents Contact Information CH 1 Historic Preservation Rockwall CH 2 Revitalization Leads to Economic Growth CH 3 A Brief History: Rockwall CH 4 Rockwall County Court House CH 5 Researching the History of Your Home CH 6 Historic Terms & Illustrations CH 7 Architectural Styles CH 8 Accessory Buildings/Structures CH 9 Historic District Designation, Description & Boundaries CH 10 National Register of Historic Places & Preservation Act CH 11 Texas Historical Commission CH 12 City of Rockwall Historic Preservation Advisory Board CH 13 Secretary of the Interior s Standards for Rehabilitation CH 14 Historic District Questions and Answers CH 15 Recommendations for Rehabilitation & New Construction Ch 16 Pictorial Key Ch 17 Resources CH 18
3 Historic Preservation Contact Information Ch 1 City of Rockwall Historic Preservation Officer 385 S. Goliad Rockwall, Texas Phone (972) Fax (972) Rockwall County Historical Foundation P.O. Box 916 Rockwall, Texas Texas Historical Commission P.O. Box Austin, Texas Phone (512) National Trust for Historic Preservation 1785 Massachusetts Ave., NW Washington, D.C National Trust for Historic Preservation Southwest Regional Office 500 Main St., Suite 1030 Fort Worth, Texas Phone (817)
4 Historic Preservation Rockwall Ch 2 Preservation and retaining a houses historic appearance and heritage through the continued maintenance and use, is a bridge to the rich and cherished tradition of Rockwall s past. Individual home owner have maintained, restored, and rehabilitated old homes throughout Rockwall s Historic District with private not public funds. The interest in preserving the City of Rockwall s historical heritage and character has strengthen both the local economy and sense of community Creation of Historic Preservation in Rockwall The original Historic Overlay District Ordinance (91-25) was adopted to serve as a policy to protect, enhance, and perpetuate the historical significant areas and landmarks within the City of Rockwall. Through late 1998 and into 1999 the Community Development Staff, with the cooperation of the Old Town Rockwall Neighborhood Association and the Rockwall County Historical Foundation, worked to delineate the residential district boundaries of the Historic Overlay District as specified by the aforementioned ordinance. In May of 2002, the City Council approved Ordinance No amending the Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance and creating section 2.20 Historic District. As urbanization extends to Rockwall, development pressures mount which threaten not only historic homes but also neighborhoods. The City, recognizing the necessity of dealing with these pressures created the Historic District and Historic Preservation Board.
5 Revitalization Leads to Economic Growth Ch 3 Preservation Tax Incentives and Historic Preservation Easements To promote the goal of stabilizing and improving values of properties within the Historic District, and encourage the rehabilitation and stabilizing structures, the City Council by resolution, may offer tax incentives. Federal tax relief is also available to historic property owners in Texas if they donate a preservation easement to a government agency or a charitable organization. Preservation easements offer long-term protection of historic properties by protecting them from further inappropriate changes. An easement follows the land, and continues to protect property from alterations after the donating owner no longer has possession. For further information on preservation easements, contact the Texas Historical Commission. Benefits of Historic Preservation The owners and tenants of historic homes in Rockwall are entrusted with the preservation of the city s architectural heritage and landscape. Proper preservation will aid Rockwall in maintaining and increasing its historical designations and ensure that the tourism industry and its economic benefits continue to help foster growth in the city. Preserving Rockwall s architectural heritage enriches the community and maintains a link to the days of yesteryear. Cherishing and preserving our heritage has enabled Rockwall to forge a new path to the community s growing horizons.
