1 Susan K. Olson RN BSN MSN Senior Simulation Educator
2 Disclosures Susan K. Olson has no financial relationships with entities producing healthcare and/or simulation-related goods and services.
3 Goals Participants will learn: Layering debriefing techniques Debriefing is a continuum Video debriefing & digital checklist
4 Objectives Participants will be able to: Articulate the purpose & value of debriefing List 3 techniques for every type of debriefing List 2 debriefing techniques that are beyond the review-of-events
5 What is Debriefing? Social practice during which people interact with each other reflecting on the common experience they made during the scenario. (Medical Teacher, 2009)
6 Is Debriefing Necessary? Kriz, Simulation and Gaming, 2010 : ineffective and even unethical to conduct a simulation without debriefing. Savoldelli, et al, Anesthesiology, 2006: exposure to a simulation crisis without debriefing seems to offer little benefit to learners. Heukelom, et al, Simulation in Healthcare, 2010: Studies have indicated in the absence of structured feedback, no learning of clinically relevant parameters occurs.
7 Bring Meaning to Simulation Debriefing and reflection: the most critical elements of a simulation Safe and critically constructive feedback Recognize any potential bias
8 A pre-brief establishes standards Role expectations Preparation Prepare the simulation area Introduction to the setting and simulation equipment Set rules for debriefing prior to the simulation.
9 Layer Debriefing Techniques Start with the basics Add debriefing techniques Model behaviors that you desire in participants Added techniques bring depth of understanding
10 Systems Thinking Video Capture of Scenario Digital Checklist Personal Goals Comparisons to Real Life Part of Group Observes Experiential Learning Safe Confidential Inclusive Language Avoid Blame Identify Impact Include All in Group Discussion Rapid-Fire Do-over Varied Perspective Take-Home Messages Oral vs. Written Peer Feedback Self- Reflection Event Review Clarify Facts Recall What Happened
11 Experiential Learning Systems Thinking Video Capture of Scenario Personal Goals Digital Checklist Part of Group Observes Safe Confidential Inclusive Language Avoid Blame Event Review Identify Impact Include All in Group Discussion Clarify Facts Recall What Happened Rapid-Fire Do-over Varied Perspective Oral vs. Written Take- Home Message s Peer Feedback Self- Reflection Comparisons to Real Life
12 Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain Knowledge Kinetic Domain Skills & actions Affective Domain How did you feel, group dynamics, how did learners interact?
13 Basic Debriefing Objectives Review simulation events Sort out and clarify thinking Release emotional tension Reinforce specific teaching points Correct misconceptions
14 Key Questions What happened in the simulation? How did you feel about that? How did the groups actions compare with the standard guidelines?
15 Positive Tone of Debriefing Pitfalls Deliberately positive Insures all have a voice Inclusive language Open ended questions Skillful & Sensitive Engaged/interested Judgmental Instructor dominates Individual blaming Yes & No questions Control & demanding Appears bored
16 Experiential Learning Systems Thinking Video Capture of Scenario Personal Goals Digital Checklist Part of Group Observes Safe Confidential Inclusive Language Avoid Blame Event Review Include All in Group Discussion Clarify Facts Identify Impact Recall What Happened Rapid-Fire Do-over Varied Perspective Oral vs. Written Take-Home Messages Peer Feedback Self- Reflection Comparisons to Real Life
17 Layer Debriefing Techniques Different techniques for specific groups Transition from personal to other cases Use open-ended questions Encourage peer feedback Draw out varied perspectives
18 Debriefing Intermediate Guided reflection Tips & pearls New meaning Connections Decision making Trade-offs Discussion of problems
