1 LESSON NOTES Lower Beginner S1 #1 Talking About Yourself in Finnish CONTENTS 2 Finnish 2 English 2 Vocabulary 2 Sample Sentences 3 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 4 Grammar 7 Cultural Insight # 1 COPYRIGHT 2013 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
2 FINNISH 1. Petri: Minä olen Petri Lahtinen. Olen ohjelmoija. Aloitan tänään uuden työn. Se on mielenkiintoista. Minulla oli onnea, kun sain paikan. ENGLISH 1. Petri: I'm Petri Lahtinen. I'm a programmer. I'll start at a new job today. It's interesting. I was lucky to get the job. VOCABULARY Finnish English Class paikka place, position; seat; job noun ohjelmoija programmer noun aloittaa to start, to begin verb tänään today noun uusi new adjective työ job, work noun mielenkiintoinen interesting adjective onni luck, fortune, happiness noun kun when conjunction saada to get, to receive verb SAMPLE SENTENCES FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #1 - TALKI NG ABOUT YOURS ELF I N FI NNI S H 2
3 Onko tämä varmasti oikea paikka? "Are you sure this is the right place?" Aloit an huomenna uuden kirjan. "I'll start a new book tomorrow." T iinalla on uusi kampaus. "T iina has a new hairstyle." Tämä kirja on todella mielenkiint oinen. "T his book is really interesting." Tulen heti, kun tämä on valmis. "I'll come as soon as this is ready." Ohjelmoija käytti tietokonetta. "The programmer used the computer." Olen t änään kiireinen. "I m busy today." Etsin uutta työtä. "I'm looking for a new job." Raha ei tuo onnea. "Money doesn't make you happy." Mies saa rahaa. "T he man receives money." VOCABULARY PHRASE USAGE aloittaa ("to start, to begin") The verb aloittaa is a transitive verb, so it always takes an object (although the object can be dropped from the sentence if understood from the context). So you can say Tiina aloitti uuden kirjan ("Tiina started a new book"), but you cannot say "The book started well" using this verb. For that purpose, you would need the related intransitive verb alkaa: Kirja alkoi hyvin ("The book started well"). onni ("luck, fortune, happiness") The Finnish word onni covers both the kind of luck you may or may not have when gambling, and the kind of happiness that may come from the small things in life, such as reading a good book or going to movies with a friend. paikka ("place, position; seat; job") The word paikka can be used in many of the contexts where you would use "place" in English, both in a concrete and a figurative sense. It can also be used for a seat, for example in a theater: Haluan hyvän paikan ("I want a good seat"). It may also FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #1 - TALKI NG ABOUT YOURS ELF I N FI NNI S H 3
4 be used for a job, and in this sense you will often see the compound word työpaikka, which can mean both a "job" and a "workplace," depending on the context. GRAMMAR The Focus of this Lesson is a Review of the Nominative, Partitive, and Genitive Cases. Minä olen Petri Lahtinen. Minulla oli onnea, kun sain paikan. "I'm Petri Lahtinen. I was lucky to get the job." In this lesson, we review the basic use of the nominative, partitive, and genitive cases. They are the key to understanding Finnish since, unlike in English, the grammatical relationships between words are not tied to word order. Word order is relatively free in Finnish, and it is the case endings that show which word is the subject of the sentence and which is the object or complement. Let's look at each case in turn. The Nominative Case The nominative case is the dictionary form of a noun, adjective, numeral, or pronoun. It is often the case of the subject of a sentence. It indicates an entirety of some kind, as opposed to the partitive, which expresses a part of something. In A on B ("A is B") type sentences, B is in the nominative case when the subject is a specified, definite entity. In certain kinds of sentences (such as sentences with an unspecified human actor, also known as the Finnish "passive") there is no explicit subject, and then the object of the sentence may be in the nominative case. For example: 1. Kalle on poika. "Kalle is a boy." 2. Omena on kylmä. "The apple is cold." 3. Maito kaatui pöydälle. "(All) the milk was spilled on the table." 4. Pojat pelaavat jalkapalloa. "The boys play soccer." 5. Poliisi ottaa varkaan kiinni. "The police will catch the thief." FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #1 - TALKI NG ABOUT YOURS ELF I N FI NNI S H 4