6 A Brief History: Rockwall Ch 4 In the days before Rockwall s founding in 1854, the records show that a number of pioneer families had settled the Blackland territory drained by both the Trinity and the Bluff Fork of the Sabine. Some came by oxen drawn wagons while others came by emigrant trains from the East. In all 240 settlers came to build a life in the area that was to become Rockwall. During these days, the town of Jefferson, Texas was the local market place. Here settlers purchased salt, coffee, ammunition, tools, and the like. Lumber was also a big item as it was transported by ox wagon from Jefferson to Dallas. Around this time, in 1854, Elijah Elgin platted a forty acre tract of the B.F. Boydstun survey in what was then Kaufman County, thereby establishing the original town-site of Rockwall. The community took its name from the extensive, wall-like, underground formation discovered by Terry Wade in The stone wall was discovered while Wade was digging a well just outside the present square of Rockwall. Since then many additional outcroppings of the wall have been discovered in the area, looking strangely man-made, but probably being of geologic origin. During the early years, Rockwall consisted of little more than a post office, blacksmith, grinding mill, church, and general store. By 1873, the County of Rockwall was established in order to settle a dispute between residents of Terrell and Kaufman Counties wanting a new county seat location. Rockwall grew to a population of 600 as both the new county seat and a center of business. In 1886, when the M.K.& T. railroad was built through the city, growth continued and the farming business prospered with the availability of newly opened market places for local produce. Wells College, a junior educational system, was organized in 1893 by Professor J.K. Wells. The school operated until 1912 by which time Rockwall had grown to 1100 people, with the latest in utilities, a telephone system, new schools, churches, businesses, and automobiles.
7 Rockwall County Courthouse Ch 5 The County s first Courthouse was located in a building situated on the southeast corner of the present county square. On March 16, 1875, fire destroyed the Courthouse building and all records were lost. A new wooden Courthouse building was constructed in 1878 and the commissioner s court wisely provided for the construction of a separate stone building to house the county clerk and county records. That office and the county s records were saved when in 1891 a fire destroyed the county s second Courthouse building. A two-story brick building, the Lovejoy Building, still standing in 1983 on the south side of the court house square, was designated temporary court house quarters until a new court house could be built. In 1892 construction began on a new Courthouse constructed of native sandstone and built on the site of the present day Courthouse. The sandstone remained strong and firm but the crumbling mortar caused the second story court room and offices to be condemned several years prior to the destruction of the building. Many inspections and much study concerning repairs were delivered before the building was razed in 1940 and construction began on the present day Courthouse. The present day Courthouse was constructed in 1940 with help from the WPA program instituted by President Roosevelt in the 1930s. The need for additional space for county offices fostered by the county s growth led in 1982 to the purchase of a building at the corner of Rusk and Fannin Streets and the relocation of certain county officials to that building designated the Rockwall County Court House Annex. Rockwall is a blend of historic structures and historic 19th Century storefronts on the town square that surrounds the historic courthouse. The courtesies and small town atmosphere of the first merchants are still alive and well in present day downtown Rockwall.
8 Researching the History of Your House Ch 6 How to Begin Thorough research could lead your house to receive local, state, or national historical designations. The best place to begin researching the history of your home is the Rockwall County Library, Rockwall Tax Assessors Office and the Rockwall County Clerk. Begin reading warranty deeds, research papers, news and magazine articles that have been written about other historical houses located in Rockwall. When researching tax records and warranty deeds look for obvious references to structures, or large spikes in sales prices. This can indicate an addition to the home or additional structures to the site. Take a Good Look at Your House Start by doing some reading on historic architectural styles and get an idea of when your structure might have been built. With the different architectural styles in mind take a close look at you old house. Oral History Neighbors, local historic and preservation groups are valuable sources of information regarding the history of the City of Rockwall and Rockwall County. Some have maintained private collections of records and some have first hand knowledge as it has been passed down from family members.
9 Historic Terms and Illustrations Ch 7 Decorative Details
10 Walls Wall Cladding Materials-Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below *Horizontal wood boards over wood frame is the most common type of wall cladding found in the Historic District.
11 Wall Cladding Details-Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below Wood Shingles/Stucco
12 Roofing Roofing Styles-Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below Gabled Family Hipped Family Flat Family
13 Roofing Pitch-Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below Roof-Wall Junction Rake-The sloping edge of a steep roof. Eave-The horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof.
