Nassau Regional EMS Council Basic Life Support Protocols and Supplements to State BLS Protocol Manual Table of Contents

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1 Nassau Regional EMS Council Basic Life Support Protocols and Supplements to State BLS Protocol Manual Table of Contents Approved/ Revised Effective BLS Adult Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote 12/03/08 7/01/2009 BLS Pediatric Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote 12/03/08 7/01/2009 *Altered Mental Status Supplement to M-2 6/10/2014 6/10/2014 Behavioral Emergencies Supplement to M-4 6/06/ /01/2007 Amputation Supplement to T-1 4/06/2011 9/01/2011 * DOH Update 6/10/2014

2 BLS Adult Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote Protocol This protocol applies to all appropriately trained ALS & BLS providers. CAUTION IS TO BE EXERCISED AT ALL TIMES. ALARM INFORMATION INCLUDING LOCATION, NUMBER OF PATIENTS, AND COMPLAINTS SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE SCENE SIZE -UP PRIOR TO ARRIVAL. DECONTAMINATION TO PREVENT OFF GASSING MUST BE PERFORMED PRIOR TO EMS ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT. TREATMENT BY EMS IS TO BE PERFORMED IN THE COLD ZONE ONLY UNLESS APPROPRIATELY TRAINED AND EQUIPPED. 1. Atropine/2-Pam combination antidote injector kits are to be used only: A. when specific signs and symptoms of exposure are present AND B. the scene has been declared the site of a nerve agent release by a local competent authority AND C. Following orders from Medical Control a) The Atropine/2-Pam combination antidote injectors are not to be used as a prophylaxis for personal protection. b) There is to be no self-administration of antidote. 2. In the event EMS personnel become exposed to a Nerve Agent and they meet the above criteria, the Atropine/2-Pam combination antidote injectors may be administered via BUDDY -ADMINISTRATION only. 3. If severe signs and symptoms are present, three (3) Atropine/2-Pam combination antidote injectors should be administered in rapid succession. 4. If the patient exhibits SLUDGEM but no central nervous system (CNS) findings are present, then one (1) Atropine injector and one (1) Atropine/2-Pam combination antidote injector should be given. 5. In either case, remove secretions, maintain patient s airway and, if necessary and the resources permit use artificial ventilation. 6. If symptoms resolve, then only monitoring is necessary. 7. Pralidoxime (2-PAM CL) is most effective if administered immediately after poisoning and following but not before Atropine, especially for severe exposures. Nassau Regional EMS BLS Protocol 1 of 3 Approved 12/3/08 SEMSCo 6/10/09 Corrected 8/4/2010

3 BLS Adult Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote Protocol 8. If dermal exposure has occurred, decontamination is critical and should be done with standard decontamination procedures. Patient monitoring should be directed to the same signs and symptoms as with all nerve agent exposures. 9. Diazepam (Valium) may be given by ALS personnel cautiously if convulsions are not controlled. 10. Documentation shall be done on triage tags. Each dose of Atropine should be recorded with an "A", each dose of Pralidoxime Chloride with a "P" (if an Atropine/2-Pam antidote injector is used then annotate with A/P ), and each dose of Diazepam with a "D". 11. If patients continue to exhibit signs and symptoms of Nerve Agent intoxication they may continue to receive Atropine/2-Pam antidote injector until symptoms cease or 3 combination injectors have been administered. NOTE: THE MAXIMUM DOSE OF PRALIDOXIME IS 1.8 GRAMS, ONCE THE MAXIMUM DOSE OF 2-PAM IS REACHED THE ATROPINE/2-PAM ANTIDOTE INJECTORS MUST NOT BE USED. THERE IS NO MAXIMUM DOSE OF ATROPINE INJECTORS In the initial phase, triage will be initiated in the Hot Zone, continued in the warm zone, and performed only by trained personnel who are wearing appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (as determined by the Incident Commander). Patient decontamination will be simultaneous with and/or prior to treatment. Children should be decontaminated and have expedited transport off scene especially if they are demonstrating any signs and symptoms of exposure. SLUDGEM + RESPIRATION and AGITATION S salivation (excessive drooling) L lacrimation (tearing) U urination D defecation / diarrhea G GI upset ( cramps ) E emesis ( vomiting ) M muscle ( twitching, spasm, bag of worms ) RESPIRATION difficulty breathing / distress ( sob, wheezing ) AGITATION + CNS SIGNS confusion, agitation, seizures, coma. Antidote Dosing Schedules: Nassau Regional EMS BLS Protocol 2 of 3 Approved 12/3/08 SEMSCo 6/10/09 Corrected 8/4/2010