5 6. Varas otetaan kiinni. "The thief will be caught." Examples from the dialogue: 1. Minä olen Petri Lahtinen. "I'm Petri Lahtinen." 2. Olen ohjelmoija. "I'm a programmer." The Partitive Case The partitive case indicates a part or an unspecified amount or number of something. The object is in the partitive case when the action only affects part of the object or is ongoing or habitual. In A on B type sentences, B is in the partitive when it's an adjective modifying a mass noun. Also the subject can be in the partitive if it's indefinite or unspecified. The partitive is used in negative sentences and questions. The partitive ending is -a/-ä or -ta/-tä, depending on the last letters of the word. For example: 1. Maija söi omenaa." Maija ate some apple." 2. Maito on kylmää. "The milk is cold." 3. Pojat pelaavat jalkapalloa. "The boys play soccer." 4. Maitoa kaatui pöydälle. "Some milk was spilled on the table." (Literally: "Some milk fell on the table.") 5. Maalari maalasi taloa. "The painter was painting a house." 6. Oletko nähnyt Tiinaa? "Have you seen Tiina?" FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #1 - TALKI NG ABOUT YOURS ELF I N FI NNI S H 5
6 7. En ole nähnyt Tiinaa. "I haven't seen Tiina." Examples from this Dialogue: 1. Se on mielenkiintoista. "It's interesting." 2. Minulla oli onnea, kun sain paikan. "I was lucky to get the job." The Genitive Case The genitive case indicates either possession or (when it's the object that is in the genitive case) the fact that the action affects the entire object or that the action in complete. The genitive ending is -n. For example: 1. Tiinan hame on sininen. "Tiina's skirt is blue." 2. Maija söi omenan. "Maija ate an (entire) apple." 3. Äiti kaatoi maitolasin. "Mother knocked over a glass of milk." 4. Maalari maalasi talon punaiseksi. "The painter painted the house red." Examples from this dialogue: 1. Aloitan tänään uuden työn. "I'll start a new job today." 2. Minulla oli onnea, kun sain paikan. "I was lucky to get the job." Changes in the Word Stem FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #1 - TALKI NG ABOUT YOURS ELF I N FI NNI S H 6
7 One of the trickier parts of Finnish grammar for beginners is consonant gradation. It means that certain kinds of word stems change depending on what kind of an ending is attached to them. It may seem daunting at first, but you will get a feeling for it, because you see it all the time. Consonant gradation affects the last consonants of a word if there is one or more k, p, or t. One of the consonants may be dropped (kk For example: 1. Tämä paikka on vapaa. "This seat is free." 2. Haluan hyvän paikan. "I want a good seat." 3. Äiti lukee kirjaa. "Mother is reading a book." 4. Minä luen äidin kirjaa. "I'm reading Mother's book." 5. Tämä muki on isompi. "This mug is bigger." 6. Haluan isomman mukin. "I want a bigger mug." CULTURAL INSIGHT Attitudes to Work in Finland In the past, many people worked for the same company all their lives. These days, this is very seldom the case. Young people may stay in one company for 2-4 years before moving on to another company in search of a better salary or more interesting tasks. Young people may be anxious about the requirements set by employers, but on the other hand, many young people are also very particular about what they want to do. They are very much aware of the great portion of their time they spend working, and they want work to be interesting and enjoyable. Just making money is not good enough for many. If the work turns out to be boring or meaningless, they are quick to start investigating other options. The post-world War II generations worked hard because they were expected to. Their FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #1 - TALKI NG ABOUT YOURS ELF I N FI NNI S H 7
8 grandchildren work hard if they like what they are doing. If they don't like it, they do just what they have to or find another job if they can. Unemployment, though not quite as bad as in some other European countries, is a big problem. FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #1 - TALKI NG ABOUT YOURS ELF I N FI NNI S H 8
9 LESSON NOTES Lower Beginner S1 #2 Asking For Directions in a Finnish City CONTENTS 2 Finnish 2 English 2 Vocabulary 3 Sample Sentences 3 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 4 Grammar 8 Cultural Insight # 2 COPYRIGHT 2013 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