14 Roofing Materials-Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below Organic/Mineral Metal/Bitumen
15 Dormers Dormer-A vertically set up window on a sloping roof; the roofed structure housing such a window. Dormer Styles-Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below
16 Doors & Windows Doors Casing-The wood finish pieces surrounding the frame of a door Decorative Crown-A strip of wood with an ornamental profile placed above the Casing Glazing-installed glass Panel-A broad, thin piece of wood
17 Doors Styles-Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below
18 Windows Casing-The wood finish pieces surrounding the frame of a window. Header-A joist that supports other joist located at the top of a window. Jamb-The vertical side of a door or window. Muntin-A small vertical or horizontal bar between small lights of glass in a sash. Sash-A frame that holds glass. Sill-The horizontal bottom portion of a window. Keystone-the wedge-shaped stone at the center of an arch. Mullion-A vertical or horizontal bar between adjacent window or door units Lintel-A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening.
19 Sash Operations- Found on Historic Homes are typical of those shown below
20 General Historic Architecture Terms & Illustrations Balconet-A low, slightly projecting, ornamental railing around the lower portion of a window; false balcony. Balcony-A railed projecting platform found above ground level on a building. Ballflower-A small spherical ornament that is formed by three folds enclosing a ball; most often found in hollow molding.
21 Balustrade-A series of balusters with a rail. Bargeboard-A sometimes richly ornamented board placed on the verge (incline) of the gable to conceal the ends of rafters. Bay Window-A window or set of windows which project out from a wall, forming an alcove or small space in a room, ordinarily begins at ground level, but may be carried out on brackets or corbels. Bracket-A support element under eaves, shelves or other overhangs, often more decorative than functional.
22 Bow Window-A routed window; a window forming the segment of a circle. Bull s Eye-A round or oval panel or aperture. In the later case, it may be glazed, open or louvered. A bull s eye frame is often encircled by a double arched frame with voussoirs. Channel-A groove cut or molded into an architectural member. A series of grooves, such as found on some columns and pilasters, is called channeling. Chevron-A V-shaped decorations generally used as a continuous molding.
23 Colonette-A small or slender column, usually decorative in nature. Column-A vertical structure, usually circular in form, designed to support an entablature or other weight above it. Used to strengthen and decorate a building, it may be made of any building material; e.g., stone, wood, metal, marble and brick. A column has three main parts: Capital-The upper decorative portion of a column or pilaster on which the entablature rest. Shaft-The section of a column found between the base and capital. Base-The lowest part of a column or architectural structure.
24 Corinthian Order-The most ornate of the classical Greek orders of architecture, characterized by a slender fluted column with a bellshaped capital decorated with stylized acanthus leaves; variations of this order were extensively used by the Romans. Corner Blocks-Blocks positioned at the corners of either window or door casings; often treated with design elements such as paterae (oval disks) Corner Boards-Boards placed at the corners of exterior walls to provide a neater appearance and to protect the ends of the wood siding.
25 Doric Order-The oldest and simplest of the classical Greek orders, characterized by heavy fluted columns with no base, plan saucershaped capitals and bold simple cornice. Drop-A small, often tear-shaped, ornament found on the bottom of newel, below a wall overhang, on a bargeboard, etc.; pendant. Engaged Column-A column that is in direct contact with a wall; at least half of the column projects beyond the surface of the wall to which it is engaged.
26 Entablature-In classical architecture, the part of a structure between the column capital and the roof or pediment, comprising the architrave, frieze and cornice Cornice-In classical architecture, the upper, projecting section of an entablature; projecting ornamental molding along the top of the building or wall. Frieze- In classical architecture, the middle section of an entablature, resting between the Cornice and the architrave. Architrave-The lower part of a classical entablature, resting directly on the capital of a column, the molding around a window or door. Fascia-The exposed vertical face of an eave. Soffit-The underside of a horizontal element of a building, underside of a roof over hang
27 Façade-Front or principle face of a building, any side of a building that faces a street or other open spaces. Fanlight-A semicircular or fanshaped window with a radiating glazing bar system; usually found over entrance doors. Gambrel-A ridged roof with two slopes on each side, the lower slope having the steeper pitch. Gazebo-A small summerhouse or other space with a view, usually found in a garden or yard, but may also be incorporated into the façade of a building, or found on the roof of a house.
28 Hood Molding-A large molding over a window, originally designed to direct water away from the wall; also called a drip molding. Ionic Order-An order of classical Greek architecture characterized by a capital with two opposed volutes. Latticework-Openwork produced by interlacing or crossing lath or thin strips of iron or wood.