19 Coaching at Intermediate Level Facilitate critical reflection on practice Transfer responsibility for learning to the participants Help participants find their own meaning and relationships
20 Systems Thinking Video Capture of Scenario Digital Checklist Personal Goals Comparisons to Real Life Part of Group Observes Experiential Learning Safe Confidential Inclusive Language Avoid Blame Identify Impact Include All in Group Discussion Rapid-Fire Do-over Varied Perspective Take-Home Messages Oral vs. Written Peer Feedback Self- Reflection Event Review Clarify Facts Recall What Happened
21 Less guided Use of media/checklists/video Oral and written evaluation Part of group talks/part listens Use of varied perspectives (observers) Different groups reflect on different questions at same time, then share Panel Advanced Debriefing
22 New Concepts in Reflection Pre-Brief material Simulation Event Debriefing Developing new concepts Increase complexity Simulation Experiment w/ new knowledge & confidence Debriefing Developing new concepts Adv. Simulation & applying knowledge to other situations
23 Role Expands with Mastery Critical educator & co-researcher Role will transition depending on desired outcome Strive for deeper meanings Plan for a learning points in advance
24 Experiential Learning Set personal goals Systems that limit Make system changes Timeline for follow-up
25 Combination of Techniques Several techniques may be effective for experienced groups A co-inquiry approach Self-reflection and sensitive feedback to colleagues
26 Video Debriefing Factual document Annotate and timestamp video Saves time and keeps interest Exact spot can be accessed Digital check-lists give quantitative data
27 Digital Checklist Checklist or post-test Digital checklist can convert subjective data into a number or percentage. Trend analysis Comparative data
28 Systems or Global thinking To address operational problems and make appropriate changes Organizational triggers Recommend changes to the institution Personal goals towards maximum impact Organization Philosophy
29 Adv. Debriefing is Challenging Managing differing learning styles Finding a balance between sensitive correction, direction and redirection Start to develop learners that are proficient at corrective feedback to colleagues Encourage self-evaluative learning
30 Evaluation and Follow-up Obtain feedback from learners Obtain feedback from instructors Did the instructors questions help them to think critically? Do the learners feel more confident with Follow-up time for revisit personal goals systems action
31 Systems Thinking Video Capture of Scenario Digital Checklist Personal Goals Comparisons to Real Life Part of Group Observes Experiential Learning Safe Confidential Inclusive Language Avoid Blame Identify Impact Include All in Group Discussion Rapid-Fire Do-over Varied Perspective Take-Home Messages Oral vs. Written Peer Feedback Self- Reflection Event Review Clarify Facts Recall What Happened
32 Summary Debriefing gives meaning to the simulation event Debriefing techniques are on a continuum and can be layered The difference between basic, intermediate and advanced debriefing is assessment and facilitation Evaluation of simulation and debriefing allows skill mastery
34 Set ground rules: Confidential, respectful Close meeting after start of debrief Vegas rules what happens in debriefing, stays only in debriefing. Defuse emotions Supplements Set the rules with Debriefing
35 Supplements Elements of a Good Debrief Identify impact Recall what happened Clarify facts, concepts, principles Make comparisons to real life Identify take-home /future direction Judicious video playback
36 Simulation Tips Inclusive language Situational vs. personal Non-blame based Frozen Group Syndrome Knowledge question openers Supplements How would this situation change if this patient were (examples: pediatric, diabetic, obese, etc)? What did you need that you didn t have? What would you have wished for?