10 FINNISH 1. Petri: Anteeksi, mutta missä on Lönnrotinkatu? 2. Ohikulkija: Käänny seuraavasta risteyksestä oikealle ja sitten suoraan. 3. Petri: Kuinka pitkälle? 4. Ohikulkija: Kun vasemmalta näkyy puisto, olet Lönnrotinkadulla. 5. Petri: Kiitos! ENGLISH 1. Petri: Excuse me, but where is Lönnrotinkatu? 2. Passer-by: Turn right at the next crossing, and then straight. 3. Petri: How far? 4. Passer-by: When you see a park on the left, you're in Lönnrotinkatu. 5. Petri: Thank you! VOCABULARY Finnish English Class anteeksi excuse me, I'm sorry adverb kääntyä to turn verb seuraava next noun risteys crossing noun FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #2 - AS KI NG FOR DI RECTI ONS I N A FI NNI S H CI TY 2
11 oikea right noun suora straight adjective pitkä long adjective vasen left noun näkyä to be visible verb puisto park noun SAMPLE SENTENCES Anteeksi, että olen myöhässä. "I'm sorry I'm late." Seuraava bussi on täydellinen meille. "The next bus is perfect for us." Suomessa ajamme oikealla puolella. In Finland we drive on the right side. Sinne on pitkä matka. "It's a long way there." Taivaalla näkyy t äht iä. "You can see stars in the sky." Kääntykää ensin vasemmalle, sitten oikealle. First turn lef t, then right. Tämä on vilkas risteys. "T his is a busy crossing." Tämä tie on suora. "This road is straight." Älä koskaan käänny vasemmalle tästä. Never turn lef t here. Isä saapuu puist oon. T he f ather arrives at the park. VOCABULARY PHRASE USAGE anteeksi ("excuse me, I'm sorry") Anteeksi is the word used for asking for forgiveness when you have done FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #2 - AS KI NG FOR DI RECTI ONS I N A FI NNI S H CI TY 3
12 something wrong or annoyed someone. It can be used by itself, but if you want to say what you are sorry for, you say Anteeksi, että... and then a sentence saying what you did (or are about to do). For example, Anteeksi, että häiritsen ("I'm sorry to disturb you"); Anteeksi, että kaadoin maidon pöydälle ("I'm sorry for spilling the milk on the table"). It is a polite way of getting someone's attention when you want to ask something. Unlike "I'm sorry" in English, it cannot be used as an expression of sympathy in the sense of "I'm sorry to hear that." oikea ("right") Like in English, oikea has a dual meaning. It means both "true, correct" and the opposite of "left." näkyä ("to be visible") In lesson 1, we had the verb aloittaa, which was a transitive verb needing an object. Näkyä, in contrast, is an intransitive verb that does not take an object. The thing that is seen is the subject of the sentence: Puistossa ei näkynyt lapsia ("There were no children to be seen in the park"). GRAMMAR The Focus of this Lesson is a Review of the Locative Cases That Are Needed for Expressing Location and Direction Käänny seuraavasta risteyksestä oikealle ja sitten suoraan. "Turn right at the next crossing and then straight." There are six locative cases in Finnish. They are divided into three "inner" and three "outer" locatives. The inner locative cases express being in, movement out of, and movement into some kind of a closed environment, such as a box or cabinet. The outer locative cases express being on, movement from the top of, and movement onto some kind of surface, such as a table or floor. In addition to these concrete basic meanings, each locative case has some special uses. Let's look at each group of cases separately. The Inner Locative Cases Below is a table of sample sentences of the basic concrete uses of the inner locative cases. Note the consonant gradation: kaapissa - kaapista - kaappiin. Inessive (-ssa/-ssä) Elative (-sta/-stä) Illative (vowel + n) FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #2 - AS KI NG FOR DI RECTI ONS I N A FI NNI S H CI TY 4