29 Lean-to-A house that has a small addition with a lean to (single-pitched) roof. Lean-to Roof-Usually refers to a singlepitched roof that is carried by a higher wall. Pediment-A wide, low-pitched gable surmounting the façade of a building in a classical style; any similar triangular crowning element used over doors, windows and niches. Pedestal-In classic architecture, the molded block that supports a column or colonnade; consists of base, dado, and surbase.
30 Pilaster-A rectangular column or shallow pier attached to a wall; quite frequently decoratively treated so as to represent a classical column with a base, shaft, and capital. Porch-A covered entrance or semi-enclosed space projecting from the façade of a building; may be opened sided, screened, or glass enclosed
31 Portico-A covered walk or porch supported by columns or pillars; a colonnade porch. Reveal-The vertical side of a door or window opening between the frame and the wall surface. Shutters-Solid blinds on either side of a window; may be plan or decorated, operative or purely ornamental, and on the inside or outside.
32 Side Lights-A usually long fixed sash located beside a door or window; often found in pairs. Turret-A small and somewhat slender tower, often located at a corner of a building, in which case it is often referred to as a corner turret. Volute-A spiral, scroll like ornament.
33 Historical Architectural Styles in Rockwall Ch 8 Colonial Revival ( ) Craftsman (Bungalow ) Farmhouse Folk Victorian ( ) Neo-Classical ( ) Minimal Traditional ( )
34 Prairie ( ) Queen Anne (Except Free Classic ) Ranch ( ) Traditional Tudor (Except Parapeted )
35 Colonial Revival The term Colonial Revival as used here, refers to the entire rebirth of interest in the early English and Dutch house of the Atlantic Seaboard. This was a dominant style for domestic building throughout the country during the first half of the century. After briefly passing from favor in mid-century, the style has recently reappeared in somewhat different form as a dominant Neoeclectic style. Identifying features are accentuated front door, with decorative crown (pediment) supported by pilasters, or extended forward and supported by slender columns to form an entry porch; doors commonly have overhead fanlights or sidelights; façade normally show symmetrically balanced windows and center door (less common with door offcenter); windows with double-hung sashes, usually with multi-pane glazing in one or both sashes; windows frequently in adjacent pairs.
36 Colonial Revival Subtypes Revival Examples
37 Years When Most Frequently Built
38 (1935) Colonial Revival, Glen Smith, 602 Williams Street, Rockwall, Texas
39 Craftsman (Bungalow) Craftsman housed were inspired by the work of two California brothers-charles Greene and Henry Greene. Several influences-the English Arts and Crafts movement, and interest in oriental wooden architecture and their early training in the manual arts-appear to have led the Greenes to design these intricately detailed buildings. One-story vernacular examples are often called simply bungalows or the Bungaloid style. Identifying features include low-pitched, gables roof (occasionally hipped) with wide, unenclosed eave overhang; roof rafters usually exposed; decorative (false) beams or braces commonly added under gables; porches; either full- or partial-width, with roof supported tapered square columns; columns or pedestals frequently extend to ground level (without a break at level of porch floor).
40 Typical Craftsman (Bungalow) Elaborations
41 Craftsman (Bungalow) Typical Subtypes Craftsman (Bungalow) Typical Porch Supports and Railing (1920) Craftsman (Bungalow), Toby Cain, 404 E. Rusk, Rockwall, Texas
42 Farmhouse The farmhouse draws its inspiration from the Colonial Revival era and the large tracts of land it typically sits on. Unlike the country house, farmhouse plans have gables that face different directions. The farmhouse looks nice on a large tract of land, or will fit in nicely in larger lot communities. The farmhouse is usually designed with the bedrooms upstairs and a spacious living area downstairs. Large porches with slender columns located are typically found along the front elevation. (1920) Farmhouse, Eddie Walker, 506 N. Goliad, Rockwall, Texas
43 Folk Victorian The spread of the Folk Victorian style was made possible by the expansion of the railroads. Fashion-conscious homeowners also updated their older folk houses with new Victorian Porches. After about 1910 these Symmetrical Victorian houses, as they were sometimes called, were replaced by the more fashionable eclectic styles. Identifying features include porches with spindlework detailing or flat, jigsaw cut trim appended to National Folk (post-railroad) house forms; symmetrical façade (except gable-front-and-wing subtype); corniceline brackets are common.