4 BLS Adult Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote Protocol Initial Adult Treatment Signs & Symptoms Severe Respiratory Distress, Agitation SLUDGEM Atropine Dose Monitor Interval Atropine/2-Pam Injector Dose Monitor 3 Auto-injectors Every 5 minutes Respiratory Distress, SLUDGEM Asymptomatic NONE 1 Auto-injector 1 Auto-injector Every 10 minutes None None Every 15 minutes Nassau Regional EMS BLS Protocol 3 of 3 Approved 12/3/08 SEMSCo 6/10/09 Corrected 8/4/2010

5 BLS Pediatric Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote Protocol This protocol applies to all appropriately trained ALS & BLS providers CAUTION IS TO BE EXERCISED AT ALL TIMES. ALARM INFORMATION INCLUDING LOCATIONS, NUMBER OF PATIENTS, AND COMPLAINTS SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE SCENE SIZE-UP PRIOR TO ARRIVAL. DECONTAMINATION TO PREVENT OFF GASSING MUST BE PERFORMED PRIOR TO EMS ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT. TREATMENT BY EMS IS TO BE PERFORMED IN THE COLD ZONE ONLY UNLESS APPROPRIATELY TRAINED AND EQUIPPED. 1. Atropen 0.5mg and 2mg auto-injectors are to be used only. A. When specific signs and symptoms are present AND B. The scene has been described as the scene of a nerve agent release by local competent authority. AND C. Following orders from Medical Control IMPORTANT NOTE: CHILDREN MAY NOT PRESENT WITH THE TYPICAL ADULT SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE. SPECIFICALLY, INCREASED SECRETIONS AND MIOSIS ARE USUALLY ABSENT % OF CHILDREN WILL PRESENT WITH SEVERE WEAKNESS AND HYPOTONIA. CHILDREN ARE ALSO MORE LIKELY TO HAVE EARLIER AND MORE PROFOUND CNS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND SEIZURES ARE THE MOST COMMON CAUSES OF MORTALITY. Nassau Regional EMS BLS Protocol 1 of 3 Approved 12/3/08 SEMSCo 6/10/09 Corrected 8/4/2010

6 BLS Pediatric Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote Protocol 1. If severe signs and symptoms are present in the child (3) three Atropen autoinjectors should be administered in rapid succession to achieve atropinization. 2. If mild signs and symptoms are present one to two units can be administered. 3. In all cases, remove secretions, maintain patient's airway, and if necessary and resources permit use artificial respirations. 4. If symptoms resolve, then only close monitoring is necessary. 5. If dermal exposure has occurred, decontamination is critical and should be done with standard decontamination procedures. Patient monitoring should be directed to the same signs and symptoms as with all nerve agents. 6. Diazepam (Valium) may be given by ALS personnel cautiously if convulsions are not controlled. 7. Documentation shall be done on triage tags. Each dose of Atropine should be recorded with an "A", and each dose of Diazepam with a "D". 8. If patients continue to exhibit signs and symptoms of nerve agent intoxication, they may continue to receive Atropine auto injector until symptoms cease. In children, improvement in respiration either spontaneous or noted while artificial respiration is being given is evidence of adequate dosing of atropine. In the initial phase, triage will be initiated in the Hot Zone, continued in the warm zone, and performed only by trained personnel who are wearing appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (as determined by the Incident Commander). Patient decontamination will be simultaneous with and/or prior to treatment. Children should be decontaminated and have expedited transport off scene especially if they are demonstrating any signs or symptoms of exposure. The Atropen auto injector can be used in children 6 months to 9 years of age. SLUDGEM + RESPIRATION AND CNS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS S: salivation (excessive drooling) L: lacrimation (tearing) U: urination D: defecation G: GI upset E: emesis M: muscle (cramps spasm fasciculation) RESPIRATION: difficulty breathing/ distress (SOB/ wheezing) CNS AND AGGITATION: confusion, agitation, seizures, coma Nassau Regional EMS BLS Protocol 2 of 3 Approved 12/3/08 SEMSCo 6/10/09 Corrected 8/4/2010