13 Jussi on talossa. "Jussi is in the house." Lautanen on kaapissa. "The plate is in the cabinet." Puistossa on paljon ihmisiä. "There are a lot of people in the park." Isä ui mielellään järvessä. "Dad likes to swim in the lake." Jussi tulee talosta. "Jussi comes out of the house." Ota lautanen kaapista. "Take the plate from the cabinet." Puistosta tulee paljon ihmisiä. "There are a lot of people coming from the park." Isä onki järvestä ison kalan. "Dad angled a big fish from the lake." Jussi menee taloon. "Jussi goes into the house." Laita lautanen kaappiin. "Put the plate in the cabinet." Puistoon menee paljon ihmisiä. "There iare a lot of people going to the park." Isä heitti kalan takaisin järveen. "Dad threw the fish back into the lake." Direction-related phrases that have inner locative cases Below are some examples of useful phrases that have inner locative cases. Examples: 1. Anteeksi, mutta missä olen? "Excuse me, but where am I?" 2. Mistä nelosen raitiovaunu menee? "From where does the tram number four go?" (i.e. "What is the route of tram number four?") 3. Minne tämä tie vie? "Where does this road go?" 4. Se on tässä ihan lähellä. "It's quite close by here." 5. Käänny seuraavasta kulmasta oikealle. "Turn right at the next corner." 6. Käänny liikennevaloista vasemmalle. "Turn left at the traffic lights." FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #2 - AS KI NG FOR DI RECTI ONS I N A FI NNI S H CI TY 5
14 7. Aja tästä kolme kilometriä suoraan ja käänny sitten keskustaan päin. "From here, drive three km straight ahead, and then turn towards the city center." 8. Aja viisi kilometriä pohjoiseen ja sitten käänny länteen. "Drive five kilometers to the north and then turn to the west." 9. Punkaharju on täältä kymmenen kilometriä itään. "Punkaharju is ten kilometers to the east from here." Examples from this dialogue: 1. Anteeksi, mutta missä on Lönnrotinkatu? "Excuse me, but where is Lönnrotinkatu?" 2. Käänny seuraavasta risteyksestä oikealle ja sitten suoraan. "Turn right at the next crossing, and then straight." The Outer Locative Cases Below is a table of sample sentences of the basic concrete uses of the outer locative cases. Adessive (-lla/-llä) Ablat ive (-lta/-ltä) Allat ive (-lle) Jussi on pihalla. "Jussi is in the yard." Lautanen on pöydällä. "The plate is on the table." Torilla on paljon ihmisiä. "There are a lot of people in the marketplace." Jussi tulee pihalta. "Jussi comes from the yard." Ota lautanen pöydältä. "Take the plate from the table." Torilta tulee paljon ihmisiä. "There are a lot of people coming from the marketplace." Jussi menee pihalle. "Jussi goes to the yard." Laita lautanen pöydälle. "Put the plate on the table." Torille menee paljon ihmisiä. "There are a lot of people going to the marketplace." FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #2 - AS KI NG FOR DI RECTI ONS I N A FI NNI S H CI TY 6
15 Isä istuu mielellään rannalla. "Dad likes to sit on the shore." Isä otti rannalta kiven. "Dad took a stone from the shore." Isä heitti kiven takaisin rannalle. "Dad threw the stone back to the shore." Direction-related phrases that have outer locative cases The following examples have useful phrases that are in the outer locative cases. Examples: 1. Millä kadulla teatteri on? "What street is the theater on?" 2. Miltä laiturilta juna lähtee? "Which platform will the train leave from?" 3. Mille bussipysäkille minun pitää mennä? "Which bus stop do I have to go to?" 4. Onko sinne pitkä matka täältä? "Is it a long way from here?" 5. Käänny vasemmalle ruokakaupan kohdalta. "Turn lef t by the grocery store." 6. Käänny Mannerheimintieltä Arkadiankadulle. "Turn to Arkadiankatu from Mannerheimintie." Examples from this dialogue: 1. Käänny seuraavasta risteyksestä oikealle ja sitten suoraan. "Turn right at the next crossing, and then straight." 2. Kun vasemmalta näkyy puisto, olet Lönnrotinkadulla. "When you see a park on the lef t, you're in Lönnrotinkatu." Notes On the Choice of Case Sometimes, more than one case may be possible. For example, you can say either Käänny vasempaan/oikeaan or Käänny vasemmalle/oikealle ("Turn left/right"), and FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #2 - AS KI NG FOR DI RECTI ONS I N A FI NNI S H CI TY 7
16 also both vasemmalta näkyy and vasemmalla näkyy are possible. CULTURAL INSIGHT Asking For Directions on the Finnish Streets Finns are usually very willing to help anyone who is lost. They may not volunteer to help you especially in bigger cities people tend to mind their own business but when asked, they will give you the information you need if they know the area. Most Finns under the age of 60 or so know at least some English, and young people usually know English very well. However, if you can ask your question in Finnish, people will probably be very impressed. Even if you don't know Finnish very well, you should still say whatever you can in Finnish and switch to English if necessary. Finns will appreciate your effort. FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #2 - AS KI NG FOR DI RECTI ONS I N A FI NNI S H CI TY 8