44 Folk Victorian Subtypes (1900) Folk (L-Plan), Loren Willet, 401 S. Fannin, Rockwall, Texas
45 Minimal Traditional With the economic depression of the 1930s came the comprise style which reflects the form of traditional Eclectic housed, but lacks their decorative detailing. Roof pitches are low or intermediate, rather than steep as in the proceeding Tudor style. Eaves and rakes are usually close rather than overhanging as in the succeeding Ranch style. These houses were built immediately proceeding and following World War II; they commonly dominated the large tract housing developments of the period. (1940) Minimal Traditional, W.D. Lillard, 411 S. Fannin, Rockwall, Texas
46 Neo-Classical Neoclassical was a dominant style of domestic building throughout the country during the first half of the 20 th century. Never quite as abundant as its closely related Colonial Revival contemporary, it had two principle waves of popularity. The first, from about 1900 to 1920, emphasized hipped roofs and elaborate, correct columns. The later phase, from about 1925 to the 1950s, emphasized sidegables roofs and simple, slender columns. This revival of interest in classical models dates from the World s Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893.
47 Neo-Classical Subtypes Neo-Classical Examples
48 Neo-Classical Typical Elaborations Houses with a broken pediment at the entrance or above a window and twostory columns are always Neo-Classical. Neo-Classical; houses with an unbroken pediment at the entrance and two-story columns are usually Neo- Classical. (1911)Neo-Classical, Ken Jones, 908 N. Goliad, Rockwall, Texas
49 Prairie The Prairie style is on of the few indigenous American styles. It was developed by an unusually creative group of Chicago architects that have come to be known as the Prairie School. Frank Lloyd Wright is the acknowledged master of the Prairie style. Wright was unusual in that he turned his early creative genius toward the problems of domestic architecture rather than public buildings. The style in its vernacular form was spread throughout the country by patterns books published in the Midwest. It is among the more shortlived styles, having grown, flourished, and declined in the years between 1900 and Identifying features include low-pitched roof, usually hipped, with widely overhanging eaves; two stories, with one-story or porches; eaves, cornices, and façade detailing emphasizing horizontal lines; often with massive, square porch supports.
50 Prairie Subtypes Typical Elaborations
51 Decorative Detail
52 Typical Doors Typical Windows
53 Common Porches and Porch Supports
54 Most Common Vernacular Form (1920) Prairie, Floyd Allen, 406 E. Rusk, Rockwall, Texas
55 Queen Anne The style was name and popularized by a group of 19 th -century architects led by Richard Norman Shaw. The name is rather inappropriate, for the historical precedents used by Shaw and his followers had little to do with Queen Anne or the formal Renaissance architecture that was dominant during her reign ( ). Instead, they borrowed most heavily from lat Medieval models of the preceding Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. The half-timbered and patterned masonry American subtypes are most closely related to this work of Shaw and his colleagues in England. The spindlework and free classic subtypes are indigenous interpretations. In the decades of the 1890s the free classic adaptation became widespread. It was but a short step from these to the early, asymmetrical Colonial Revival houses which, along with other competing styles, fully supplanted the Queen Anne style after bout 1910.