7 BLS Pediatric Nerve Agent/Organophosphate Poisoning Antidote Protocol ANTIDOTE DOSING SCHEDULE INITIAL PEDIATRIC TREATMENT EXPOSURE AND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS = YES TREATMENT GUIDELINE = Weight 0-40 LBS INITIAL ATROPINE DOSE: Atropen 0.5mg auto injector (blue) repeat every three (3) minutes as needed EXPOSURE AND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS = YES TREATMENT GUIDELINE = Weight LBS INITIAL ATROPINE DOSE: Atropen 2.0mg auto injector (green) repeat every three (3) minutes as needed EXPOSURE AND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS = NO TREATMENT GUIDELINE = NONE INITIAL ATROPINE DOSE: = Monitor Every Ten (10) Minutes NOTE: IN SEVERE CASES OF NERVE AGENT INTOXICATION GIVE (3) DOSES IN RAPID SUCCESSION. Nassau Regional EMS BLS Protocol 3 of 3 Approved 12/3/08 SEMSCo 6/10/09 Corrected 8/4/2010

8 Nassau REMAC Supplemented Altered Mental Status (NON-TRAUMATIC AND WITHOUT RESPIRATORY OR CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS) Note: Request Advanced Life Support if available. Do Not delay transport to the appropriate hospital. Note: This protocol is for patients who are not alert (A), but who are responsive to verbal stimuli (V), responding to painful stimuli (P), or unresponsive (U). I. Assess the situation for potential or actual danger. If the scene/situation is not safe, retreat to a safe location, create a safe zone and obtain additional assistance from a police agency. Note: Emotionally disturbed patients must be presumed to have an underlying medical or traumatic condition causing the altered mental status. Note: All suicidal or violent threats or gestures must be taken seriously. These patients should be in police custody if they pose a danger to themselves or others. If the patient poses a danger to themselves and/or others, summon police for assistance. II. III. IV. Perform initial assessment. Assure that the patient s airway is open and that breathing and circulation are adequate. Suction as necessary. Administer high concentration oxygen. In children, humidified oxygen is preferred. Obtain and record patient s vital signs, including determining the patient s level of consciousness. Assess and monitor the Glasgow Coma Scale. A. If the patient is unresponsive (U) or responds only to painful stimuli (P), transport immediately, keeping the patient warm. Protocol approved by Nassau REMAC 2/3/2010 Effective 9/01/2010 Protocol M 2 Page 1 of 2

9 Altered Mental Status, continued B. If the patient has a known history of diabetes controlled by medication, perform a Glucometer test for blood sugar level, if it is less than 60 and the patient is conscious and is able drink without assistance, provide an oral glucose solution, fruit juice or non-diet soda by mouth, then transport, keeping the patient warm. Note: Do not give solutions by mouth to patients who are unconscious or to patients with head injuries. V. If underlying medical or traumatic condition causing an altered mental status is not apparent; the patient is fully conscious, alert (A) and able to communicate; and an emotional disturbance is suspected, proceed to the Behavioral Emergencies protocol. VI. VII. VIII. Transport immediately, keeping the patient warm. Ongoing assessment. Repeat and record the patient s vital signs, including the level of consciousness and Glasgow Coma Scale enroute as often as the situation indicates. Record all patient care information, including the patient s medical history, Glucometer reading, and all treatment provided, on a Prehospital Care Report (PCR). NOTE: Agencies must be authorized by the Nassau REMAC, in accordance with NYS DOH BEMS Policy 09-13, in order to use BLS Glucometry. * - New material is underlined and italicized. Protocol approved by Nassau REMAC 2/3/2010 Effective 9/01/2010 Protocol M 2 Page 2 of 2