17 LESSON NOTES Lower Beginner S1 #3 Welcome to Our Finnish O ce CONTENTS 2 Finnish 2 English 2 Vocabulary 3 Sample Sentences 4 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 4 Grammar 7 Cultural Insight # 3 COPYRIGHT 2013 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
18 FINNISH 1. Mari: Tervetuloa! 2. Petri: Kiitos. 3. Mari: Tässä on toimiston avain. Tuossa nurkan takana on naulakko. Naulakon vieressä on keittiö. 4. Petri: Selvä. 5. Mari: Tuon ikkunan edessä on lehtihylly. ENGLISH 1. Mari: Welcome! 2. Petri: Thank you. 3. Mari: Here's a key to the office. There's a coat rack behind the corner. Next to the coat rack, there's a kitchen. 4. Petri: Okay. 5. Mari: In front of that window, there's a shelf with newspapers and magazines. VOCABULARY Finnish English Class lehtihylly magazine shelf noun edessä in front of adverb/postposition toimisto office noun FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #3 - WELCOME TO OUR FI NNI S H OFFI CE 2
19 avain key noun nurkka corner noun takana behind adverb/postposition naulakko coat rack noun vieressä next to adverb keittiö kitchen noun ikkuna window noun SAMPLE SENTENCES Onko lehtihyllyssä mitään hyviä leht iä? "Are there any good magazines on the magazine shelf?" Työntekijät työskentelivät toimistossa. T he employees worked at the office. Poika istuu nurkassa ja murjott aa. "T he boy sits in the corner, sulking." Lait a t akki naulakkoon. "Hang your coat on the coat rack." Keittiö on uusi. "The kitchen is new." Pöyt ä on ikkunan edessä. "The table is in front of the window." Avain on hyllyssä. "T he key is on the shelf." Mitä tuon oven takana on? "What's there behind that door?" Jussi ist uu Emmin vieressä. "Jussi is sitting next to Emmi." Kokki laittoi ruokaa keittiössä. The chef cooked in the kitchen. FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #3 - WELCOME TO OUR FI NNI S H OFFI CE 3
20 Liisa katsoo ulos ikkunasta. "Liisa looks out of the window." Taloudenhoitaja puhdisti ikkunaa. "The housekeeper cleaned the window." VOCABULARY PHRASE USAGE vieressä ("next to"), edessä ("in front of") Vieressä and edessä are typical Finnish place adverbs or postpositions that were originally nouns in the inessive case. Therefore, there are also related adverbs and postpositions derived from the other locative cases: vierestä ("from next to"), viereen ("to next to"), edestä ("from the front (of)"), and eteen ("to the front (of)"). So, you really learn six adverbs for the price of two! lehtihylly ("magazine shelf") Lehtihylly is a compound word made of lehti and hylly. Hylly means any kind of shelf where you can keep things. Lehti, however, has a very broad meaning. It could be a leaf of a plant, a newspaper or a magazine, or even a comic. If you want to specify, you can add a specifier: sanomalehti ("newspaper"), aikakauslehti ("magazine, periodical"), sarjakuvalehti ("comic"). Lehti also means a leaf of a plant. GRAMMAR The Focus of this Lesson Is Indicating Position in Relation to Something Else Naulakon vieressä on keittiö. "Next to the coat rack, there's a kitchen." This grammar point is needed whenever you want to say where something is in relation to something else, such as "the tree is behind the house" or "the grocery store is next to the hairdresser's." The thing we use as a reference point will be in the genitive case in Finnish. If you have trouble remembering that, think of the structure as "A is [...] of B," where "A" is the thing we are talking about, the ellipsis represents a direction, such as "in front," and "B" is the reference point. By a happy coincidence, we now have "of B," and since "of" indicates possession in English, we translate it literally as "B" in the genitive case in Finnish. In English, the words that indicate direction are prepositions, which means that they come before "B," but in Finnish, they are postpositions, so they come after "B." The Finnish pattern is A on B:n [...]. Note that the order of "A" and "B" may change, but the FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #3 - WELCOME TO OUR FI NNI S H OFFI CE 4