56 Identifying features include steeply high-pitched roof of irregular shape, usually with a dominant front-facing gable, patterned shingles, cutaway bay windows, and other devices used to avoid a smoothwalled appearance; asymmetrical façade with partial or full-width porch which is usually one story high and extended along one or both side walls. Queen Anne Subtypes Principal Roof Forms
57 Decorative Details
58 Typical Porches Typical Roof-Pitched Chronology
59 Typical Gable Detailing (1900) Queen Anne, James Buttgen, 501 Kernodle, Rockwall, Texas
60 Ranch This style was created by several California architects and during the 1950s and 1960s became the dominant style throughout the country. The popularity was made possibly by the increasing dependency on the automobile. The style was loosely based on early Spanish Colonial precedents of the American southwest, modified by influences borrowed from Craftsman and Prairie modernism of the early 20 th century. Identifying features include one-story shapes with low-pitched roofs, three common roof forms; the hipped version probably the most common, the cross-gabled, and the side-gabled; moderate or wide eave overhang, decorative iron wooding porches, decorative shutters, ribbon windows and large picture windows, partially enclosed courtyards or patios. Ranch, John Conatser, 307 Munson, Rockwall, Texas
61 Traditional Traditional homes are some of the most common styles built throughout the United States. Traditional homes are kind of a mix of several other styles but there are some basics that are usually consistent throughout traditional designs: Simple, often hipped rooflines. Brick or stucco exteriors are most common. Traditional homes are often single level floor plans with steeper roof pitches though lofts or bonus rooms are quite common, covered porches, open foyers. (1955) Traditional, Courtney Alsobrook, 610 E. Kaufman, Rockwall, Texas
62 Tudor The popular name for the style is historically imprecise, since relatively few examples closely mimic the architectural characteristics of Tudor (early 16 th -century) England. Instead the style is loosely based on late Medieval English prototypes, ranging from thatch-roofed folk cottages to grand manor houses. These traditions are freely mixed in their American Eclectic expressions but are united by an emphasis on steeply pitched, front-facing gables which, although absent on many English prototypes, are almost universally present as a dominant façade element in Tudor houses. Identifying features include steeply pitched roof, usually single gabled (less commonly hipped or front gabled); façade dominated by one or more prominent cross gables, usually steeply pitched, decorative (i.e., not structure) half-timbering present on about half of examples; tall, narrow, windows, usually in multiple groups and with multi-pane glazing; massive chimneys, commonly crowned by decorative chimney pots.
63 Tudor Subtypes Typical Gable Details Roof Variations
64 Typical Entry Porches Typical Doors Typical Windows
65 Typical Chimneys Typical Strapwork
66 Typical Elaborations (1925) Tudor Cottage, James Crow, 505 Williams, Rockwall, Texas
67 Accessory Buildings Ch 9 An Accessory Building is defined in the City of Rockwall Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance as a subordinate building having a use customarily incidental to and located on the lot occupied by the main building; or a use customarily incidental to the main use of the property. A building housing an accessory use is considered an integral part of the main building when it has any part of a wall in common with the main building, or is under an extension of the main roof and designed as an integral part of the main building. All Accessory Buildings must meet the minimum front, side, and rear yard setbacks as set forth by the Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance and minimum separation requirements as outlined by the International Building Code. All Accessory Buildings shall be comparable in style and color to the main building. Below are a few examples of Accessory Buildings in the Historic District 411 S. Fannin, Rockwall, Texas Main Building Accessory Building
68 602 Williams, Rockwall, Texas Main Building Accessory Building 501 Kernodle, Rockwall, Texas Main Building Accessory Buildings
69 Historic District Designation, Description & Boundaries Ch 10 Historic District Designation The Old Town Rockwall Historic District is contiguous in nature. However, due to the varied mixture of historic homes and noncontributing intrusions scattered within the District, a survey of the properties throughout the Historic District Overlay was conducted to determine contributing properties within the designated district(s). A list of the Contributing and Non-Contributing properties within the Old Town Rockwall Historic District are compiled shown below. Historic District Description The (Old Rockwall) Historic District is a irregularly shaped, approximately 30 block area bounded generally by blockfaces fronting Williams, North and South Fannin, Olive, San Jacinto, Interurban, Storrs and North and South Clark Streets just east of the courthouse square central business and general retail districts of Rockwall, County of Rockwall, Texas. The northern portion of the district is organized around a public landscaped space donated to the city in 1949 now known as Lofland Park; the district has approximately 69 contributing domestic buildings. The residential architecture forms a cohesive streetscape of vernacular and popular dwellings of the period from about 1899 to The buildings of the district possess identifiable characteristics of the late 19 th through mid-20 th century architectural designs reflected the historic development of Rockwall, and the area constitutes a distinct and identifiable area of historic importance to the community. Of the 137 properties in the district, 69, or 47 percent, are considered Contributing. Of the Noncontributing buildings, many were built before 1950, their status established because of reversible modifications. Several post-1950 domestic and commercial properties detract from the cohesiveness of the area, and some vacant lots also do not contribute to the significance of the sector, but are not included as intrusive elements in the historic district.