10 Nassau REMAC Supplement to NYS BLS Protocol M-4 Behavioral Emergencies For Adult & Pediatric patients Determine scene/situation safety, if an unsafe condition exists, retreat and obtain additional assistance. When a patient is experiencing a behavioral emergency, in addition to following the steps outlined in State Protocol M-4, Nassau agencies should determine if the patient s medical category is Unstable or Stable. Primary medical evaluation is required for all patients. (A) Medically Unstable Patient Patients exhibiting the following should be considered medically unstable: 1. Acute mental status change and no psychiatric history 2. Patients who show evidence and/or give current history of significant overdose of drugs, poisons, alcohols or significant withdrawal from same 3. Patients with evidence or history of significant head injury 4. Patients who are obviously febrile 5. All patients with abnormal vital signs as indicated: Pulse less than 55 greater than 120 Blood Pressure less than 90 systolic greater than 180/120 Respiratory Rate less than 10 greater than 24 These patients must be transported to the closest appropriate hospital for medical stabilization. The first responding ambulance will assess safety factors and decide if the patient's behavior requires transportation by the Police Department. (B) Medically Stable Patients Violent or potentially dangerous emotionally disturbed patients who evidence no acute medical problem should be directly transported to the Nassau University Medical Center. Under Section 9.41 of the State Mental Hygiene Law, police officers who determine that persons are acting in a manner that is harmful to themselves or others may transport that person against their will to a certified psychiatric hospital. Protocol approved by Nassau REMAC 6/6/2007 Effective 12/1/2007

11 Nassau REMAC Supplement to NYS BLS Protocol M-4 Behavioral Emergencies Page 2 The initial ambulance agency (if not the NCPD) will request patient transportation by the Nassau Police Department. If arrival of the NCPD ambulance is expected to be greater than 30 minutes, the first responding ambulance agency may transport the patient to Nassau University Medical Center if accompanied by trained police officer(s) and technicians. For emotionally disturbed patients with no evidence of an acute medical problem: If the decision is made that no transport is needed, the PCR must state in the Comments section the name of the police officer who authorized no transport. If the NCPD Ambulance is requested to transport the patient, this must also be documented in the Comments section of the PCR. The initial ambulance service must always remain with the patient until the arrival of the NCPD ambulance. It is required that both the initial and NCPD ambulance complete a PCR. The initial ambulance service will leave the hospital and research copy of the PCR with the NCPD ambulance. Document all physical and behavioral findings, medical control contact, and any other actions taken on the PCR Protocol approved by Nassau REMAC 6/6/2007 Effective 12/1/2007

12 I. Perform initial assessment. Nassau REMAC Supplemented Amputation II. III. Assure that the patient s airway is open and that breathing and circulation are adequate. Caution: Manually stabilize the head and cervical spine if trauma of the head and/or neck is suspected! Place the patient in a position of comfort only if doing so does not compromise stabilization of the head and cervical spine! IV. Control the bleeding by applying direct pressure. V. Elevate the stump above the level of the patient s heart. VI. If severe bleeding persists, apply a tourniquet just proximal to the bleeding site. If severe bleeding still persists, a second tourniquet may be applied proximal to the first tourniquet. Record time tourniquet was secured and document near the tourniquet site. VII. Assess for hypoperfusion. If hypoperfusion is present, refer immediately to the hypoperfusion protocol! VIII. Wrap the stump with moist sterile dressings. XII. Cover the dressed stump with a dry bandage. XII. Preserve the amputated part as follows: A. Moisten an appropriately sized sterile dressing with sterile saline solution. B. Wrap the severed part in the moistened sterile dressing, preserving all amputated material. C. Place the severed part in a water-tight container (i.e. sealed plastic bag). D. Place the container on ice or cold packs (if available). Do not freeze or use dry ice! Do not immerse the amputated part directly in water! Do not allow the amputated part to come in direct contact with ice! XI. Immobilize the limb to prevent further injury. XII. Transport the amputated part with the patient, as able, to the closest appropriate Trauma Center. If the patient s condition is stable enough to tolerate transport to a Replant Center contact Medical Control and request them to notify the Replant Center of your impending arrival. XIII. Current Nassau Replant Center (24/7 operation) North Shore University Hospital Manhasset Winthrop University Hospital Protocol approved by Nassau REMAC Corrected 12/1/2013 Effective - 12/01/2013 Protocol T-1

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