21 word indicating direction usually comes right after "B," regardless of where "B" is. More Words Indicating Direction There are many words that can be used in this structure, such as: Finnish "English" takana "behind" vieressä "next to" edessä "in front of" sivulla "next to, on the side of" päällä "on top of" alla keskellä sisällä ulkopuolella yläpuolella alapuolella lähellä "under" "in the middle of" "inside" "outside" "above" "underneath" "close to" For example: 1. Puu on talon takana. "The tree is behind the house." 2. Ruokakauppa on kampaamon vieressä. "The grocery store is next to the hairdresser's." 3. Verhot ovat ikkunan edessä. "The curtains are in front of the window." 4. Koira kävelee kiltisti Minnin sivulla. "The dog is walking nicely beside Minni." FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #3 - WELCOME TO OUR FI NNI S H OFFI CE 5
22 5. Maljakko on kaapin päällä. "The flower vase is on top of the cabinet." (i.e., not "inside") 6. Kissa on pöydän alla. "The cat is under the table." 7. Kulho on pöydän keskellä. "The bowl is in the middle of the table." 8. Talon sisällä on lämmintä. "It's warm inside the house." 9. Jari ja Kalle ovat ystäviä myös työn ulkopuolella. "Jari and Kalle are also friends outside of work." 10. Sohvan yläpuolella on maalaus. "There's a painting above the sofa." 11. Maalauksen alapuolella on kaksi valokuvaa. "There are two photos underneath the painting." 12. Hotelli on kirkon lähellä. "The hotel is close to the church." Examples from this dialogue: 1. Tuossa nurkan takana on naulakko. "There's a coat rack behind the corner." 2. Naulakon vieressä on keittiö. "Next to the coat rack, there's a kitchen." 3. Tuon ikkunan edessä on lehtihylly. "In front of that window, there's a shelf with newspapers and magazines." Expansion Just like vieressä and edessä, most of the words listed above are either inessive or adessive forms (in fact, takana is the only one that is not), meaning existence in a direction. Therefore, you can use the other locative cases of the same words to indicate movement from or to a place. For example: päällä - päältä - päälle, alla - alta - alle, and edessä - edestä - eteen. You do need to remember whether to use inner or outer locatives, though, because they are not interchangeable. You cannot FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #3 - WELCOME TO OUR FI NNI S H OFFI CE 6
23 use päässä - päästä - päähän in the same situations where you use päällä - päältä - päälle. For example: 1. Tiina ottaa maljakon kaapin päältä. "Tiina takes the flower vase from the top of the cabinet." 2. Tiina laittaa maljakon kaapin päälle. "Tiina places the flower vase on top of the cabinet." 3. Kissa tulee pöydän alta ja menee kaapin alle. "The cat comes out from under the table and goes under the cabinet." 4. Pilvi menee auringon eteen. "A cloud goes in front of the sun." 5. Pilvi menee pois auringon edestä. "The cloud goes away from the sun." 6. Koira karkaa Minnin sivulta. "The dog runs away from Minni's side." 7. Koira palaa Minnin sivulle. "The dog returns to Minni's side." CULTURAL INSIGHT Finnish Workplace Facilit ies Finnish law sets some minimum requirements for facilities at workplaces. There should be a kitchen or other designated area with tables and facilities to heat any lunch employees may have brought with them. Usually, there is a microwave oven, a fridge, and a coffee maker, plus an electric kettle. Many companies provide coffee and tea for free for their employees. Bigger companies may have their own lunch restaurants, but there still has to be a kitchen, and it's often an important place where employees take a short break and chat with colleagues while getting a cup of coffee. Many companies have showers for people who come to work by bike, and some may even have saunas or gyms of their own, though that's not very common. FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #3 - WELCOME TO OUR FI NNI S H OFFI CE 7
24 LESSON NOTES Lower Beginner S1 #4 Where in Finland Did I Put My Phone? CONTENTS 2 Finnish 2 English 2 Vocabulary 3 Sample Sentences 4 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 5 Grammar 9 Cultural Insight # 4 COPYRIGHT 2013 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