37 References / Additional Readings American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. (2005). Structured and Supported Debriefing. (product # ). Arafeh, J.M.R., snyder Hansen, S., Nichols, A., (2010) Debriefing in Simulated-Based Learning: Facilitating a Reflective Discussion. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing. Oct/Dec vol. 24 number 4. Pp Bartone, P.T., Adler, A.B. (1995) Event-Oriented Debriefing Following Military Operations. What Every Leader Should Know. USAMRUE. Biddeford and Portland, Maine. (2011). Clinical Simulation Program. Debriefing.UNE. University of New England. Maine Cant, R.P., Cooper, S.J., (2011). The Benefits of Debriefing as Formative Feedback in Nurse Education. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol. 29. No. 1. Pp Caron, N. ( ). Debriefing. Marketing Education Platform. Cheng, A. (2010). DASH Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare. Center for Medical Simulation, Cambridge, MA 02139, Davis, J.A. (1998). Providing Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD). To Individuals and Communities in Situational Crisis. AAETS. American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. DeVita, M., Lutz, J. Mininni, N. Grbach, W. (2005). A Novel Debriefing Tool: Online Facilitator Guidance Package for Debriefing Team Training Using Simulation. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) and the Peter M. Winter Institute for Simulation, Education and Research (WISER) Pittsburgh, PA. Fanning, R.M., Gaba, D.M. (2007). The Role of Debriefing in Simulation-Based Learning. Society for Simulation in Healthcare. Vol. 2, no. 2., Summer Pp Fritzsche, D.J., Leonard, N.H., Boscia, M.W., Anderson, P.H. (2004). Simulation Debriefing Procedures. Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, vol. 31,
38 References / Additional Readings Gaba, D.M., (2012). Adapting Space Science Methods for Describing and Planning Research in Simulation in Healthcare. Science Traceability and Decadal Surveys. Society for Simulation in Healthcare. doi: /SIH.0b013e31823ca729. Goetz, Huckshor. (2003). Debriefing Activities: A Core Strategy, A Tertiary Prevention Tool. NASMHP)D. U.S. Initiative. Creative Violence Free and Coercion Free Service Environments for the Reduction of Seclusion and Restraint. Howell, D.M., Clarke, A., et. All. (2006) Transforming Care: Influence of Reflective Learning on Holistic Evidence Based Palliative Symptom Care. Caregiver and Home Health Issues. Janelle & Associates. (CISM) Critical Incident Stress Management for the Workplace and Community. Markulis, P.M. Strang, D. R. (2003). A Brief on Debriefing: What it is and What it isn t. Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning. Vol. 30. Pp Enhancing Pediatric Advanced practice Nursing Education : Scenario Preparation and Implementation. NAINR.2011; 11(1) A Elsevier Sciences, Inc. Mcclure, S. (2012). Managing and Debriefing about Simulation Education Just Got Easier. Healthstream. SimManager. Monash University. (2012). The Action-Reflection Model. Monash University. ABN CRICOS Provider Number 00008C. Monash University. (2012). The Reflective Learning Process. Monash University. ABN CRICOS Provider Number 00008C. Overstreet, M. Billings, D.M., Kowalski, K. (2010). Ee-chats: The Severn Components of Nursing Debriefing. Journal of continuing Education in Nursing. Vol 41. No 12, 2010.
39 References / Additional Readings Phrampus, P. O Donnel, J. (2007). Debriefing in Simulation Education Using a Structured and Supported Model. Symposium on Nursing Simulation. (WISER). Peter M. Winter Institute for Simulation, Education & Research. Rudolph, J.W., Simon, R., Dufresne, R.L. Raemer, D.B., There s No Such thing as Nonjudgmental Debriefing: A Theory and Method for Debriefing with Good Judgment. Simulation in Healthcare. Vol. 1. No 1 Spring Rudolph, J.W., Simon, R., Raemer, D.B., Eppich, W.J. (2008). Debriefing as Formative Assessment: Closing Performance Gaps in Medical Education. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15: Doi: /j /00248.x Salas, E. Klein, C. King, M.s., Salisbury, M., Augenstein, J.S., Birnbach, D.J., Robinson, D.W., (2008). Debriefing Medical Teams: 12 Evidence-Based Best Practices and Tips. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. Teamwork and Communication. Vol 34 number 9. SAFILTP: The Foundations for Positive Debriefing. (2000). Savoldelli GL, Naik V.N., Park, J. et. Al. (2006). The value of debriefing in Simulation based Education: oral versus video-assisted feedback. Simulation in Healthcare. 2006;1(2). Taylor, S. S. (2010). Negative Judgments: Reflections on Teaching Reflective Practice. Organization Management Journal ( , 5-12, doi: /omj Virginia. (1997). Psychological Effects of Disaster. Psychology Department.
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