25 FINNISH 1. Mari: Tässä on Hanna. Hanna on lähin työtoverisi. 2. Hanna: Hei! 3. Petri: Terve! 4. Mari: Tässä on sinun työpöytäsi. Kas, onko joku unohtanut puhelimensa tähän? 5. Hanna: Eikös se ole sinun puhelimesi? 6. Mari: Minun puhelimeni? No niinpä onkin. ENGLISH 1. Mari: This is Hanna. Hanna will be your closest colleague. 2. Hanna: Hi! 3. Petri: Hello! 4. Mari: Here's your desk. Oh, has someone forgotten their phone here? 5. Hanna: Isn't that your phone? 6. Mari: My phone? Oh, that's right, so it is. VOCABULARY Finnish English Class FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #4 - WHERE I N FI NLAND DI D I PUT MY PHONE? 2
26 -kin also enclitic particle -pa/-pä emphasis marker enclitic particle niin so, as adverb puhelin phone noun lähin the closest adjective työtoveri colleague noun työpöytä desk noun kas oh interjection joku someone pronoun unohtaa to forget verb SAMPLE SENTENCES Jussikin t ulee. "Jussi is coming, too." Tulen niin pian kuin pääsen. "I'll come as soon as I can." Missä on lähin kahvila. "Where is the closest café?" Työpöytäni on huoneen keskellä. "My desk is in the middle of the room." Jonkun koira odottaa oven ulkopuolella. "Somebody's dog is waiting outside the door." Onpa t äällä kuuma. "I say, it's hot here." Puhelimesi soi. "Your phone is ringing." Minulla on mukavat työtoverit. "I have nice colleagues." Kas, posti on jo tullut. "Oh, the mail has already arrived." Unohdan aina, missä lasini ovat. "I always f orget where my glasses are." FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #4 - WHERE I N FI NLAND DI D I PUT MY PHONE? 3
27 Mies unohtaa vyönsä. "T he man f orgets his belt." VOCABULARY PHRASE USAGE joku ("somebody") Joku is a pronoun for an unspecified, usually unknown person. What makes this word rather weird and a nightmare for beginning Finnish learners is that it is declined in two places. It's as if jo and ku were separate words, and both parts get case endings. So, the genitive singular is jonkun, the partitive is jotakuta, the inessive is jossakussa, the nominative plural is jotkut, and so on. The case endings, as such, are regular and cause no problems you just have to remember to add the case endings in the middle as well. -pa/-pä (emphasis) -Pa is an enclitic particle that is added at the end of a word to emphasize it. There is also a variant -pas that is used especially in spoken Finnish. -Pa(s) may be added to almost any word, except for some conjunctions. Like all enclitic particles, it comes at the end of the word, after case endings, possessive suffixes, and verb conjugations. Some examples: 1. Minullapa on jäätelöä "I've got ice cream (and you don't!)" 2. Jäätelöpä maistuu hyvältä "I say, ice cream sure tastes good." 3. Käveletpä nopeasti "I say, you walk briskly." The names of the Richard Scarry characters, Pig Will and Pig Won't, have been translated as Juupas-possu and Eipäs-possu in Finnish, from the words juu ("yeah") and ei ("no"). kin ("also") -Kin is another enclitic particle. It basically means "also." For example: 1. Minullakin on jäätelöä. "I've got ice cream, too (so you're not the only one)." FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #4 - WHERE I N FI NLAND DI D I PUT MY PHONE? 4
28 2. Jäätelökin on hyvää. "Ice cream is good, as well (in addition to something else that was noted as being good)." 3. Käveletkin nopeasti. "You walk briskly, too." GRAMMAR The Focus of this Lesson Is Expressing the Ownership of Something Tässä on sinun työpöytäsi. "Here's your desk." In this lesson, we learn to express ownership in sentences like "This is my phone," "My car is red," and "He always forgets his umbrella." To form this construction, you first need the genitive form of the relevant personal pronoun and then whatever it is that is owned, with something called a possessive suffix attached to it. The possessive suffixes follow the person and number of the personal pronoun, and they come after case endings but before any enclitic particles. See the table below. Person Genitive form of personal pronoun Possessive suffix First singular: minä ("I") minun -ni Second singular: sinä ("you") Third singular: hän ("he/ she") sinun hänen -si -nsa/-nsä First plural: me ("we") meidän -mme Second plural: te ("you all") teidän -nne Third plural: he ("they") heidän -nsa/-nsä If the word has a case ending that ends in a consonant (genitive -n or nominative plural -t), the final consonant is dropped before the possessive suffix, so the resulting forms are identical to that of the nominative singular with the possessive suffix. You have to see the context to know which case is intended. FI NNI S HPOD101.COM LOWER BEGI NNER S 1 #4 - WHERE I N FI NLAND DI D I PUT MY PHONE? 5